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研究生:張尹維
研究生(外文):Chang, Yie-Wei
論文名稱:低運算負載壓電式微機電超聲波測距系統開發
論文名稱(外文):Development of Low Computation Burden Piezoelectric Ultrasound Transducers System for Distance Detection
指導教授:李昇憲
指導教授(外文):Li, Sheng-Shian
口試委員:李夢麟陳健章
口試委員(外文):LI, MENG-LINChen, Chien-Chang
口試日期:2023-11-23
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:動力機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2023
畢業學年度:112
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:壓電式微機械超聲波換能器嵌入式系統超聲波收發系統飛時測距RF類比電路應用
外文關鍵詞:PMUTEmbedded SystemUltrasound SystemTime of FlightApplication of RF Analog Circuit
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近來,隨著微機電系統 (MEMS)技術的發展,推動了換能器微型化及系統整合的浪潮。而微機械超聲波換能器 (MUT)概念的問世,更是打破超聲波換能器陣列的限制和擴展超聲波的應用場域。因應這樣的浪潮,本研究提出一針對PMUT換能器的系統設計構想。該測距系統專為PMUT換能器建構,並對於超聲波換能器開發與測試需求設計。在驅動上有別於傳統超聲波系統,本系統選擇窄頻Burst訊號作為驅動源,最大可穩定提供25MHz、8Vpp的Burst訊號;於接收上則在盡量避免雜訊的情況下提供回波訊號57dB的增益,並以1.25MS/s的速度進行取樣。在飛時測距 (Time of Flight, TOF)功能方面,本系統實踐0.3412mm的測距準確度,和0.0687mm的測距精確度。除了上述的性能外,本系統亦具備三種測量模式、可調控的測量變數與原始數據回傳功能,允許換能器開發人員靈活的對其換能器進行探索。
In this work, the design of an ultrasound system for distance detection implementing Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (PMUT) is presented. This system is specially constructed for PMUT transducers and designed for the development and testing purpose of ultrasonic transducers.In terms of transmitting performance, the system can generate up to 25MHz, 8V_pp Burst signal as trigger source. On the other hand, regarding receiving performance, the system can amplify echo signals with low noise. Total gain of all amplifiers is 57dB. Based on great measurement performance abovementioned, the system features accurate time of flight (TOF) function. The accuracy and precision of the TOF function are 0.3412mm and 0.0687mm respectively.In addition to measurement function, the system provides three measurement modes, controllable measurement parameters and raw data export function. The system can help PMUT researcher to explore their design completely.
目錄 i表目錄 iv圖目錄 v致謝 viii摘要 xABSTRACT xi第一章 緒論 11-1研究動機與目標 11-2超聲波探頭參數意義 51-3超聲波系統硬體設計概觀 51-4超聲波發射電路 71-4-1 脈衝產生器與High Voltage Amplifier 71-4-2 發射波束形成器 71-5 超聲波接收電路 91-5-1 T/R Switch 91-5-2 低噪音放大器和 Noise Figure Equation 91-5-3時間增益補償放大器與聲壓衰退率和訊號動態範圍 101-5-4 時間增益補償放大器與類比數位轉換器的連用 121-5-5 接收波束成形器 131-6 超聲波定位演算法研究 141-6-1 閾值交叉檢測法 (Threshold-Crossing Detection) 151-6-2 互相關檢測法 (Cross-Correlation) 151-7本文架構 16第二章 硬體架構 182-1換能器介紹 182-2接收電路板 (RX板) 202-2-1 RF訊號類比前端電路 202-2-2 數位控制電路 232-3 發射電路 252-3-1目標Burst訊號介紹 262-3-2 驅動訊號產生電路 272-4 供電電路 292-5 硬體流程 322-6 硬體外觀、接頭與佈局設計 35第三章 演算法與使用者介面設計 373-1韌體配置與事件流程 373-1-1 UART互動介面 373-1-2 SPI協定介面 403-1-3 Timer控制介面 423-1-4 韌體流程整合 453-2 TOF算法 483-3 MATLAB User-Interface 50第四章 測量與實驗 524-1測量實驗裝置、設備與實驗架設 524-1-1 PMUT 對照組架設 534-1-2 PMUT實驗組架設 544-1-3商用超聲波換能器對照組架設 554-1-4商用超聲波換能器實驗組架設 564-2 換能器脈衝響應與頻率響應 574-2-1 PMUT換能器脈衝響應與頻率響應 574-2-2 商用超聲波換能器脈衝響應與頻率響應 594-3 系統發射性能驗證 604-3-1 PMUT換能器的驅動訊號 614-3-2商用超聲波換能器的驅動訊號 624-4 系統接收性能驗證 624-4-1 系統裝載PMUT換能器之接收性能驗證 624-4-2 系統裝載商用超聲波換能器之接收性能驗證 664-5 TOF功能可靠度驗證 704-5-1 面對面收發之TOF功能驗證 724-5-2 同側收發之TOF功能驗證 744-6 控制器外設時序驗證實驗 764-6-1 測量週期之外設時序驗證 774-6-2 ADC取樣品質驗證 78第五章 結論與未來展望 795-1 結論 795-2 未來展望 805-2-1 實現以PMUT換能器完成系統TOF測量功能 805-2-2 供電電路板載化 815-2-3 第一級高阻抗低噪音放大器板載化 825-2-4 使用者介面優化 83參考文獻 84附錄 89
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