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研究生:王韋盛
研究生(外文):Wang, Wei-Sheng
論文名稱:基於虛擬實境之STEM動手做學習環境開發與教學策略之應用
論文名稱(外文):Development of a virtual reality STEM hands-on learning environment and application of instructional strategies
指導教授:黃悅民黃悅民引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huang, Yueh-Min
口試委員:黃悅民賴槿峰陳瑞茂吳婷婷黃永銘陳牧言
口試委員(外文):Huang, Yueh-MinLai, Chin-FengChen, Ruey-MawWu, Ting-TingHuang, Yong-MingChen, Mu-Yen
口試日期:2023-10-13
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:工程科學系
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2023
畢業學年度:112
語文別:英文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:虛擬實境STEM 動手學習認知負荷學習焦慮學習信心回饋反思策略高階思維
外文關鍵詞:Virtual realitySTEM hands-on learningCognitive loadLearning anxietyLearning confidenceFeedbacksReflective strategiesHigher-order thinking
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本研究旨在探究虛擬實境於STEM動手學習活動中的影響,並提供了改進虛擬實境學習體驗與效能的教學干預和策略。為了達成此目的,本研究開發了一項專門用於STEM動手學習活動的虛擬實境學習環境,並實施了三個獨立的準實驗。這些實驗針對學習焦慮、信心、認知水平、認知負荷、參與度以及高階思維等多個面向進行了評估;本研究亦探究了學習回饋以及反思在虛擬實境STEM學習環境中的作用以及效果。此外,在本研究中,亦根據虛擬實境之學習單元設計一項真實世界的STEM動手實作任務,用以檢驗每一項實驗學習者完成虛擬實境學習後,將知識及技能轉移到真實案例的情況。我們的研究結果表明,在虛擬實境的STEM學習環境與傳統多媒體學習環境相比,經過虛擬實境的學習後,參與者在最終的STEM動手實作活動中不僅能減少學習焦慮,亦能有效地提升學生的學習信心以及實作成效;我們更進一步地發現,在虛擬實境的學習環境中加入學習回饋,可進一步降低在虛擬實境的學習環境中學習所產生的認知負荷,進而增加學生參與度和學習效果;而在虛擬實境中加入反思策略則能有助於學生的高階思維發展以及提升學習成效;在本研究的三項實驗中,所有透過虛擬實境的STEM動手學習環境學習後,在實際的動手任務中均獲得良好的表現。本研究的理論和實務貢獻包括,揭示了虛擬實境之學習環境在STEM動手做學習活動中的應用以及輔助的潛力,並提供了應對虛擬實境所產生的認知負荷之策略,同時強調了反饋和反思在虛擬實境學習中的重要性,並為其設計了有效的原則。
This research aims to explore the impact of virtual reality on STEM hands-on learning activities and provide instructional interventions and strategies to enhance the learning experience and efficacy in the virtual reality environment. To achieve this objective, a virtual reality learning environment tailored for STEM hands-on learning activities was developed, and three distinct quasi-experiments were conducted. These experiments assessed various aspects, including learning anxiety, confidence, cognitive levels, cognitive load, engagement, and higher-order thinking. They also investigated the role and effects of learning feedback and reflection within the virtual reality STEM learning environment. Furthermore, each experiment incorporated real-world STEM hands-on tasks as part of the assessment of learning effectiveness. The research results indicate that, compared to traditional multimedia instruction, learning in a virtual reality STEM environment not only reduces learning anxiety but also enhances students' confidence and performance in subsequent STEM hands-on activities. The integration of learning feedback within the virtual reality learning environment additionally reduces the cognitive load associated with virtual reality learning, thereby increasing student engagement and improving learning outcomes. The inclusion of reflection strategies in the virtual reality environment contributes to the development of higher-order thinking skills and enhances learning effectiveness. Following their experience in the virtual reality hands-on learning environment, students successfully apply their acquired knowledge and skills to real-world problem-solving. Theoretical and practical contributions of this research include uncovering the potential applications of virtual reality learning environments in STEM hands-on learning activities, providing strategies to address cognitive load in virtual reality, emphasizing the significance of feedback and reflection in virtual reality learning, and outlining effective principles for their implementation.
摘要 III
Abstract IV
致謝 VI
Table of Contents VII
List of Tables X
List of Figures XI
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Literature Review 6
2.1 STEM Hands-on Learning Activities 6
2.2 Learning in VR environment 7
2.3 Factors of impact learning in VR learning environment 9
2.4 Interventions and Strategies 11
Chapter 3 VR System 14
3.1 VR STEM hands-on learning activities 14
3.2 VR Learning Interface and materials 18
3.3 VR Learning Process 28
Chapter 4 Methodology 35
4.1 Experimental Design and Participants Sub-Experiment A 35
4.2 Learning Materials of Sub-Experiment A 36
4.3 Questionnaires and Measures for Sub-Experiment A 40
4.4 Procedure for Sub-Experiment A 41
4.5 Experimental Design and Participants Sub-Experiment B 42
4.6 Learning Materials of Sub-Experiment B 43
4.7 Questionnaires and Measures for Sub-Experiment B 47
4.8 Procedure for Sub-Experiment B 48
4.9 Experimental Design and Participants Sub-Experiment C 50
4.10 Learning Materials of Sub-Experiment C 51
4.11 Questionnaires and Measures for Sub-Experiment C 54
4.12 Procedure for Sub-Experiment C 55
Chapter 5 Experiment Results 58
5.1 Sub-Experiment A 58
5.1.1 Descriptive results 58
5.1.2 Learning outcomes 59
5.1.3 Learning Anxiety and Learning Confidence 61
5.2 Sub-Experiment B 62
5.2.1 Descriptive results 62
5.2.2 Learning outcomes 64
5.2.3 Cognitive load and Learning Engagement 66
5.3 Sub-Experiment C 68
5.3.1 Descriptive results 68
5.3.2 Learning outcomes 68
5.3.3 Higher-order thinking 70
5.3.4 Learning Engagement 72
Chapter 6 Discussion 74
6.1 Sub-Experiment A 74
6.1.1 The Impact of VR on Hands-on Abilities 74
6.1.2 Learning Anxiety and Learning Confidence 75
6.2 Sub-Experiment B 77
6.2.1 The Impact of Feedback on Learning Outcomes 77
6.2.2 The Impact of Feedback on Learning Engagement 78
6.3 Sub-Experiment C 80
6.3.1 The Impact of Reflection on Learning Outcomes 80
6.3.2 The Impact of Reflection on Engagement 81
6.3.3 The Impact of Reflection on Higher-order thinking 82
Chapter 7 Limitations and Future work 84
7.1 Sub-Experiment A 84
7.2 Sub-Experiment B 85
7.3 Sub-Experiment C 86
Chapter 8 Conclusion 88
References 90
Appendix 98
Appendix 1. Learning anxiety 98
Appendix 2. Learning confidence 99
Appendix 3. Cognitive load 100
Appendix 4. Learning engagement 101
Appendix 5. Higher-order thinking skills 103
Appendix 6. Cognitive levels test 104
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