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研究生:傑度達
研究生(外文):Dutta, Jit
論文名稱:利用壓電電子效應發展壓電電子晶體和各種感測器
論文名稱(外文):Manipulation of piezotronic effect for development of piezotronics transistors and various sensors
指導教授:劉全璞
指導教授(外文):Liu, Chuan-Pu
口試委員:吳志明陳三元賴盈至王超鴻張高碩陳貞夙王瑞琪
口試委員(外文):Wu, Jyh-MingChen, Sun-YuanLai, Ying-ChihWang, Chao-HungChang, Kao-ShuoChen, Jen-SueWang, Ruey-Chi
口試日期:2023-11-09
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:材料科學及工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2023
畢業學年度:112
語文別:英文
論文頁數:168
中文關鍵詞:壓電閘控效應壓電電子學氧化鋅壓電效應熱電效應力感測器可撓式感測器薄膜電晶體
外文關鍵詞:Piezo-gating effectPiezotronic effectZnOPiezoelectric effectThermoelectric effectForce sensorFlexible sensorThin film transistor
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近年來,對於綠色能源及環境永續的意識逐漸增加,奈米裝置、智能感測器和穿戴式裝置對於能源效率的要求也越來越大。儘管在裝置製備上已採取多種方法來提升能源效率,但發展更為節能的材料或多功能元件已引起更多關注。壓電閘極效應在壓電領域上具有巨大發展潛力,可用於創新的壓電電子裝置開發。這些裝置依賴於壓電半導體材料內載子性質的控制。歷史上,通過控制電極-材料界面的蕭特基能障(Schottky Barrier),而創造出的壓電電子裝置。然而,最近的發展創造出歐姆接觸的壓電閘極薄膜電晶體(PGTFT),大多利用ZnO作為主要研究材料。這一突破降低了對蕭特基能障控制的需求,並在此引進了兩種行為模式,使PGTFT裝置首次實現了消耗和累積模式。在本文中,我們深入探討了壓電閘極效應與壓電電阻和熱電效應等其他現象的整合,為多功能感測器和能量收集開創了新的時代。為了實現雙重行為模式的操作,我們探討了兩種不同配置的PGTFT;一種具有頂部電極,而另一種則是具有底部電極,這兩種電極均受到壓應力的作用。這些配置在它們的電流-電壓(I-V)信號中表現出相反的趨勢,通過分析建模和模擬數據得到了驗證。這一新創性的技術不僅展示了PGTFT的多功能性,還同時研究壓電電阻和壓電閘極效應。此研究中最重要的成就為,首次能夠區分壓電電阻和壓電閘極效應。壓電電阻效應是指電阻在機械應變下的變化,而壓電閘極效應則涉及半導體材料內載子性質的控制。通過精心設計的PGTFT元件並分析它們的響應,我們能夠區分並量化這兩種不同的效應。此外,通過自由載子濃度對壓電閘極效應中消耗和累積的影響進行研究,在載子濃度降低一個數量級的情況下,達到了約44.6%的增益。這兩種模式的影響為許多的工程應用材料和設備打開了新的可能性。
為了充分發揮壓電閘極效應的潛力,我們探索了它與熱電效應的整合。通過在薄膜(TFPGFT)和奈米線(NWPGFT)基礎裝置上使用類似的PGFT配置,利用彎曲基板來產生應變,在彎曲基板上施加溫度梯度,我們發現在通道內的熱電子和電洞會由應變誘導而控制流動。TFPGFT顯示了應變係數(Gauge Factor)約為115,遠高於NWPGFT的應變系數。此外,TFPGFT由壓電閘極效應引起的應變下,顯示出更高的塞貝克係數 (Seebeck coefficient),大約為12倍(∼0.13至∼1.76 µV/K)。這種整合產生了一種協同效應,顯著提高TFPGFT的熱電功率因子,約為400倍(從∼0.36 mW/K2增加到∼140.3 mW/K2),這可以改善熱電裝置的性能。此結果對於高效能源收集系統的開發具有重大啟發,其中機械和熱能都可以有效地轉化為電能。我們還提出了一種基於熱電發電的自供電一維應變傳感器,達到了應變係數(GF)約為16。壓電閘極效應為壓電電子裝置帶來了一個新的時代,且也為感測和能量收集提供了一個多功能平台。
利用PGTFT的多功能,我們開發了一種雙面四電極的柔性PGFT。這一創新不僅可以檢測總應變量,還能夠區分不同類型的機械力,包括彎曲行為(向上彎/向下彎)和單純施加力的情況下(拉伸/壓縮)。在正向和負向彎曲應變下,頂部和底部的應變係數(GF)分別為−3.44/+9.78和+5.44/−4.03,而在實施壓應力下為+94.93/+74.70。值得注意的是,在兩種彎曲類型下,ZnO表面的應變係數(GF)是不對稱的,而在壓應力下是對稱的。這種獨特的行為使得這種智能三維應變傳感器能夠區分不同類型的應變。此外,該元件可以作為壓電閘極驅動之三態邏輯元件,並擁有三態式反邏輯運算和標準三態式NAND操作。這種壓力應變感測技術的突破使得使用單一元件可以捕捉更全面和細緻的信息,使其成為從工程結構健康檢測、人機界面到可穿戴技術的寶貴工具。
The development of nano devices, smart sensors, and advanced electronics demands compliance with the concern of energy efficiency in the era of increasing awareness of green energy and environmental sustainability. While several approaches have been taken to enhance energy efficiency at the device level, developing better energy-efficient materials and implementing multi-purpose components have attracted more attention. The piezo-gating effect has emerged as a fundamental phenomenon with tremendous potential for the development of innovative piezotronic devices. These devices rely on the modulation of carrier properties within piezoelectric semiconducting materials. Historically, piezotronic devices have been predominantly developed by manipulating the Schottky barrier height at the electrode-material interface. However, recent advancements have led to the creation of an ohmic junction-based piezo-gated thin film transistor (PGTFT), utilizing ZnO as a model material. This breakthrough eliminates the need for Schottky barrier height modulation and introduces a dual-mode functionality, enabling both depletion and accumulation operations in a PGTFT device for the first time. In this article, we delve into the revolutionary applications of the piezo-gating effect and its integration with other phenomena, such as piezoresistive and thermoelectric effects, to pave the way for a new era of versatile sensing and energy harvesting. To achieve the dual-mode operation, two distinct configurations of PGTFTs were explored: one with a Top electrode and the other with a Bottom electrode, both subjected to compressive force. These configurations exhibited opposite trends in their current-voltage (I-V) signals, a phenomenon that was rigorously validated through analytical modeling and simulation data. This groundbreaking technique not only showcases the versatility of PGTFTs but also allows for the simultaneous investigation of the piezoresistive and piezo-gating effects. One of the significant achievements of this research is the ability to distinguish between the piezoresistive and piezo-gating effects for the first time. Piezoresistive effect refers to the change in electrical resistance in response to mechanical strain, whereas the piezo-gating effect involves the modulation of carrier properties within the semiconductor material. By carefully designing the PGTFT configurations and analyzing their responses, we were able to isolate and quantify these two distinct effects. Further, the effect of free carrier concentration on the depletion and accumulation mode through piezo-gating effect is investigated, where an enhancement of around 44.6% in gauge factor is achieved for an order of reduction in the carrier concentration. This differentiation opens up new possibilities for engineering materials and devices with tailored properties for various applications.
In a bid to harness the full potential of the piezo-gating effect, we explored its integration with the thermoelectric effect. By using the similar PGFT configuration on thin-film (TFPGFT) and nanowires (NWPGFT) based devices and applying a thermal gradient to the source and drain electrode interfaces, we initiated a flow of hot electrons and holes, modulated by the strain-induced piezo-potential within the channel. The TFPGFT shows a gauge factor of ∼115, much higher than NWPGFTs. Further, the TFPGFT shows a higher Seebeck coefficient enhancement ∼12 times (∼0.13 to ∼1.76 µV/K) under strain resulting from the dominating piezo-gating effect. This integration led to a synergistic effect, significantly enhancing the thermoelectric power factor of TFPGFT by approximately 400 times (from ∼0.36 mW/K2 to ∼140.3 mW/K2), which can improve the performance of thermoelectric devices to a new dimension. This promising result holds great potential for the development of efficient energy harvesting systems, where both mechanical and thermal energy can be effectively converted into electrical energy. We also propose a self-powered single-dimension strain sensor based on thermoelectric power, reaching a gauge factor of ∼16. The piezo-gating effect has ushered in a new era of possibilities for piezotronic devices, offering a versatile platform for sensing and energy harvesting applications.
Building upon the multi-mode capabilities of PGTFTs, we developed a double-sided four-electrode-based flexible PGFT. This innovation not only allows for the detection of the total amount of strains but also distinguishes between different types of mechanical forces, including bending force (upward/downward) and normal force (tensile/compressive). Where the gauge factor (GF) of the Top/Bottom terminals under positive and negative bending strains are −3.44/+9.78 and +5.44/−4.03, respectively, and +94.93/+74.70 for compressive load is obtained. Notably, the GF of both ZnO terminals is asymmetric under two bending types of loads, whereas symmetric under compressive load. This unique behavior made this smart multi-dimensional strain sensor to distinguish between different types of strains. Furthermore, the same device can be implemented as a piezo-gated three-valued logic device, demonstrating standard ternary inversion and standard ternary NAND operations. This breakthrough in strain sensing technology enables the capture of more comprehensive and nuanced information using a single device, making it a valuable tool for a wide range of applications, from structural health monitoring, human machine interface to wearable technology.
Abstract i
撮要 iv
Acknowledgement vi
Table of Content vii
List of Figures x
List of Tables xxi
Chapter 1 1
Introduction 1
1.1 Piezotronic and piezo-gating effect 1
1.1.1 Piezoelectric Effect 1
1.1.2 Semiconductor physics and piezotronic effect 4
1.1.3 Semiconductor Physics and Piezo-gating effect 6
1.2 Zinc Oxide composites 10
1.2.1 Technological applications 10
1.2.2 Structural properties 11
1.2.3 Physical Properties 12
1.3 Motivation 13
Chapter 2 15
Literature review 15
2.1 Introduction to piezotronics 15
2.2 Piezotronic sensors 15
2.2.1 Strain Sensor 15
2.2.2 Gas sensor 19
2.2.3 Bio-sensors 22
2.2.4 Humidity sensors 25
2.2.5 other sensors 27
2.3 Piezotronic logic devices 29
2.4 Piezo-gated devices 31
Chapter 3 34
Development of piezo-gated thin film transistor 34
3.1 Introduction 34
3.2 Experimental procedure 36
3.3 Results and Discussion 39
3.3.1 Material characterization and polarity identification 39
3.3.2 Electrical property and force dependent I-V measurement of PGTFTs 41
3.3.3 Development of analytical model 47
3.3.4 Quantitative analysis of the experimental data and analytical model for gauge factor 54
3.4 Conclusions 57
Chapter 4 58
Synergistic effect between thermoelectric and piezo-gating effect 58
4.1 Introduction 58
4.2 Experimental Section 60
4.2.1 Preparation of ZnO TF and NWs array 60
4.2.2 Material characterizations 61
4.2.3 Fabrication of the PGFT devices 61
4.2.4 Piezoelectric and thermoelectric measurements 62
4.3 Results and Discussion 63
4.3.1 Characterization of the materials 63
4.3.2 Electrical characterization and piezo-gating effect 66
4.3.3 Strain sensitivity and gauge factor calculations 72
4.3.4 Thermoelectric characterization 73
4.3.5 Evaluation of Synergistic Piezoelectric and Thermoelectric Effects 76
4.4 Conclusion 81
Chapter 5 83
Realization of Multi-dimensional strain sensor via utilizing piezo-gated transistor 83
5.1 Introduction 83
5.2 Experimental Section 85
5.3 Results and Discussion 87
5.3.1 Materials characterization and polarity identification 87
5.3.2 Electrical property and multi-dimensional strain measurement 90
5.4 Conclusion 101
Chapter 6 102
Ternary logic device application using piezo-gated transistor 102
6.1 Introduction 102
6.2 Results and Discussion 104
6.2.1 Development into Multi-valued logic devices 104
6.3 Conclusion 115
Chapter 7 Conclusion and future aspects 116
Appendix - A Key Experimental Instruments 120
A.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 120
A.2 X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) 122
A.3 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) 124
Appendix - B List of papers and patents 126
Appendix - C List of Equations 128
Appendix - D References 131
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