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研究生:張映捷
研究生(外文):Ying-Chieh Chang
論文名稱:緊密連接蛋白ZO-1調節有絲分裂紡錘體方向性促進上皮細胞修復的機制探討
論文名稱(外文):The Mechanism of Tight Junction Protein ZO-1 in Regulating Mitotic Spindle Orientation for Epithelial Cell Repair
指導教授:郭瑋庭
指導教授(外文):Wei-Ting Kuo
口試委員:江皓森魏妊亘翁瑞霞
口試委員(外文):Hao-Sen ChiangJen-Hsuan WeiJui-Hsia Weng
口試日期:2024-01-08
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:口腔生物科學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:牙醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2024
畢業學年度:112
語文別:中文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:屏障功能黏膜修復上皮細胞穩態緊密連接ZO-1炎症性腸疾細胞增殖有絲分裂紡錘體
外文關鍵詞:Barrier functionMucosal repairEpithelial homeostasisTight junctionZonula occludens-1 (ZO-1)Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)Cell proliferationMitotic spindle
DOI:10.6342/NTU202400137
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免疫誘發的腸道和全身性疾病(包括黏膜損傷)會導致腸道屏障功能降低。為恢復平衡,黏膜迅速癒合至關重要。緊密連接蛋白ZO-1除了已知的屏障功能外,目前研究也發現其可透過有絲分裂紡錘體的排列方向發揮關鍵作用來促進上皮細胞生長,然而,ZO-1調節細胞分裂的分子機制尚未明瞭。
目的:確定ZO-1在黏膜癒合的關鍵過程中調節有絲分裂紡錘體方向的機制。
結果:應用CRISPR/Cas9技術產生ZO-1缺陷的腸上皮Caco-2細胞,與正常Caco-2細胞相比,這些細胞中缺乏ZO-1表達,且屏障功能下降。ZO-1缺失的細胞表現出傷口癒合受損和細胞遷移不良的現象。缺乏ZO-1蛋白的細胞在有絲分裂的Sub-G1期出現程序性細胞凋亡的細胞數量較多,且細胞分裂方向不規則。透過使用三維細胞培養,結果顯示在給予paclitaxel或nocodazole處理增加有絲分裂細胞後,ZO-1的缺失會導致有絲分裂紡錘體的排列方向錯誤。先前的研究顯示,抑制ZO-1的表達會對微絨毛的排列和上皮細胞頂部表面的結構產生負面影響。透過使用抑制和穩定肌動蛋白聚合的latrunculin A、cytochalasin B和jasplakinolide結果證明,ZO-1- cortical actin相互作用的存在不會影響Caco-2細胞中有絲分裂紡錘體的方向。值得一提的是,YBX3和VCL轉錄子的含量增加,這些基因參與細胞分裂方向的調節並與ZO-1交互作用。相反地,缺乏ZO-1的Caco-2細胞,DNMBP和CTTN表達減少。此外,ZO-1的缺失會降低有絲分裂機制和訊號分子的水平,包括pericentrin 和aurora A。同樣地,這些發現也出現在被診斷患有發炎性腸道疾病(IBD)的個體中,這些人的ZO-1表現量降低。ZO-1蛋白透過與細胞骨架結合蛋白(而不是皮質肌動蛋白)相互作用來幫助有絲分裂的有效執行。
結論:這項研究顯示ZO-1在有絲分裂紡錘體的排列方向方面具有還未被探索的非典型功能,這與其參與維持屏障功能無關。根據我們的觀點,ZO-1相關的細胞骨架結合蛋白和轉錄因子YBX3在調節有絲分裂方向上具有重要功能。IBD患者可能由於潛在的根本原因而導致黏膜癒合受損。
Immune-mediated intestinal and systemic illnesses that include mucosal injury result in a reduced intestinal barrier function. It is crucial that the mucosa be promptly healed in order to restore balance. Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) facilitates the growth of epithelial cells by playing a crucial role in the orientation of the mitotic spindle, irrespective of its barrier function. However, the mechanism by which ZO-1 drives cell division has not yet been established.
Objective: To determine the mechanism by which ZO-1 regulates the orientation of the mitotic spindle, a crucial process for mucosal healing.
Results: Applying CRISPR/Cas9 technology to generate ZO-1-deficient intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells demonstrated the absence of ZO-1 expression in these cells, leading to a decreased barrier function compared to cells that do express ZO-1. Cells missing ZO-1 exhibited impaired healing of purse-string wounds and poor cell migration. Cells lacking the ZO-1 protein show a higher number of cells undergoing programmed cell death in the sub-G1 phase of mitosis, as well as irregular cellular orientation. Through the use of three-dimensional cell culture, it was shown that the absence of ZO-1 led to a misorientation of the mitotic spindle after exposure to paclitaxel or nocodazole. Previous studies have shown that suppressing the expression of ZO-1 has negative consequences on the arrangement of microvilli and the structure at the top surface of epithelial cells. By using latrunculin A, cytochalasin B, and jasplakinolide, which inhibit and stabilize actin polymerization, the presence of ZO-1-cortical actin interaction did not influence the orientation of the mitotic spindle in Caco-2 cells. It is important to mention that the levels of YBX3 and VCL transcripts were increased. These genes are involved in the regulation of cell division direction and interact with ZO-1. Conversely, cells lacking ZO-1, DNMBP and CTTN exhibited a decrease in expression. In addition, the absence of ZO-1 reduces the levels of mitotic machinery and signaling molecules, including pericentrin and aurora A. Similarly, the findings were seen in individuals diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who have decreased levels of ZO-1 expression. The ZO-1 protein aids in the effective execution of mitosis by interacting with cytoskeletal binding proteins, rather than cortical actin.
Conclusion: This work reveals that ZO-1 has an unexplored, unconventional function in the orientation of the mitotic spindle, which is not related to its involvement in maintaining barriers. According to our perspective, ZO-1-associated cytoskeletal binding proteins and transcription factor YBX3 have significant functions in regulating mitotic direction. Patients with IBD may have impaired mucosal healing due to a potential underlying cause.
致謝 i
中文摘要 ii
Abstract iv
目錄 vi
一、前言 1
1.1 黏膜屏障 1
1.1.1 物理屏障 1
1.1.2 化學屏障 2
1.1.3 免疫屏障 3
1.2 細胞間連接 3
1.2.1 緊密連接 4
1.2.2 黏附連接 5
1.3. 緊密連接蛋白ZO-1 6
1.3.1 主要結構及與屏障功能相關的交互作用蛋白 6
1.3.2 ZO-1的屏障功能 7
1.3.3 ZO-1調節上皮頂端特化結構 7
1.3.4 ZO-1調節體外管腔形成 8
1.4 細胞週期與細胞分裂 9
1.4.1 細胞週期的四個階段 9
1.4.2 上皮細胞的分裂與極化 10
1.5 ZO-1調節上皮增殖、有絲分裂紡錘體方向和黏膜修復 13
1.6 目的 14
二、材料與方法 15
2.1 細胞培養 15
2.2 建立ZO-1敲除細胞株 15
2.3 蛋白質萃取及濃度測量 17
2.4 細胞核與細胞質蛋白質萃取及濃度測量 17
2.5 西方墨點法 18
2.6 RNA萃取 21
2.7 反轉錄合成cDNA反應 21
2.8 定量聚合酶連鎖反應 22
2.9 2D免疫染色 24
2.10 3D免疫染色 25
2.11 顯微拍照與擷取影像分析 28
2.12 細胞分裂角度分析 28
2.13 流式細胞儀分析細胞週期 29
2.14 跨上皮電阻 29
2.15 傷口癒合試驗 30
2.16 藥理抑制劑 30
2.17 人類基因表達資料庫 32
2.18 統計分析 32
三、結果 33
3.1 透過CRISPR/CAS9系統在人類結直腸癌腸道上皮細胞Caco-2細胞中建立ZO-1敲除的細胞株 33
3.2 ZO-1參與傷口修復與細胞遷移 33
3.3 ZO-1的敲除導致細胞凋亡增加 34
3.4 ZO-1的敲除造成3D培養之細胞球形成多腔型態 34
3.5 細胞周期阻滯藥物Paclitaxel及Nocodazole能明顯提高S-G2-M細胞週期比例 35
3.6 低劑量細胞周期阻滯藥物Paclitaxel及Nocodazole不會提高細胞凋亡 36
3.7 ZO-1的缺失會破壞有絲分裂方向性,導致多腔發生 36
3.8 ZO-1- cortical actin交互作用不會影響有絲分裂的方向 37
3.8.1 利用Latrunculin A阻斷actin生成,確認ZO-1- cortical actin交互作用不會影響有絲分裂的方向 37
3.8.2 利用Cytochalasin B阻斷actin生成,確認ZO-1- cortical actin交互作用不會影響有絲分裂的方向 38
3.8.3 利用ROCK抑制劑Y27632影響actin與myosin交互作用,確認ZO-1- cortical actin交互作用不會影響有絲分裂的方向 38
3.8.4 利用Latrunculin A阻斷actin生成,使用細胞周期阻滯藥物Nocodazole確認ZO-1- cortical actin交互作用不會影響有絲分裂的方向 39
3.8.5 利用Jasplakinolide穩固actin生成,確認ZO-1- cortical actin交互作用不會影響有絲分裂的方向 39
3.9 ZO-1的缺失調節與有絲分裂紡錘體方向相關的轉錄和轉譯訊號 40
3.9.1 利用定量聚合酶連鎖反應偵測ZO-1缺失調節與有絲分裂紡錘體方向相關轉錄訊息分子表現 40
3.9.2 利用西方墨點法偵測ZO-1缺失調節與有絲分裂紡錘體方向相關的轉錄因子表現 41
3.10 ZO-1的缺失在有絲分裂過程中調節與有絲分裂紡錘體方向相關的轉錄和轉譯訊號 43
3.11 IBD患者的ZO-1缺失,調節與有絲分裂紡錘體方向相關的轉錄和翻譯訊號 44
四、討論 45
五、圖表 49
圖一、透過CRISPR/CAS9系統在人類直腸癌腸道上皮細胞Caco-2中建立ZO-1敲除的細胞株 49
圖二、ZO-1參與傷口修復與細胞遷移 51
圖三、ZO-1的敲除會導致細胞凋亡增加 52
圖四、ZO-1的敲除造成3D培養之細胞球形成多腔型態 53
圖五、細胞周期阻滯藥物Paclitaxel能明顯提高S-G2-M細胞週期比例 55
圖六、細胞周期阻滯藥物Nocodazole能明顯提高S-G2-M細胞週期比例 57
圖七、細胞周期阻滯藥物RO-3306無法明顯提高S-G2-M細胞週期比例 59
圖八、低劑量細胞周期阻滯藥物不會提高細胞凋亡 60
圖九、利用細胞周期阻滯藥物Paclitaxel觀察ZO-1的缺失會破壞有絲分裂方向性 61
圖十、利用細胞周期阻滯藥物Nocodazole觀察ZO-1缺失對有絲分裂方向性的影響 63
圖十一、利用Latrunculin A阻斷actin生成,確認ZO-1- cortical actin交互作用不會影響有絲分裂的方向 64
圖十二、利用Cytochalasin B阻斷actin生成,確認ZO-1- cortical actin交互作用不會影響有絲分裂的方向 66
圖十三、利用ROCK抑制劑Y27632影響actin與myosin交互作用,確認ZO-1- cortical actin交互作用不會影響有絲分裂的方向 68
圖十四、利用Latrunculin A阻斷actin生成,使用細胞周期阻滯藥物Nocodazole確認ZO-1- cortical actin交互作用不會影響有絲分裂的方向 70
圖十五、利用Jasplakinolide穩固actin生成,確認ZO-1- cortical actin交互作用不會影響有絲分裂的方向 71
圖十六、ZO-1缺失調節與有絲分裂紡錘體方向相關的轉錄訊息分子表現 72
圖十七、ZO-1缺失調節與有絲分裂紡錘體方向相關的轉錄訊息分子表現 74
圖十八、ZO-1缺失調節與有絲分裂相關轉錄訊息分子表現 76
圖十九、ZO-1缺失調節與有絲分裂相關轉錄訊息分子表現 77
圖二十、ZO-1 的缺失調節與有絲分裂紡錘體方向相關的轉譯訊息分子表現 78
圖二十二、ZO-1 的缺失調節與有絲分裂紡錘體方向相關的轉錄因子表現 80
圖二十三、在有絲分裂的情況下,ZO-1缺失調節與有絲分裂紡錘體方向相關的轉錄訊息分子表現 81
圖二十四、在有絲分裂的情況下,ZO-1缺失調節與有絲分裂紡錘體方向相關的轉錄訊息分子表現 83
圖二十五、在有絲分裂的情況下,ZO-1缺失調節與有絲分裂相關轉錄訊息分子表現 85
圖二十六、在有絲分裂的情況下,ZO-1缺失調節與有絲分裂相關轉錄訊息分子表現 86
圖二十七、IBD患者的ZO-1表現量降低調節與有絲分裂紡錘體方向相關的轉錄訊息分子表現 87
圖二十八、IBD患者的ZO-1表現量降低調節與有絲分裂相關轉錄訊息分子表現 88
圖二十九、IBD患者的ZO-1表現量降低調節與有絲分裂紡錘體方向相關的轉錄訊息分子表現 89
圖三十、IBD患者的ZO-1表現量降低調節與有絲分裂相關轉錄訊息分子表現 90
圖三十一、IBD患者的ZO-1表現量降低調節與有絲分裂紡錘體方向相關的轉錄訊息分子表現 91
圖三十二、IBD患者的ZO-1表現量降低調節與有絲分裂相關轉錄訊息分子表現 92
圖三十三、ZO-1缺失及表現量降低的上皮細胞中,YBX3、VCL和DNMBP訊息分子表現的改變可能引起有絲分裂紡錘體方向異常 93
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