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研究生:麥偉光
研究生(外文):MAK, WAI KWONG
論文名稱:既不孤亦不獨:盧雲作品之中譯如何重塑獨處操練
論文名稱(外文):Neither Lonely Nor Alone: Re-creating Solitude In Chinese Translations Of Henri Nouwen
指導教授:魏伯特魏伯特引用關係
口試委員:林為正蘇正隆
口試日期:2024-06-03
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立暨南國際大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2024
畢業學年度:112
語文別:英文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:盧雲翻譯重寫靈修獨處天主教基督新教
外文關鍵詞:Henri NouwentranslationrewritingspiritualitysolitudeCatholicismProtestantism
DOI:10.6837/ncnu202400135
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亨利.盧雲是二十世紀下半葉最具影響力的靈修大師和作家之一。出身於荷蘭的盧雲是天主教司鐸及嚴規熙篤隱修會修士,承襲教會古代曠野靈修的傳統,在生前撰寫及身後由他人彙編的七十多本著作中,把源於天主教會及東正教會的默觀靈修,從傳統的隱修院落實到入世的生活中。
盧雲是華人基督宗教出版業的奇葩,幾乎全部著作皆已翻譯為中文,但更令人稱奇的現象是接近九成的翻譯及出版是由基督新教出版社承接,並以基督新教華人信徒及教會為主要受眾。本論文主要探求在盧文作品的中譯中,基於歷史傳統、教義、權柄及教導,以及基督新教持份者意識形態的不同介入及轉化下,獨處這個古老的隱修操練,如何在翻譯及解讀過程中重寫及重塑,令其減退天主教靈修色彩;而在此過程中,又如何讓華人基督新教徒在理解、運用獨處的靈修操練時,和盧雲在作品中所宣揚的公共性質獨處,出現了明顯的落差。

Henri Nouwen is one of the most influential spiritual masters and writers of the second half of the 20th century. A Dutch-born Catholic priest and Trappist monk, he inherited the Church's ancient tradition of wilderness spirituality, and in more than seventy books, he brought the contemplative spiritual disciplines of Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy out of the traditional cloisters and into the life of the contemporary world. Solitude, the main theme of many of his books, is one of them.
Almost all of his books have been translated into Chinese, but nearly 90% of the translations and publications were done by Protestant affiliated publishers, with Chinese Protestant believers and churches as the main audience. This thesis explores how, in the translation, solitude has been re-written and re-shaped, so as to appropriately dilute the overtones of Catholic spirituality; and how Chinese Protestants have been able to understand and apply solitude with discrepancy to the ideas advocated in his works.

摘要 i
Abstract ii
Table of Contents iii
List of Tables v
List of Abbreviations vi
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Nouwen’s Status in Contemporary Christianity 1
1.2 Nouwen’s life and works 4
1.3 Translating Nouwen: A unique case study 8
1.4 Thesis overview 10
Chapter 2 Literature Review 14
2.1 Readability and illusion of transparency 14
2.2 Inevitable re-writing 17
2.3 Manipulation and re-invention 19
Chapter 3 Defining Solitude 24
3.1 Solitude in philosophy 24
3.2 Solitude in Scripture 29
3.3 Solitude in Chinese culture 31
3.4 Solitude in the eyes of Henri Nouwen 34
Chapter 4 Changing Translations of Solitude 42
4.1 Translating solitude in the 1970s: Out of Solitude 42
4.2 Translating solitude in the 1990s: Clowning in Rome 53
4.3 Translating solitude in the 1990s: Making All Things New 58
4.4 Translating solitude in the 2010s: The Way of the Heart 61
4.5 Failed translations 66
Chapter 5 Nativizing Solitude 69
Chapter 6 Conclusion 75
6.1 Re-constructing Henri Nouwen 75
6.2 Translating solitude in the future 79
6.3 Personal encounters 80
6.4 Competition for voice 81
References 83
1 English sources 83
2 Chinese sources 85
Appendixes 88
Appendix A Nouwen’s works with Chinese titles in yearly order 88
Appendix B Chinese translations of Nouwen’s works 94
1English sources
Bastin, Georges L. “Adaptation.” Ed. Mona Baker. Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies 1998: 5–8.
Benjamin, Walter. “The Task of the Translator.” Illuminations. Trans. Harry Zohn. 2007 ed. New York: Schocken, 1969. 69–82.
Bloom, Harold. Stories and Poems for Extremely Intelligent Children of All Ages. Reprint. New York: Scribner, 2002.
Eugene Chen, Eoyang. The Transparent Eye: Reflections on Translation, Chinese Literature, and Comparative Poetic. Honolulu: UP of Hawaii, 1993.
Foster, Richard J. Celebration of Discipline: The Path to Spiritual Growth. 25th Anniversary ed. San Francisco: Harper, 2003.
Gotesky, Rubin. “Aloneness, Loneliness, Isolation, Solitude.” An Invitation to Phenomenology, Studies in the Philosophy of Experience. Ed. James M. Edie. Chicago: Quadrangle, 1965. 211–239.
Hernandez, Wil. Mere Spirituality: The Spiritual Life According to Henri Nouwen. London: SPCK, 2016.
Hu, Geng-shen. “Translation as Adaptation and Selection.” Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, 11.4 (2010): 283–291.
Jameson, Fredric. The Prison House of Language: A Critical Account of Structuralism and Russian Formalism. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1974.
Johnson, Christopher D. L. The Globalization of Hesychasm and the Jesus Prayer: Contesting Contemplation. London: Continuum, 2010.
Koch, Philip. Solitude: A Philosophical Encounter. 3rd ed. Chicago: Open Court Publishing, 1997.
Lefevere, Andre. Translation, Rewriting, and the Manipulation of Literary Fame. Reissue. New York: Routledge, 2017.
Merton, Thomas. New Seeds for Contemplation. Reissue. New York: New Directions, 2007.
---. The Intimate Merton: His Life from His Journals. Ed. Patrick Hart and Jonathan Montaldo. e-book. HarperCollins, 1999.
---. Thoughts in Solitude. e-book. Rosetta Books, 2005.
The Holy Bible, New International Version. Biblica. https://www.bible.com/zh-TW/versions/111. Accessed 20 Mar. 2024.
Nouwen, Henri J. M. Bread for the Journey: A Daybook of Wisdom and Faith. e-book. HarperCollins, 2007.
---. Clowning in Rome: Reflections on Solitude, Celibacy, Prayer, and Contemplation. New York: Image-Doubleday, 2000.
---. Making All Things New and Other Classics. London: Fount-HarperCollins, 2000.
---. “Moving from Solitude to Community to Ministry.” Leadership: A Practical Journal for Church Leaders 16.2 (1995): 80–90.
---. Out of Solitude: Three Meditations on the Christian Life. Notre Dame, IN: Ave Maria, 1974.
----. Reaching Out. Special ed. Dublin: Fount-HarperCollins, 1998.
---. The Inner Voice of Love: A Journey through Anguish to Freedom. New York: Doubleday, 1998.
---. They Way of the Heart: The Spirituality of the Desert Fathers and Mothers. New York: Harper One-Harper Collins Publishers, 2009.
---. The Wounded Healer: Ministry in Contemporary Society. Reprint. New York: Doubleday, 1979.
Petrarca, Francesco. The Life of Solitude. Ed. Scott H. Moore. Trans. Jacob Zeitlin. Waco: Baylor UP, 2023.
Senechal, Diana. Republic of Noise: The Loss of Solitude in Schools and Culture. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Education, 2012.
Snell-Hornby, Mary. Translation Studies - An Integrated Approach. Revised ed. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1988.
Thoreau, Henry David. Walden, or, Life in the Woods. e-book. Sony Connect, 2007.
Venuti, Lawrence. The Translator’s Invisibility: A History of Translation. London: Routledge-Taylor & Francis, 1995.
Vincent, David. A History of Solitude. Cambridge: Polity, 2020.
Yu, Anthony C. “Readability: Religion and the Reception of Translation.” Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews 20 (1998): 89–100.

2Chinese sources
Beumer, Jurjen [澤箴.伯曼].《盧雲:永不止息的尋覓天主》[Onrustig zoeken naar God: De spiritualiteit van Henri Nouwen]. Trans. Cheng Chi-hwa [萬致華] and Augustine Hsu Jen-de [許建德]. Taipei: Kuangchi, 2013.
Chong, Yau-Yuk [莊柔玉].〈意識形態和詩學的制約與操縱:盧雲作品的翻譯與重寫〉[Constraints and Manipulation of Ideology and Poetics--Translation and Rewriting of the Works of Henri J. M. Nouwen]. Hillroad 9.2 (2006): 129-152.
Fang, Meng-zhi [方夢之].《翻譯新論與實踐》[Fānyì xīnlùn yǔ shíjiàn]. Qingdao: Qingdao Press, 2004.
Hu, Kuo-chen [胡國禎].〈盧雲的靈修與著作〉[Lúyún de língxiū yǔ zhùzuò].《基督宗教靈修學史》[A History of Christian Spirituality]. Ed. Joseph Wong [黃克鑣] and Ruth Yang [盧德]. Vol. 3. Taipei: Kuangchi, 2012. 241–267.
Liu, Zong-zhou [劉宗周].《劉宗周全集》[Liú zōng-zhōu quánj]. Hangzhou: Zhejiang Guji, 2007.
Nouwen, Henri J. M. [盧雲].《心應心:真摯傾情的禱告》[Heart Speaks To Heart: Three Gospel Meditations on Jesus]. Trans. Tang Siu-kwong [鄧紹光]. 5th ed. Hong Kong: LOGOS, 2004.
---.《始於寧謐處:默想基督徒生命》[Out of Solitude: Three Meditations on the Christian Life]. Trans. Hung Lai-ting [洪麗婷]. Hong Kong: LOGOS, 1997.
---.《走出孤獨》[Out of Solitude: Three Meditations on the Christian Life]. Trans. Joseph Chow Tseng-Ziang [周增祥]. Taipei: Taosheng, 1976.
---.《喧囂中的寧靜:來自沙漠教父的心靈智慧》[The Way of the Heart: The Spirituality of the Desert Fathers and Mothers]. Trans. Ying Jen-Hsiang [應仁祥]. Taipei: Campus Evangelical Fellowship, 2019.
---.《羅馬城的小丑戲:對獨處、獨身、禱告及默觀之反省》[Clowning in Rome: Reflections on Solitude, Celibacy, Prayer, and Contemplation]. Trans. Yuen Tat-chi [袁達志]. 3rd ed. Hong Kong: LOGOS, 1998.
---.《帶著眼淚帶著微笑,在信仰的愚拙中經歷上帝:盧雲給不安時代的4堂屬靈操練課》[Clowning in Rome: Reflections on Solitude, Celibacy, Prayer, and Contemplation]. Trans. Wong Tai-yip [黃大業]. Hong Kong: LOGOS, 2021.
---.《愛中契合》[Intimacy: Pastoral Psychological Essays]. Trans. Fok Yuk- lien [霍玉蓮]. 3rd ed. Hong Kong: LOGOS, 2000.
---.《新造的人:屬靈人的印記》[Making All Things New: An Invitation to the Spiritual Life]. Trans. Chong Yau-yuk [莊柔玉]. 5th ed. Hong Kong: LOGOS, 2004.
Pang, Shun Keung [彭順強].《盧雲的誠與愛:全面了解盧雲》[Passion & Compassion of Henri Nouwen]. 2nd ed. Hong Kong: Pang Shun Keung, 2013.
Wan, Wai-Yiu [溫偉耀].〈附錄:盧雲與我-記一段屬靈的友誼〉[Fùlù: Lúyún yǔ wǒ-Jì yīduàn shǔlíng de yǒuyì].《心靈愛語:經苦痛、歷自由》[The Inner Voice Of Love: A Journey Through Anguish to Freedom]. Henri Nouwen [盧雲]. Trans. Pang Suk-yi [彭淑怡]. Hong Kong: Ming Feng, 2019.
---.《無能者的大能》[The Spirituality if Liberation: Social Justice and Contemplative Prayer]. 3rd ed. Hong Kong: Christian Excellence Mission, 1999.
Zhu, Xi [朱熹].《四書章句集註》[Sìshū zhāngjù jízhù]. New Taipei: Legein Society, 1984.

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