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研究生:陳靜怡
研究生(外文):Ching-Yi Chen
論文名稱:多麗斯萊辛作品中的人類矛盾處境
論文名稱(外文):The Paradox of Human Condition in Doris Lessing''s Fiction
指導教授:陳福仁陳福仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen,Fu-Jen
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2024
畢業學年度:112
語文別:英文
論文頁數:255
中文關鍵詞:矛盾多麗絲·萊辛拉崗精神分析厭女症主體性
外文關鍵詞:paradoxDoris LessingLacanian psychoanalysismisogynysubjectivity
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摘 要
多麗絲·萊辛(Doris Lessing)曾獲得諾貝爾文學獎,是當代其中一位極具影響力的作家,透過萊辛作品中如預言般的洗鍊文字,我們不難察覺作家的敏銳觀察力,萊辛認為人類處境絕非只是簡單黑白二元論,研究萊辛的知名學者克萊爾·斯普雷格(Claire Sprague)認為萊辛在她的作品中巧妙運用雙重與重覆(Doubling and Repetition)敘述技巧,生動地展示了文本真實性的內在矛盾,以及主角們在困頓生活條件中所面臨的不確定性,這敘事法超越了簡單的黑白二元對立,且呈現了光明和黑暗元素的辨證關係,主角們在追求主體權力和女性自由的過程中無法不與矛盾搏鬥,萊辛展現了她對於二戰後衝突文明的懷疑、熱情和遠見力。本篇論文將透過拉崗(Lacan)精神分析、女性主義及性別研究理論的探討來理解個人及群體中人類的矛盾處境,其中包括人類對自我本質的虛幻認知、知識的極限以及所謂的理想愛情關係,此外,斯洛維亞哲學家斯拉沃熱·紀傑克(Slavoj Žižek)對於人類主體性及社會議題的看法也將一併納入作品中探討。 
Abstract
Doris Lessing was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature and is one of the most influential, contemporary writers. Her prophecy-like language and rejection of binary observation of human conditions showcases her skepticism, passion, and visionary power to scrutinize the clashed civilization after World War II. Claire Sprague, the renowned scholar studying Lessing, contends that Lessing''s use of doubling and repetition narrative techniques in her works adeptly illustrates the inherent contradictions within the authenticity of textual representation and the uncertainty the protagonists confront with in the paradoxical life conditions. It goes beyond a simplistic black-and-white dichotomy, presenting instead a dialectic relationship of light and dark elements. Consequently, the protagonists in these narratives consistently grapple with contradictions in their pursuit of subjective agency and freedom as women. This thesis will also approach the paradox of human condition through contours of Lacanian psychoanalysis, encompassing the feminism and gender studies not only in the individual but also the collective spheres. It concerns the fictitious nature of human self-awareness and limit of knowledge and supposed, ideal love-relationships. Moreover, Slavoj Žižek, a Slovenian intellectual whose philosophical insight on subjectivity and social issues will also be drawn into dialogues with Doris Lessing’s fictions.
Table of Contents
論文審定書………………………………………………………….…………………i
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………....……ii
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………………...…iii
Abstract…………………………………………………………….………..….…….iv
Chapter 1: Introduction ……………………….…………………………….………1
1.1 Doris Lessing: A Literary Portrait …………………………………………….4
1.2 Research Questions and Hypotheses …………………………………………..7
1.3 Thesis Overview: Navigating Paradoxes in Lessing’s Works ………………….9
1.4 Unraveling Themes of Subjectivity and Identity ……………………………..11
Part I: Subjectivity
Chapter 2 Misogyny in The Grass is Singing ………………………………………16
2.1 Misogyny: An Enforcement of Patriarchy System in Disguise ……………….17
2.2 Debts of Servitude: Paradoxes in Female Subjectivity ……………………….33
Chapter 3 Female Freedom in the Golden Notebook ………………………………38
3.1 Confronting Challenges of Female Freedom …………………………………41
3.2 Embracing Paradoxes of Life: Unreliable Memories, Language, and Human
Contradictions ……………………………………………………………….47
Chapter 4 Dislocation of Motherhood in the Summer Before the Dark …………...58
4.1 Maternal Freedom in Melancholy ……………………………………………59
4.2 Societal Norms and Her Struggle for Autonomy ……………………………..62
Chapter 5 Questing Identity: Bildungsroman in Children of Violence …………...72
5.1 Martha Quest: Martha Quest and the Paradoxes of Female Identity, Desire, Love,
and Society in Apartheid South Africa ……………………………………….74
5.2 The Illusive Freedom: Unraveling the Paradoxes of Marriage, Motherhood, and
War in A Proper Marriage …………………………………………………..100
5.3 Fractured Ideals and Unfulfilled Promises: The Collapse of Communism and
Personal Compromises in A Ripple from the Storm …………………………119
5.4 The Shadow of Identity and Madness in Landlocked ………………………..134
5.5 The Four-Gated City: Exploring the Vacuum of Life Utopia ………………..154
Part II: The Turbulence of the Society
Chapter 6: The Fifth Child and Ben, in the World ………………………………...179
6.1 The Silent Struggles: Navigating Differences, Expectations, and Toxic In-laws
in Harriet and David''s Marriage …………………………………………….181
6.2 Ben''s Odyssey: The Hypocrisy of Family, Society, and Capitalism …………192
Chapter 7: On the Limits of Love …………………………………………………209
7.1 Love as Elusive Enigma: Doris Lessing''s Exploration of Romantic
Relationships in the Habit of Loving ………………………………………..214
7.2 Unposted Love Letters: Victorian Carrington''s Silent Battle Against Societal
Norms and Artistic Identity ………………………………………………...219
7.3 Between Men: Perpetual Discontent in the Hysterical Pursuit of Unattainable
Love ………………………………………………………………………..221
7.4 An Old Woman and Her Cat: Lessing''s Heart-Wrenching Tale of Elderly
Isolation and Animal Companionship in the Shadows of Society …………225
Chapter 8: On Self-Deception in Doris Lessing''s The Grandmothers …………...230
Chapter 9: Conclusion …………………………………………………………….237
Works Cited………………………………………………………………………...240
A List of Abbreviations ……………………………………………..……………..245
Works Cited
I. Primary Resources
Novels of Doris Lessing
Lessing, Doris. Alfred and Emily. E-book ed., HarperCollins, 2008.
---. Ben, In the World. E-book ed., HarperCollins, 2000.
---. The Fifth Child. Harper Perennial, 2007.
---. The Four-Gated City. E-book ed., HarperCollins, 2008.Vol. 5 of The Children of
Violence Series.
---. The Golden Notebook. Harper Perennial, 2007.
---. The Good Terrorist. Vintage International, 2008.
---. The Grandmothers: Four Short Novels. E-book ed., HarperCollins, 2007.
---. Grass is Singing. E-book ed., HarperCollins, 2013.
---. Landlocked. E-book ed., HarperCollins, 2012. Vol. 4 of The Children of Violence
Series.
---. Love, Again. E-book ed., HarperCollins, 2007.
---. Martha Quest. E-book ed., HarperCollins, 2009. Vol. 1 of The Children of
Violence Series.
---. A Proper Marriage. E-book ed., HarperCollins, 2012. Vol. 2 of The Children of
Violence Series.
---. The Real Thing. E-book ed., HarperCollins, 2010.
---. A Ripple from the Storm. E-book ed., HarperCollins, 2012. Vol. 3 of The Children
of Violence Series.
---. Stories. E-book ed., Vintage, 2012.
---. The Summer Before the Dark. Vintage International, 2009.
---. Under My Skin: Volume One of My Autobiography, to 1949. E-book ed.,
HarperCollins, 2012.
---. Walking in the Shade: Volume Two of My Autobiography, 1949-1962. E-book ed.,
HarperCollins, 2012.
II. Secondary Resources
A. Feminism Readings
Axelrod, Mark. Notions of the Feminine: Literary Essays from Dostoyevsky to Lacan.
Palgrave & Macmillan, 2015.
241
Ahmed, Mohammad Kaosar & Jahan, Sultana. “Seeing Herself through Literature:
Martha Quest’s Reading Habit in Doris Lessing’s The Children of Violence.” The
Criterion: An International Journal in English, vol.12, February 2013, pp. 1-6.
Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex. Owl Publishing, 2013.
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. Routledge, 1990.
Chesler, Phyllis. Woman and Madness. Lawrence Hill Books, 2018.
Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. W. W. Norton, 1963.
Gay, Roxane. Bad Feminist Essays. Harper Perennial, 2014.
Kafer, Alison (2003-01-01). Compulsory Bodies: Reflections on Heterosexuality and
Able-bodiedness. Journal of Women''s History. 15 (3): 77–89
Kristeva, Julia. Powers of Horror: An Essay o Abjection. Trans. Leon S. Roudiez.
Columbia UP, 1982.
Manne, Kate. Down Girl: The Logic of Misogyny. Oxford UP, 2018.
Entitled: How Male Privilege Hurts Women. E-book ed., Crown, 2021.
Millett. Kate. Sexual Politics. W. W. Norton, 2000.
Yenlin, Ku. Feminism. Owl Publisher, 2019.
Shih, Paris. The Power of Bad Girl: The Rise of Postfeminism in Popular Cinema.
Gusapublishing Ltd., 2015.
Ueno, Chizuko. Onnagirai Nippon No Misogyny. Amann Co., 2010.
B. Criticism and Research on Doris Lessing
Buckley, Jerome Hamilton. Season of Youth: The Bildungsroman from Dickens to
Golding. Harvard University Press, 1974.
Chen, Yuan-Jung. “Parody and Pastiche in The Golden Notebook.” Doris Lessing
Studies, vol. 26, no. 2, 2007, pp. 4-7.
Hellmich, Christina, et al. Doris Lessing and the Forming of History. Edinburgh UP.,
2017.
Lessing, Doris. Prison We Choose to Live Inside. E-book ed., HarperCollins, 2013.
---. A Small Personal Voice. E-book ed., HarperCollins. 2013.
---. Time Bites. E-book ed., HarperCollins, 2004.
Mirza, Anum. “A Study of Doris Lessing’s The Grass is Singing.” International
Journal of Language, Literature and Humanity, vol. 5, no. 6, June 2017, pp. 46-
54.
Myles, Lynette D. Female Subjectivity in African American Women’s Narratives of
Enslavement: Beyond Borders. Palgrave & Macmillan. 2009.
Sprague, Claire. Rereading Doris Lessing: Narrative Patterns of Doubling and
Repetition. UNC Press. 1987.
242
Zak, Michele Wender. "The Grass is Singing: A Little Novel about the Emotions.”
Contemporary Literature, vol. 14, no. 4, Autumn 1973, pp. 481-490.
C. Psycho-social Analytical Readings
Baldwin, Yael. Let’s Keep Talking: Lacanian Tales of Love, Sex, and Other
Catastrophes. Karnac, 2016.
Berardi, Franco. Heroes: Mass Murder and Suicide. Verso Books, 2015.
Brown, Brene. Daring Greatly: How the Courage to Be Vulnerable Transforms the
Way We Live, Love, Parent and Lead. Gotham Books, 2012.
Caruth, Cathy; Laub, Dori…etc. Exploring in Memory, ed. by Cathy Caruth. John
Hopkins University Press, 1995.
Cho, K. Daniel. Psychopedagogy: Freud, Lacan, and the Psychoanalytic Theory of
Education. Palgrave & Macmilla,. 2009.
Chou, Mu Tzu. Emotional Blackmailing. Aquarius Publishing, 2017.
---. They All Say You “Should.” Aquarius Publishing, 2019.
Dor, Joel. The Clinical Lacan. Other Press, 1999.
---. Introduction to the Reading of Lacan: The Unconscious Structured Like a
Language. Other Press, 1998.
Eyers, Tom. Lacan and the Concept of the ‘Real.’ Palgrave & Macmillan, 2012.
Fink, Bruce. A Clinical Introduction to Lacanian Psychoanalysis: Theory and
Teaching. Harvard UP, 1999.
---. Fundamentals of Psychoanalytic Technique: A Lacanian Approach for
Practitioners. Norton, 2007.
---. The Lacanian Subject: Between Language and Jouissance. Princeton University
Press, 1995.
Forward, Susan. Mothers Who Can’t Love: A Healing Guide for Daughters. E-book
ed., HarperCollins, 2013.
---. Toxic In-laws: Loving Strategies for Protecting Your Marriage. E-book ed.,
HarperCollins, 2010.
Freud, Sigmund. Psycho-Analytic Notes on an Autobiographical Account of a Case
of Paranoia (Dementia Paranoides), 1911c: SE XII, 71
Graber, David. Debt: The First 5000 Years (Revised and Updated). Melville House,
2018.
---. The Utopia of Rules: On Technology, Stupidity and the Secret Joys of
Bureaucracy. Melville House, 2015.
---. Bullshit Jobs: A Theory. Simon & Schuster, 2018.
Han, Byung Chul. The Burnout Society. E-book ed., Stanford UP, 2015.
243
Heller, Joseph. Catch 22. Simon & Schuster, 2011.
Homer. The Odyssey. Translated by Robert Fagles, Penguin Classics, 1999.
Homer, Sean. Jacques Lacan. Routledge, 2005.
Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar, Book I. Freud Paper on Technique, 1953-1954, trans,
with notes by John Forrester, Cambridge University Press, 1988.
---. The Seminar, Book VIII: On Transference 1960-1961, ed. by Jacques Alain Miller, Seuil, 1991.
---. The Seminar, Book XI: The Four Fundamental Concept of Psychoanalysis, 1964,
trans. Alan Sheridan, Hogarth Press and Institute of Psychoanalysis, 1977.
---. The Seminar, Book XX: Encore 1972-1973, ed. by Jacques Alain- Miller, Seuil,
1975
Marcus, Pound. Zizek: A (Very) Critical Introduction. William B. Eerdmans
Publishing Co., 2008.
McGowan, Todd. Enjoying What We Don’t Have: The Political Project of
Psychoanalysis. University of Nebraska, 2013.
Myers, Tony. Slavoj Zizek. Routledge, 2003.
Orwell, George. Animal Farm. Alma Classics. 2021.
Rosenstock, Eliot. Zizek in the Clinic: A Revolutionary Proposal for a New Endgame
in Psychotherapy. E-book ed., Zero Books, 2019.
Salecl, Renata. The Tyranny of Choice. E-book ed., Profile Books, 2010.
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. William Collins, 2016.
Zizek, Slavoj. On Belief. E-book ed., Routledge, 2001.
---. The Courage of Hopelessness: Chronicles of a Year of Acting Dangerously. E book ed., Penguin Random House, 2017.
---. Beyond Discourse Analysis. Verso, 1990.
---. Conversations with Zizek. Polity Press, 2004.
---. Disparities. E-book ed., Bloomsbury, 2016.
---. God in Pain: Inversions of Apocalypse. Seven Stories Press, 2012.
---. The Fragile Absolute or Why is the Christian Legacy Worth Fighting for? Verso,
2000.
---. A Left That Dares to Speak its Name: 34 Untimely Interventions. E-book ed.,
Polity Press, 2020.
---. Less Than Nothing: Hegel and the Shadow of Dialectical Materialism. E-book
ed., Verso, 2012.
---. Like A Thief in Broad Daylight: Power in the Era of Post-Humanity. E-book ed.,
Penguin Random House, 2018.
---. Hegel in a Wired Brain. E-book ed., Bloomsbury, 2020.
---. How to Read Lacan. W. W. Norton & Company, 2006.
244
---. Pandemic: Covid 19 Shakes the World. E-book ed., Polity Press, 2020.
---. The Parallax View: Short Circuits. E-book ed., MIT Press, 2006.
---. The Plague of Fantasies. Verso, 2008.
---. The Relevance of the Communist Manifesto. E-book ed., Polity Press, 2018.
---. Sex and the Failed Absolute. E-book ed., Bloomsbury, 2020.
---. The Sublime Object of Ideology. Verso, 1989.
---. The Ticklish Subject: The Absent Centre of Political Ontology. Verso. 2006.
---. Violence: Six Sideways Reflections. E-book ed., Picador, 2008.
Zuboff, Shoshana. The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future
at the New Frontier of Power. E-book ed., Profile Books Ltd. 2019.
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