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研究生:陳正穎
研究生(外文):Chen Cheng-Yin
論文名稱:多重疊航測影像中人工建築物三維模型之重建
論文名稱(外文):3-D Building Reconstruction from Multi-view Aerial Images
指導教授:陳良健陳良健引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen Liang-Chien
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:土木工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:人工建築物三維模型重建數值表面模型多重疊航測影像
外文關鍵詞:3-D Building ReconstructionDigital Surface Model (DSM)Multi-view Aerial Images
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以自動化方式進行立體製圖時,常遇到如遮蔽、陰影或特徵不明顯等資訊不足的情況,此時須將人為判斷與推論的方式與過程程式化。為了減少此種資訊不足的情況,常透過增加幾何、光譜的資訊或加入人為的判斷,來輔助人工建築物特徵萃取或三維模型重建的工作。
考量幾何資訊之增加,本研究嘗試利用雙向重疊均約為60%的四重疊影像,進行房屋三維模型的重建工作。主要有二個處理程序,(1)最小二乘法影像匹配:產生數值表面模型(Digital Surface Model)及(2)一序列的處理程序,包括了最鄰近勻化法、多重解析力邊緣偵測、局部最大值邊緣細化、CLR匹配法。利用數值表面模型得到房屋候選區塊,找出每一個房屋候選區塊內的房屋邊界候選點,並進行Hough直線偵測、直線分組與屋角點三維座標之計算。以上處理之各雙像立體對亦完成整合。
由實驗結果得知,多重疊航測影像可萃取出較多房屋邊界的資訊,並經由立體匹配得到房屋邊界之三維資訊,進而重建房屋三維模型。另外,在某些條件下,斜頂房屋物空間之缺漏邊界,亦能透過物空間與像空間的轉換,到像空間去搜尋是否有符合條件的直線段,輔助人工建築物三維模型重建工作。

In an automated procedure for stereoscopic mapping, reasoning is always needed when insufficient information due to occlusions, shadows, or indistinctness of image features is encountered. In order to alleviate the influence of the information insufficiency, it is common to include more geometric or spectral data source to assist the reconstruction for 3-D man-made buildings.
Considering the improvement of geometric information, this investigation uses aerial quadruplets with 60% overlap in two perpendicular directions to perform the reconstruction for man-made buildings. Two major components include (1) generation of digital surface model (DSM) by templet matching, and (2) feature extraction and processing such as image smoothing, edge detection, edge thinning, and CLR matching. Based on the blocks extraction from DSM, each potential building is extracted followed by edge detection, Hough transform to detect straight lines, line grouping, and 3-D positioning for building corners. All the stereopairs composed by 4 images are integrated in this study.
Experimental results indicate that, as compared to stereopairs quadruplets could be extracted more edge information for better 3-D building reconstruction. In addition, it is also possible to complete the gable roof when only partial edge information is available by using dual searching between image space and object space.

目 錄
中文摘要 …………………………………………..…………I
英文摘要 ………………………………………..…………...II
誌謝 ………………….….………………….………………...III
目錄 ………………………………………………….…...…...Ⅳ
圖目錄 ……………………………………………………...VII
表目錄 …………………………………………………….…XI
第一章 緒論
1-1 研究動機及目的 …………………………………………1
1-2 文獻回顧 …………………………………………………3
1-3 研究構思與方法 …………………………………………6
1-4 論文架構 …………………………………………………9
第二章 特徵萃取與影像匹配
2-1 特徵之意義 ……………………………………………..12
2-2 影像之前處理 …………………………………………..12
2-3 邊緣線偵測 ……………………………………………..14
2-4 邊緣線之細化 ……….………………………………….17
2-5 CLR匹配法 …….….………………………………….18
2-6 數值表面模型 …….….………………………………..22
第三章 人工建築物三維模型之重建
3-1 人工建築物候選區塊 …….…………………………….25
3-2 人工建築物候選直線邊界 .…………………………….25
3-3 重建人工建築物三維模型 …….……………………….30
3-3-1 直線分組 …….…………………………………..31
3-3-2屋角點物空間三維座標之計算 …..……………..32
3-4 斜頂房屋缺漏邊界之處理 …….……………………….38
第四章 實驗與成果
4-1 實驗資料簡介 …….…………………………………….42
4-2 測試例一 …….………………………………………….49
4-2-1 人工量測得到之屋角點三維座標 ………….…..49
4-2-2 邊緣線萃取成果 ………………….……….…….52
4-2-2-1 SNN-Mean Filter所得之成果 ………….52
4-2-2-2 多重解析力邊緣偵測成果 ………….....52
4-2-2-3 局部最大值追蹤邊緣細化法成果 …….53
4-2-3 以層次式影像匹配得到的成果 ………………...60
4-2-4 房屋候選區塊成果 ……………….………...…...61
4-2-5 房屋候選邊界點成果 …………….……………..62
4-2-6 人工建築物候選直線邊界成果 ………………...64
4-2-7屋角點物空間三維座標計算成果 ………….…...65
4-2-8 處理斜頂房屋缺漏邊界之成果 ……………..….70
4-3 測試例二 ………………………..………..………….….79
4-3-1 邊緣線萃取成果 ……………………………..….79
4-3-2 DSM與房屋候選區塊成果 ……….………..….80
4-3-3房屋候選邊界點成果 ……………….………..….81
4-3-4 人工建築物三維模型重建成果 ……………..….83
第五章 結論與建議 ……………………………………....87
參考文獻 …………………………………………………....89

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