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研究生:洪嘉徽
研究生(外文):Chia-Hui Hung
論文名稱:非二元性別的法律建構:以身份登記為出發點
論文名稱(外文):The Legal Framework of Non-binary Genders: Examining Gender Markers on Identity Documents
指導教授:張文貞張文貞引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Chen Chang
口試委員:李柏翰官曉薇
口試委員(外文):Po-Han LeeHsiao-Wei Kuan
口試日期:2023-07-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:科際整合法律學研究所
學門:法律學門
學類:專業法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2024
畢業學年度:112
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:跨性別性別認同非二元性別性別承認法身份登記日惹原則
外文關鍵詞:Transgendergender identitygender non- binarygender recognition lawidentity documentYogyakarta Principles
DOI:10.6342/NTU202400685
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本文探討性別的內涵,並挑戰了傳統本質主義下的二元性別框架。我將從巴特勒的性別理論出發,論述性別不是與生理部位緊密相關的固定概念,而是一種流動的、獨立於生理構造的自我認同。在這種理解下,不同性別的特質可以自由地表現在不同的身體上,這展示了性別具有更為細緻和複雜的面貌,並不一定與生殖功能相連。性別理論的推展也影響了國際人權法與各國性別登記制度的應用。在《日惹原則》的推動下,本文觀察到國際人權論述的改變,由原先的二元性別框架,演變為更具包容性的SOGI觀念,即性傾向與性別認同。儘管多數法律建構仍未能充分包容性別多元性,然而在某些國家的立法與判決中,我們看到了二元性別框架逐漸鬆動的跡象。
為了打破這個基於對性別「自然」或「正常」的假設所建立的二元性別框架,我們需要從法律制度本身進行改革。因此,本文主張非二元性別承認,包括把身體器官與法定性別脫鉤,並增設男女二元以外的性別選項。至今,全球已有多個國家和地區正在傾向接納第三種性別選擇,但其實際運作和理解仍然存在極大的差異。然而,無論何種模式,都面臨著各種挑戰和問題。例如X性別作為一個新的框架,並未能讓非二元性別認同者與男女平等,甚至可能會加深二元框架,或者創造出新的框架。本文提倡取消證件上的性別欄,用更靈活的政策以減輕對性別多樣化者的不利影響。
最後,台灣對於非二元性別認同的議題仍缺乏足夠的覺知和涵蓋。如今,我國法律對性別問題的基本觀點可以歸納為四個方面:性別是二元化的、可輕易識別、固定不變的、並由生殖器官確定。但本文主張,只有當我們能理解性別和身體的流動性,理解性別超越生殖功能的可能性,我們才能減少對非二元性別認同的誤解。總結來說,本文期待的是一個能尊重和認識性別多元與流動性的社會,不再以固定的框架來定義和限制性別,並且能夠實現真正的性別平等。
This paper explores the nuances of gender, challenging the traditional binary gender framework under essentialism. We start with Butler''s gender theory, arguing that gender is not a fixed concept closely tied to physical attributes, but a fluid self-identification independent of physiological structure. We found that under this understanding, traits of different genders can freely manifest in different bodies, illustrating a more nuanced and complex facet of gender, not necessarily tied to reproductive functions. The advancement of gender theory also influences the application of international human rights law and gender registration systems in various countries. Under the push of the Yogyakarta Principles, we observed a shift in international human rights discourse from the original binary gender framework to a more inclusive SOGI (Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity) concept. Although most legal constructs have not fully encompassed gender diversity, in some countries'' legislation and judgments, we see signs of loosening the binary gender framework.
To dismantle this binary gender framework built on assumptions of gender as "natural" or "normal", reform needs to come from the legal system itself. We advocate for a non-binary gender recognition standard, including decoupling physical organs from legal gender, and adding gender options beyond the binary. Globally, many countries and regions are leaning towards accepting a third gender option, but the actual operation and understanding still vary greatly. Regardless of the model, various challenges and issues are faced. The X gender as a new framework does not equalize non-binary gender individuals with males and females, and may even reinforce the binary framework or create new ones. We propose eliminating the gender field on documents, using more flexible policies to mitigate the adverse effects on gender diversification.
Lastly, Taiwan still lacks sufficient awareness and coverage on the issue of non-binary gender recognition. Presently, our country''s basic view on gender issues can be summarized into four aspects: gender is binary, easily identifiable, unchanging, and determined by reproductive organs. However, we argue that only when we understand the fluidity of gender and body, and understand the possibility of gender transcending reproductive functions, can we reduce misunderstandings about non-binary gender identification. In conclusion, we look forward to a society that respects and recognizes the diversity and fluidity of gender, no longer defining and restricting gender within fixed frameworks, and achieving genuine gender equality.
誌謝 i
中文摘要 ii
英文摘要 iii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 問題意識 2
第三節 研究方法及預期研究成果 3
第二章 性/別理論的發展 4
第一節 性/別的內涵 4
第二節 生殖模型與異性戀二元框架:傳統性別理論 4
壹、LGBT:異性戀二元框架下的語言 4
貳、本質主義:真實的性別存在嗎? 6
參、以生殖為前提的異性戀母模 7
第三節 非二元框架的性別論述 8
壹、性(Sex) 9
貳、性別(Gender) 11
參、慾望(Desire) 13
第四節 西方性別論述之外:多元文化的人類面貌 14
第五節 小結 16
第三章 非二元性別觀的建構:聯合國人權體系的角度 17
第一節 聯合國人權體系的性別觀擴展 17
壹、《日惹原則》(Yogyakarta Principle) 17
貳、聯合國人權公約:「順性別」秩序與二元框架的幽靈 19
參、二元框架的鬆動:從LGBT到SOGI 21
肆、性別認同獲得重視 22
伍、性別脫離醫療論述 26
第二節 非二元性別認同的人權基礎 27
壹、自由權 28
貳、平等權 28
參、隱私權 29
肆、健康權 29
第三節 小結 31
第四章 性別變更登記的比較法觀察:從二元性別到非二元性別 32
第一節 國家對性別的建構 32
壹、法律中的二元性別 33
貳、性別變更登記的模式 46
第二節 F/M與X:非二元性別登記的模型比較 50
壹、第一種模式:加州自我宣稱模式 51
貳、第二種模式:德國間性人模式 58
參、第三種模式:海吉拉模式 61
第三節 X的內涵 66
壹、X的意義:非二元?不明? 66
貳、X的限制與挑戰 67
第四節 小結 70
第五章 臺灣的性別建構:以免術換證為中心 72
第一節 我國法律的二元性別框架 72
壹、台灣的「性/別」論述 72
貳、憲法的性別建構 74
參、法律真空:性別變更登記的現況 75
第二節 「免術換證」的法律論辯 77
壹、行政訴訟 77
貳、憲法法庭不受理:110年度憲三字第33號 79
第三節 小結 80
第六章 結論與建議 82
參考文獻 83
一、中文文獻 83
(一)專書與學位論文 83
(二)期刊文獻與專書論文 83
(三)網站資源 83
二、英文文獻 84
(一)專書 84
(二)期刊論文 84
(三)網站資源 86
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