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研究生:陳守惠
研究生(外文):Chen, Shoou-Huey
論文名稱:鉛蓄電池作業員工之硫酸暴露評估
論文名稱(外文):The assessment of sulfuric acid exposure for lead acid battery workers
指導教授:王榮德王榮德引用關係陳保中陳保中引用關係---
指導教授(外文):Jung-Der WangPau-Chang Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:職業醫學與工業衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:硫酸鼻咽癌矽膠管粒徑分布
外文關鍵詞:37mm濾紙Andersen 八階微粒採樣器Sulfuric acidnasopharyngeal cancesilica gel tube37 mm filterAndersen 8-stages particule samplersize distribution
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鉛蓄電池製造業長久以來大家所注意的焦點一直在於鉛暴露所造成的危害,對於
其製程中使用亦非常廣的硫酸卻甚少有相關的研究,除了其所造成的急性健康危
害,如腐蝕、刺鼻與眼睛刺激等症狀外。在國外,很早就針對硫酸暴露可能造成
的慢性健康影響,尤其是呼吸道方面相關之癌症進行研究,目前已知道暴露於硫
酸作業下喉癌的發生率會有上升的趨勢,因此,國際癌症研究組織於1992年將硫
酸列為Group1的人類致癌物;而其他呼吸道癌症,如肺癌與鼻咽癌則證據仍嫌
不足,尤其是鼻咽癌。而這些研究一般都缺乏相關的暴露量測資料,僅止於流行
病學方面之探討。1995年在國內的電信局發生3例疑似硫酸暴露導致鼻咽癌之案
例。而這個研究的目的在於量測鉛蓄電池製造工廠硫酸的濃度與粒徑分布。

本研究嘗試選定三家鉛蓄電池製造業,並以矽膠管、37mm濾紙採樣器與Andersen
八階微粒採樣器進行其作業場所硫酸濃度測定與粒徑分布之情形,並以離子層析
儀進行濃度分析,使用之陰離子分析管柱型號為IONPAC AS4A (Dionex Corp.,
Sunnyvale, CA, U.S.A.)。研究發現此三種方法以矽膠管採樣所採得之結果較高
,矽膠管採樣A廠硫酸濃度為15.5~394.4mg/m3之間;B廠為11.1~64.2 mg/m3;C
廠為30.9~99.8 mg/m3。比較各區採樣濃度值,則以化成區與退酸區之硫酸濃度較
高,且此兩區之粒徑亦較偏向大粒徑分布(MMAD=6~11mm)。本研究期望能作為
未來可能進行之硫酸流行病學調查之暴露評估方面的參考。

The health effect of lead exposure has frequently been studied
in lead-acid battery
manufacture. But relatively few studies focused on the effect
of sulfuric acid, which
is also used widely in this process. In addition to acute
effects such as eye irritation
and dental erosion, exposure to sulfuric acid may induce
respiratory cancers, including
laryngeal cancer and lung cancer, but there was no similar
evidence for nasal cancer.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recommended exposure to
strong inorganic acid mists including sulfuric acid as group 1
human carcinogen in
1992. However, these studies were in lack of accurate or appropriate exposure
measurements. In 1995, three cases of nasopharyngeal cancer were reported in a
tele-communication company. It was suspected that they were
related to exposure to
sulfuric acid mists. The objective of this study was to
determine the air concentration
and particle sizes of sulfuric acid in lead acid battery factories.

This study selected three lead-acid battery plants, with one
employed less than 30
workers, another employed 30-100, while the last one employed
more than 100. We
used three sampling methods including silica gel tube, 37-mm
filter cassette, and
Andersen eight-stage impactor to collect airborne sulfuric
acids, which were later
analyzed by ionic chromatography with an IONPAC AS4A Analytic column (Dionex
Corp., Sunnyvale, CA, U.S.A.). The result showed that the
silica gel tube had the best
sampling efficiency. Concentrations of sulfuric acid in silica
gel tube were 15.5 to
394.4 mg/m3 in Factory A, 11.1 to 64.2 mg/m3 in Factory B, and
30.9 to 99.8 mg/m3 in
Factory C. Concentrations in the forming and cleaning
operations were higher than
other areas and their particle sizes were in general bigger
(MMAD=6-11 mm). The
result of this preliminary exposure assessment may help outline
the epidemiological
study for sulfuric acid related effects in the future.

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