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研究生:洪志偉
研究生(外文):Huang, Chih-Wei
論文名稱:GPS衛星之雷射測距資料應用於大地絕對坐標之測定
論文名稱(外文):The Application of Laser Tracking to GPS Satellites for Geodetic Absolute Positioning
指導教授:楊名, 曾清涼
指導教授(外文):Ming Yang, Ching-Liang Tseng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:測量工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:測量工程學類
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:衛星雷射測距
外文關鍵詞:Satellite Laser Ranging
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由於近幾年來衛星雷射測距之測距精度已提昇至公釐級,雖不像全球
定位系統GPS受到廣泛的應用,但衛星雷射測距的高精度受到大地測量及
地球動力研究方面的重視,應用領域包含測站的絕對定位、位置變遷的監
測,建立全球性的參考框架及求取地球旋轉參數、地球重力場係數,並作
固體潮、海潮及衛星定軌等方面的研究。在大地測量中,最重要的就是求
出點位的位置,衛星雷射測距系統能直接提供測站相對於地心的精確絕對
坐標,這也是衛星雷射測距極重要的貢獻之一,可依此建立出以地心為基
準的參考框架並作為其它研究與應用的基礎。

本文取用二顆裝有反射稜鏡的GPS35及GPS36衛星,於1994年間的衛星雷射
測距觀測資料,資料中包含13個測站約2000筆的觀測量,配合GPS衛星之
IGS精密星曆,將衛星軌道視為固定而不作軌道調整,依此求解出測站的
絕對坐標。在求解過程中考量了大氣折射改正、質量中心改正、固體潮改
正、海潮負荷改正、地球旋轉改正及測站偏心等問題。實驗成果與IERS所
公佈的測站絕對坐標解比較之後,所得的坐標較差大部分約在±10公分以
內,更約有一半在±6公分以下;各測站之坐標標準偏差,除了三個觀測筆
數極少的測站外,其餘約在±5公分以下;而各測站的後驗權單位標準偏差
除了一測站觀測精度較差在±15公分,其餘皆在±10公分以內,更約有一
半在±5公分之內。
The precision of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR)
measurements has beenpromoted to the order of mm recently.
Though SLR is not so popular as GPS,itshigh precisionattracts
the attention of researchers in the fields of geodesyand
geodynamics. Its applications include not only the absolute
positioning ofstation, the detection of position change, the
generation of global referenceframes,but also the solutions of
earth rotation parameters and earth''''s gravityfield coefficients,
as well as the researches for solid earth tide,ocean tidesand
satellite orbit determination. The most important mission in
geodesy is todetermine the positions of control stations. SLR
can offer accurate absolutecoordinates of stations in
reference to the earth center. With thiscontribution, we
can establish a reference frame relative to the earth center,
which is the base for other related researches and applications.
This thesis uses SLR data acquired in 1994 from the two GPS
satellitesnamed GPS35 and GPS36, mounted with retro-
reflectors. There are 2000observations from 13 stations.
With the IGS precise ephemeris of GPSsatellites, the
orbit is fixed and not adjusted. Under the above condition,the
absolute coordinates of stations are calculated. During the
calculationprocedure, atmospheric refraction correction, center
of mass correction, solidearth tide correction, ocean loading
correction, earth rotation correction,and station eccentricity
correction are taken into account. The comparison ofthe
experiment results and the absolute coordinates of stations
published bythe IERS shows that most coordinate differences are
within ±10 cm, and abouthalf of them within ±6 cm. Except for
3 stations with very few observations,the coordinate standard
deviation for each station is approximately within ±5cm. The a
posteriori standard deviation of unit weight for most stations
iswithin ±10 cm, except for one station about ±15 cm;
furthermore, half of thestations have values within ±5 cm.
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