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研究生:高邦程
研究生(外文):KAO, PANG-CHENG
論文名稱:職能治療師在高齡住宿式照護機構之介入經驗初探
論文名稱(外文):Exploring Occupational Therapists’ Interventional Experiences in Senior Residential Care Facility
指導教授:郭昶志郭昶志引用關係
指導教授(外文):KUO, CHANG-CHIH
口試委員:楊尚育蔡宜蓉
口試委員(外文):YANG, SHANG-YUTSAI, YI-JUNG
口試日期:2024-01-12
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:高雄醫學大學
系所名稱:職能治療學系碩士班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:復健醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2024
畢業學年度:112
語文別:中文
論文頁數:130
中文關鍵詞:介入經驗以職能為本傳統復健模式質性訪談質性描述方法學人-環境-職能模式
外文關鍵詞:interventional experiencesoccupation-basedconventional rehabilitationqualitative interviewqualitative descriptive methodologyperson-environment-occupation model
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前言:臺灣將於2025年邁入超高齡社會,因此高齡住宿式照護機構的需求量也大幅增加。過去研究顯示,雖然職能治療師「以職能為本」的介入乃提升生活品質的重要因素,但在臺灣高齡住宿式照護機構的介入卻以「傳統復健模式」為多,而忽略住民的職能參與。另外,現有關於職能治療師介入經驗的研究亦以「醫療機構」為多。故本研究旨在探討高齡住宿式照護機構職能治療師介入經驗。
研究方法:本研究採用質性描述方法學,以滾雪球取樣法進行受訪者招募。每位受訪者至少接受2次半結構式問卷及一對一深度訪談,總時數約1至2小時並佐以錄音,透過資料譯碼及反覆驗證,瞭解高齡住宿式照護機構職能治療師介入經驗。職能治療師納入條件為曾擁有2年以上全職或兼職於高齡住宿式照護機構,並實際參與評估及介入之職能治療師,能以國、臺語表達,與同意參與本研究及全程錄音者。最後視資料的飽和度決定本研究的收案量。另外,在資料分析的過程中亦採取提升質性研究信效度之策略,確保資料的完整性。
研究結果:本研究共招募7位職能治療師,執業年資介在3年至24年。研究者透過人-環境-職能模式作為樣板,進行樣板式分析法,共歸納出11項主範疇之介入經驗,即為「職能治療師對機構中專業介入的內容與看法」;「人格特質影響職能治療師對住民的覺察」;「專業角色在機構的階級影響住民接受介入計畫的意願」;「專業團隊的照護方式與職能治療介入計畫矛盾」;「職能治療專業教育影響職能治療師在機構中的專業展現及角色功能」;「職能治療師的介入計畫以「表現要素」、「以職能為本」或「兩者兼具」」;「人格特質攸關與住民建立治療性關係的機會並影響在機構的生存」;「職能治療師與住民、家屬及專業團隊達成共識的程度」;「職能治療師職責的履行涉及挑戰他人觀點及環境限制」;「執行非職能治療相關業務形成的負面想法」;「職能治療師相信或期待的理念,形成擬定介入計畫的思維」。每項主範疇會產生一定程度的交互作用,彼此間存在關聯性,最後的結果成為職能治療師在機構所執行的介入。
討論:從職能治療師在高齡住宿式照護機構的介入經驗中,發現本研究受訪者們已顛覆過往研究以傳統復健模式為重的形式,似乎逐漸嶄露職能治療專業的核心價值。自「專業趨勢的變革」,跨世代下之職能治療師們顯示深耕於臺灣職能治療專業教育中以職能為本的理念已逐漸萌芽;透過「職能治療師以職能為本之介入經驗」,可覺察職能治療師對於專業認同能夠使其發揮專業價值;同時「職能治療師之自我定位」,論及通才與專才的培育與實務工作價值展現之差異;然而「職能治療師在機構的階級」,即便職能治療師以職能為本之介入促進住民生活獨立性,但由於其受階級崇高之定位,不一定會產生較大的信任感。總結上述,這樣的改變能使職能治療師們在與專業價值有關之事物上進行批判,並利用職能的核心價值來為自身專業負起責任,成為有能力勝任專業的職能治療師。
關鍵字:介入經驗、以職能為本、傳統復健模式、質性訪談、質性描述方法學、人-環境-職能模式
Introduction:Taiwan faces the challenges of aging population, the demands for senior residential care facilities have increased accordingly. As an important healthcare professional in such facilities, previous studies showed, however, Occupational therapists in Taiwan favored conventional rehabilitation over occupation-based interventions.Therefore, this study to explore the interventional experiences of occupational therapists in senior residential care facilities.
Research Methods:This study enlisted seven participants for semi-structured interviews through snowball sampling. They have to work as full-time or part-time occupational therapists in senior residential care facilities for a minimum of two years. Template analysis was conducted utilizing the person-environment-occupation model to succinctly summarize the 11 interventional experiences.
Results:Intervention experiences among occupational therapists included: "occupational therapists’ perceptions of their of professional intervention content in facilities"; "personality traits influencing occupational therapists’ awareness of residents"; "ranking of professional roles in facilities influencing residents' willingness to accept intervention program"; "the professional team's approach to care contradicts the occupational therapy intervention program"; "occupational therapy professional education affects their performance and role in the facility"; "occupational therapists intervention programs include 'performance component oriented', 'occupation-based oriented', or 'both'"; "personality traits matter for the opportunity to establish therapeutic relationships with residents and affect existence in the facility"; "the extend to which the occupational therapists have reached consensus with residents, their families, and the professional team"; "the performance of the occupational therapists’ duties involves challenging the perspectives of others and the constraints of the environment"; "negative perceptions of performing non-occupational therapy related tasks"; "the beliefs or expectations of the occupational therapists guide the mindset for intervention planning". It is important to note that there could be an interaction between each of the main domains and not every respondent had the above experiences.
Discussion:This study challenges prior research by revealing that the increasing focus on occupation-based intervention signals the ongoing momentum of reform in occupational therapy professional education. Consequently, occupational therapists are poised to adopt a more critical stance when evaluating the value of their profession. Looking ahead, occupational therapists can enhance their proficiency in conducting occupation-based interventions as a fundamental principle.
Keyword: interventional experiences, occupation-based, conventional rehabilitation, qualitative interview, qualitative descriptive methodology, person-environment-occupation model
目錄
摘要 ii
Abstract v
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與重要性 1
第二節 研究目的 5
第三節 名詞界定 5
第二章 文獻回顧 7
第一節 長期照護需求人口與成因 7
第二節 職能治療在高齡住宿式照護機構之目的 11
第三節 職能治療師之介入經驗 17
第四節 以「人-環境-職能模式」為樣板 21
第三章 研究方法 27
第一節 研究方法學 27
第二節 研究對象 29
第三節 研究資料搜集 30
第四節 研究資料分析 32
第五節 研究信實度 34
第六節 研究倫理 36
第四章 研究結果 38
第一節 受訪者之基本資料 38
第二節 職能治療師之介入經驗概述 38
第三節 介入經驗之人的範疇 43
第四節 介入經驗之環境範疇 52
第五節 介入經驗之職能範疇 58
第六節 介入經驗之人與環境相關範疇 69
第七節 介入經驗之環境與職能相關範疇 78
第八節 介入經驗之職能與人相關範疇 84
第五章 討論 89
第一節 專業趨勢的變革 90
第二節 職能治療師以職能為本之介入經驗 91
第三節 職能治療師之自我定位 98
第四節 職能治療師在機構的階級 99
第五節 研究結論 101
第六節 研究限制與未來研究建議 101
參考文獻 103
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