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研究生(外文):Jia-Shian Wu
論文名稱(外文):The influence of noise and light pollution on nest box selection by Formosan giant flying squirrels (Petaurista philippensis grandis)
指導教授(外文):Ren-Chung ChengHsiang-Ling Chen
外文關鍵詞:Human InterferenceNest SelectionNocturnalMammalsUrbanization
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噪音汙染及光汙染已是全球日益嚴重的問題,儘管許多研究表示噪音及光害會影響野生動物的生存,然而對於物種短期的影響如棲所選擇仍有諸多疑慮,因此本研究以大赤鼯鼠(Petaurista philippensis grandis)為研究物種,探討噪音及光害是否影響大赤鼯鼠的巢位選擇。本研究地點位於臺中市霧峰區及太平區,架設6個樣區共設置175個巢箱,樣區環境由果園、次生林及公園地所組成。研究人員每1至2周巡視一次巢箱,記錄大赤鼯鼠使用情形。測量每季各巢箱洞口的噪音及光害,並記錄巢箱的其他環境因子,如其他物種佔用、樹冠層開闊度及植群調查資料等。以卜瓦松迴歸(Poisson regression)分析噪音和光害及其他環境因子對大赤鼯鼠巢箱使用率之影響。本研究於2019年12月至2023年5月共巡視巢箱166次,其中52個巢箱被大赤鼯鼠至少使用一次,共記錄大赤鼯鼠122隻次。各樣區的噪音最大值為50–58.1 dB,噪音平均值為45.8–53.1 dB,夜間的照度為0–0.7 lux。結果顯示白天噪音對巢箱使用率有顯著負影響,照度則無顯著影響;在其他環境因子中,繁殖季對大赤鼯鼠巢箱使用率有顯著正影響,喬木枝葉面積比、巢箱半徑5 m且胸高直徑大於25 cm之巢樹棵數及胸高直徑大於38.2 cm之上木株數對大赤鼯鼠巢箱使用率有顯著負影響。本研究表示在噪音光害的部分,日間噪音會降低大赤鼯鼠的巢箱使用率,因此應制定相關的森林棲地管理措施,如限制車速或設置隔音措施,以降低噪音對野生動物的影響。透過對大赤鼯鼠的研究,彌補夜行性中大型哺乳動物在噪音及光害影響上研究的空缺,並且在探討人為噪音及光害對野生動物的影響時,也應當納入其他環境因子的影響。
Noise pollution and light pollution have become increasingly serious global issues. Despite numerous studies indicating the impact of noise and light pollution on the survival of wildlife, there are still uncertainties regarding their short-term effects, such as habitat selection. This study focuses on the giant red flying squirrel (Petaurista philippensis grandis) to investigate whether noise and light pollution affect their nest site selection.The research was conducted in the Wufeng and Taiping districts of Taichung City, where six study sites with a total of 175 nest boxes were installed, encompassing orchards, secondary forests, and park areas. Researchers conducted bi-weekly inspections of the nest boxes, recording the usage patterns of giant red flying squirrels. Noise and light pollution at each nest box entrance were measured seasonally, along with other environmental factors such as occupancy by other species, canopy openness, and vegetation survey data. Poisson regression analysis was employed to assess the impact of noise, light pollution, and other environmental factors on the nest box utilization rate.From December 2019 to May 2023, a total of 166 nest box inspections were conducted, with 52 boxes being used at least once by giant red flying squirrels, totaling 122 recorded individuals. The maximum noise levels ranged from 50 to 58.1 dB, with average noise levels between 45.8 and 53.1 dB. Nighttime illuminance was measured at 0–0.7 lux. Results revealed a significant negative impact of daytime noise on the nest box utilization rate, while illuminance showed no significant effect. Among other environmental factors, the breeding season positively influenced the nest box utilization rate, while factors such as tree canopy area ratio, the number of trees with a radius of 5 m and a breast height diameter greater than 25 cm, and the number of trees with a breast height diameter greater than 38.2 cm negatively influenced the nest box utilization rate.The study suggests that daytime noise reduces the nest box utilization rate of giant red flying squirrels. Therefore, it is recommended to implement forest habitat management measures, such as speed limits or soundproofing measures, to mitigate the impact of noise on wildlife. This research contributes to filling the gap in studying the effects of noise and light pollution on nocturnal, medium-sized mammals and emphasizes the importance of considering other environmental factors when exploring the impact of anthropogenic noise and light pollution on wildlife.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
目次 iii
表目次 iv
圖目次 v
壹、 前言 1
一、 研究背景與動機 1
二、 研究目的 3
貳、 材料方法 5
一、 研究物種 5
二、 研究地點 5
三、 巢箱架設 7
四、 巢箱巡視 7
五、 噪音、光害及其他環境因子測量 8
六、 統計分析 9
參、 結果 12
一、 巢箱巡視 12
二、 噪音與光害 12
三、 統計分析 15
肆、 討論 22
伍、 結論與建議 24
陸、 參考文獻 25
柒、 附錄 37
附錄一、 各巢箱巡視次數、大赤鼯鼠使用、噪音、光照及架設天數 38
附錄二、 人工巢箱及噪音計與照度計掛置情形 42
附錄三、 D700單眼相機配置4.5 mm F2.8 EX DC魚眼鏡頭及水平儀 42
附錄四、 大赤鼯鼠利用人工巢箱育幼 43
附錄五、 領角鴞(Otus lettia glabripes)利用人工巢箱育幼及幼雛 43
附錄六、 白腰鵲鴝(Copsychus malabaricus)利用人工巢箱育幼及幼雛 44
附錄七、 人工巢箱內之大赤鼯鼠巢 45
附錄八、 人工巢箱內之赤腹松鼠巢 45
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