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研究生:許碧峰
研究生(外文):Hsu, Pi-Fem
論文名稱:研究發展,技術引進與經濟成長
論文名稱(外文):R&D, Technology Adoption and Economic Growth
指導教授:莊奕琦莊奕琦引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chuang, Yih-Chyi
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:經濟學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:研究發展技術引進外溢效果外人投資國際貿易內生成長
外文關鍵詞:research and developmenttechnology adoptionspillover effectforeign direct investmentinternational tradeendogenous growth
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本論文分別以理論與實證分析方式探討內生成長有關技術進步之課題。第一部份,本文以內生成長理論分析技術引進與技術深化在經濟成長中之機制。模型中,技術引進與技術深化二者均為資源的投入。為區分二者行為之不同,技術引進指的是學習國外之新技術,技術深化指的是將此學習到之新技術加以改良、吸收並發展出屬於本身的技術。因此,技術引進與技術深化在生產過程中互為互補行為。
由本文之分析得知,人力資本H具有規模效果(scale effect)。其次,技術引進或者是技術深化成功的機率愈高,均會使一國的經濟成長率提高。最後,在本文模型亦可得Luvcas effect之結論;亦即當經濟體系之各部門(或各技術類型)之變動愈快時,愈有利於經濟成長。
第二部分本文首先利用「中國大陸1995年普查資料」進行廠商之生產效率分析,發現私營、個體、外資或港澳台企業,大型規模,新成立廠商,生產兩種以上產品,中央或鄉鎮企業,位於東南六省市及食品、化學、電子、機械等企業較具有生產效率。此外,本文分別以外資之固定資產、勞動雇用人數以及銷售收入佔產業比例等三個外資比例指標檢測外資企業的技術擴散效果,均得到外資企業對本國的企業有顯著的正面貢獻。另一方面,市場集中度愈高與產業規模程度愈大對勞動生產力反而有不利的影響。在貿易的學習效果方面,大陸對OECD國家與亞洲四小龍之出口均對生產力有顯著正面的貢獻。廠商出口至其他國家,為維持其國際市場的競爭力,必須提高其技術水準;而且出口廠商透過貿易獲得許多新產品與新技術的訊息,進而使其生產力提高。此外,中國大陸從OECD國家之進口對生產力亦有顯著的正面效果。
若將整體產業區分為低技術差距產業與高技術差距產業兩種類型,發現外資對高、低技術差距產業均有顯著的技術擴散效果,惟外資對低技術差距的產業技術擴散效果大於高技術差距產業;亦即技術能力較強的國內廠商,較能學習到外資所引進的新技術。在貿易學習效果方面結果迥異。在低技術差距產業,廠商出口至OECD國家或者是亞洲四小龍,皆能透過貿易使其技術效率提昇;且出口至OECD國家所獲得的貿易學習效果大於出口至亞洲四小龍。相反地,在高技術差距產業,廠商的出口並沒有帶來顯著的學習效果,反而是藉由廠商的進口來提升其生產力。
第三部分,本文以台灣1981-1996年製造業中分類(two-digit)產業的panel data為實證分析對象,檢測研究發展對生產力的貢獻及產業間(inter-industry)的技術擴散效果。此外,由於技術知識具有公共財的特性,研究發展可藉由產業內外溢效果的內部化,使得產業研究發展的邊際報酬隨著知識存量的增加而遞增;因此,本文進一步檢測R&D對生產力的貢獻是否存在變動的邊際報酬。
本文另將製造業分為輕、重化工業與高、低R&D產業,並允許各產業因產業特質差異而存在不同的技術水準。估計結果發現:一、除了輕工業外,重化工業與高、低R&D產業之研究發展對生產力均有顯著的貢獻;二、重化工業與高、低R&D產業的研究發展存在遞增的報酬;三、不論是輕、重化工業或者是高、低R&D產業,均存在顯著的R&D外溢效果,惟其中重化工業高於輕工業,高R&D產業大於低R&D產業。
封面
謝辭
目錄
第一章 緒論
1.1 研究動機與目的
1.2 研究方法與架構
第二章 技術引進、技術深化與經濟成長
2.1 前言
2.2 文獻回顧
2.3 基本模型
2.4 比較靜態分析
2.5 結論
第三章 外人投資、國際貿易與技術引進效率:中國大陸實證
3.1 前言
3.2 中國大陸外人投資與國際貿易
3.3 生產效率分析
3.4 外資企業的技術擴散效果與國際貿易誘發的學習效果
3.5 結論
第四章 研究發展對生產力的貢獻及產業間外溢效果:台灣製造業實證
4.1 前言
4.2 實證模型
4.3 變數設定、資料分析與估計方法
4.4 實證結果
4.5 結論
第五章 結論
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