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研究生:謝功毅
研究生(外文):Hsieh, gong-yih
論文名稱:晶圓製造廠女性員工生殖健康之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Reproductive Health in the woman workers of Silicon Wafer fabrication
指導教授:陳保中陳保中引用關係---
指導教授(外文):Pau-chung Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:職業醫學與工業衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:半導體工業生殖危害生育力月經功能受孕所需時間自然流產
外文關鍵詞:Semiconductorreproductive riskfecunditymenstruationtime to pregnancyspontaneous abortion
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近年來國內工業發展趨向於高科技產業,半導體工業(semiconductor industry)
即是其中重要的一環,半導體工業依製程階段區分可分三種廠如長晶廠、
晶圓製造廠、及封裝廠。晶圓製造廠其製程區包括薄膜區、黃光區、擴散
區、及蝕刻區,製造過程中都是密閉管線輸送所用之試劑且其工作區域是
無塵室(fabrication)維持class 1(直徑0.5 mm以上微粒<1個/立方英呎)、
濕度40±2%、及溫度22±0.2 ℃的標準。雖然容易給人一種乾淨工業(clean
industry),但其所用的機台及危害因子(如化學性因子、物理性因子、及
人因工程等)都含有潛在健康危害。

目前有關半導體工業的健康研究,在國內並無生殖相關研究。在國外已有
一些相關研究,流行病學資料顯示半導體工業職業暴露有自然流產率增加
及生育力降低,且月經功能也有異常現象。關於機台造成人因工程也是相
當嚴重的問題,至於癌症目前尚未釐清。反觀國內半導體工業由國外引進,
製程、人員管理等改變之後是否有何種潛在危害因子,是值得加以探討的。

本計畫從文獻探討、現場訪視及公司相關記錄資料,擬定研究計畫方向,
對國內晶圓製造廠做一初步探討,並針對於女性生殖健康深入研究。至於
本研究針對是在女性生殖健康,主要包含月經功能與女性員工生育力。在
生育力方面,目前國外所採用生物效應指標為自然流產,其所能偵測範圍
是受孕後的導致危險因子的探討;而無法了解受孕前是否受到影響,在此
考量下本研究中使用受孕所需時間(time to pregnancy)做為生物效應標記,
以便可以偵測受孕前後的潛在生殖危害存在。在暴露評估方面,除了現場
訪視,並使用公司歷年工安、人事記錄、及問卷資料加以整合,由公司製
造、人事、及工安部門主管及資深工程師討論擬定暴露分層標準。

配合該公司1997年健康檢查進行問卷訪視,女性員工人數842人,共回收
720份,月經功能有效問卷636份,進入懷孕分析共298孕次。女性月經
功能在於月經週期平均長度異常有隨著精神狀況分數愈高而增加的趨勢,
在黃光區(危險勝算比=3.25,95%信賴區間:1.53-6.90)與測試區(危險
勝算比=4.26,95%信賴區間:1.67-10.83)月經平均週期長度危險勝算比為
非無塵室高,潛在暴露於二醇醚類(危險勝算比=1.98,95%信賴區間:
1.14-3.42)與異丙醇(危險勝算比=1.69,95%信賴區間:1.09-2.61)女性
員工月經週期平均長度異常亦有增多。在於生育力方面,黃光區(危險勝
算比=3.24,95%信賴區間:1.10-9.50)女性員工受孕所需時間較長,且在
二醇醚類(危險勝算比=3.98,95%信賴區間:1.34-11.82)暴露組受孕所需
時間也是增加。在自然流產方面各暴露分層則無差異存在,可能由於文化
背景造成受測者將人工流產報告為自然流產,導致無法準確測量。

因此潛在暴露於二醇醚類或異丙醇可能導致晶圓製造廠女
性員工生殖健康的影響。晶圓製造廠男性員工需要更進一
步探討,以了解其生殖健康是否有受到職業暴露的影響。
在於半導體工業暴露評估是一個困難的問題,應嘗試去建
立暴露評估模式,以推估其暴露情形。在近程應該了解潛
在暴露的時機與途徑,使用合適的防護,以減少暴露的機
會。長期除改善製程外,任何物質使用於製程中應先經過
毒理測試,認為其安全在可接受範圍內才可使用。
The semiconductor manufacturing is growing high-tech industry in Taiwan.
Semiconductor industry includes silicon wafer manufacturing, design and
manufacturing of semiconductor devices or "chips", and packaging and assembly
of semiconductor chips into commercial devices. There are thin film,
photolithography, diffusion, and etching in chips manufacturing. Most of agents
used in manufacturing are transported in double closed tubes. The fabrication
room is kept under class 1 (particle size diameter > 0.5mm less
than 1 particle in
ft3), humidity 40±2%, and temperature 22±0.2℃.

The semiconductor manufacturing is supposed a clean industry, but there are
many potentially risk factors including chemicals, physical, and ergonomic
agents. No studies about reproductive effect in semiconductor industry has been
published in Taiwan. Some studies in United States have showed that female
workers in semiconductor industry had a higher risk of spontaneous abortion,
subfertility, and menstrual dysfunction. Musculoskelatal disorders have been
demonstrated and the cancer risk was also suspected.

The study was designed to study general and feamle reproductive health in a
wafer manufacturing company. Reproductive health outcomes included
menstrual cycle function, subfertility, and spontaneous
abortion measured by the
interview questionnaire. The subfertility biomarker used time to pregnancy in
this study. The tiered exposure assessment was allocated by
directors and senior
engineers in manufacturing, administrative, and safety and health departments
according to safety and personnel records, and data from questionnaires. There
were 842 female workers and 720 questionnaires were collected. Among them,
636 questionnaires were valid in measuring menstrual cycle function, and 298
pregnancies were analyzed in the study. Disorder in length of menstrual cycle
increased with psychiatric scores. Female workers in photolithography
(OR=3.25, 95% CI=1.53-6.90) and chips testing (OR=4.26, 95% CI=1.67-10.83)
have higher risks of menstrual length disorder than those in
nonfabrication area.
Those who were potentially exposed to ethylene glycol (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.14-
3.42) and isopropanol (OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.09-2.61) also had higher risks. Time
to pregnancy of female workers in the photolithography(OR=3.24, 95%
CI=1.10-9.50) were longer than those in nonfabrication area, and those who
potentially exposed to ethylene glycol (OR=3.98, 95% CI=1.34-11.82)showed
longer time to pregnancy. No effect in spontaneous abortion was found in this
study.

Therefore, ethylene glycol and isopropanol might be reproductive hazards for
female workers. Their effects on male reproductive system and individualized
exposure assessment need further studies. Reproductive toxicity for new agents
in semiconductor manufacturing should be reviewed and qualified before use.
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