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研究生:陳瑩芳
研究生(外文):Chen, Ying-Fang
論文名稱:美國政府資訊指引服務之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on U.S. Government Information Locator Service
指導教授:陳雪華陳雪華引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:圖書資訊學研究所
學門:傳播學門
學類:圖書資訊檔案學類
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:289
中文關鍵詞:政府資訊指引服務政府資訊詮釋資料Z39.50電子圖書館數位圖書館政府出版品美國
外文關鍵詞:Government Information Locator ServiceGILSMetadataElectronic LibraryDigital LibraryGovernment PublicationUnited StatesGovernment Information
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資訊的流通與提供是促成民主社會發展的基石之一,其中政府資訊是前述發展的重要環節。隨著資訊科技發展以及網路環境日漸成熟,政府資訊的數量急遽成長,類型亦多元並陳。為整合各機關及不同媒體的政府資訊,增進資訊使用的彈性,以便利民眾跨機關資訊檢索,近年美國應用詮釋資料(Metadata)及Z39.50之理念與標準,建構美國政府資訊指引服務(Government Information Locator Service;簡稱GILS)。
美國GILS的概念自1977年提出以來,歷經二十餘年的發展,系統與概念發展層面日漸成熟。其中,尤其近年來美國聯邦與各州政府陸續應用與發展前述系統,而該等經驗對我國政府資訊整合與提供極具參考價值,是以本研究即在探討美國GILS的發展經驗,期整合前項經驗做為我國未來發展類似系統的參照。
本研究採文獻分析法,主要研究目的有五:一、探討美國政府資訊指引服務之發展背景;二、分析美國政府資訊指引服務之資訊類型及組織方式;三、探討美國政府資訊指引服務之系統架構、系統功能、系統標準及工具;四、分析美國政府資訊指引服務之檢索實例;五、評論美國政府資訊指引服務,做為我國規劃政府資訊指引服務之參考。
為達成前述目的,研究者分析文獻與相關論壇資料,綜歸研究結果,提出十三項結論暨十項建議,茲分項臚列如下:
一、結論部分
(一) 美國GILS旨在有效率地管理政府資訊,並便於民眾查詢取用;
(二) 美國GILS的發展歷經四階段變遷,目前正值轉型;
(三) 部分政府機關系統發展停滯、相關論壇討論呈現減少趨勢,其發展值得進一步檢視;
(四) 美國GILS的資訊類型多元,包含紙本、電子資訊、多媒體等;
(五) 美國GILS的資訊組織係採詮釋資料的方式;
(六) 美國GILS的系統架構以Z39.50為基礎,係分散式資訊系統;
(七) 美國GILS的系統工具多樣,實作者選擇性高,工具整合成為趨勢;
(八) 政策目標不夠明確、實作欠缺協調、人力經費缺乏、部分政策規範未能與時俱進,是美國GILS發展遭遇的難題;
(九) 美國GILS的資訊類型定義劃分不夠明確;
(十) 美國GILS的資訊欄位變動與系統建置存在落差;
(十一) 美國GILS的記錄品質評估指標已具雛形,仍有待落實;
(十二) 美國GILS與其他詮釋資料的互通性可再延伸;
(十三) 十三、應用XML及MetaTag語法是美國GILS發展的趨勢。
二、建議部分
(一) 研擬發展建置我國政府資訊指引服務;
(二) 加強各國發展政府資訊指引服務經驗的引介,評估跨國經驗本土化的可能性;
(三) 從研擬先導計畫著手,發展雛形系統;
(四) 檢視我國現行法令,創造實踐環境;
(五) 採行現有標準,促使資訊互通;
(六) 結合中央、地方與產官學界,達成系統與資源共享;
(七) 以涵蓋所有類型資訊為目標,提供必要人力經費支援,研擬處理資訊類型的優先順序;
(八) 重視資訊保存的課題,研擬適當的格式與方式;
(九) 系統整體發展應重視使用者評估;
(十) 重視人員訓練,加強系統行銷。
第一章緒論
第一節問題陳述
第二節研究目的
第三節研究範圍與限制
第四節研究方法與步驟
第五節名詞解釋
註釋
第二章美國政府資訊指引服務之背景分析
第一節美國政府資訊指引服務的意義及目的
第二節美國政府資訊指引服務之發展成因
第三節美國政府資訊指引服務之發展沿革
第四節美國政府資訊指引服務之發展現況
註釋
第三章美國政府資訊指引服務之資訊分析
第一節詮釋資料的意義、類型與功能
第二節美國政府資訊指引服務之資訊類型分析
第三節美國政府資訊指引服務之資訊組織方式
第四節美國政府資訊指引服務之資訊欄位與其他詮釋資料的對照
註釋
第四章美國政府資訊指引服務之系統
第一節美國政府資訊指引服務之系統架構與功能
第二節美國政府資訊指引服務之系統標準
第三節美國政府資訊指引服務之系統工具
註釋
第五章美國政府資訊指引服務之檢索實例
第一節GILS Online via GPO ACCESS
第二節EPA GILS
第三節WAGILS-「FIND-IT!」
註釋
第六章美國政府資訊指引服務之評論
第一節美國政府資訊指引服務發展經驗之評論
第二節美國政府資訊指引服務資訊內容之評論
第三節美國政府資訊指引服務系統之評論
註釋
第七章結論與建議
第一節結論
第二節建議
第三節進一步研究之建議
註釋
參考書目
附錄:美國GILS記錄範例
一、 中文部分
(一) 圖書
吳政叡。都柏林核心集與元資料系統。台北市:漢美,民國87年。
陳雪華。圖書館與網路資源。台北市:文華,民國85年。
顏嘉惠。「特殊主題Metadata比較之研究」。天主教輔仁大學圖書館資訊學研究所,碩士論文,民國87年6月。
(二) 期刊論文
行政院。「政府出版品管理辦法」。行政院公報 4卷44期 (民國87年11月4日),頁5。
吳政叡。「三個元資料格式的比較分析」。中國圖書館學會會報57期(民國85年12月),頁35-45。
吳政叡。「目錄交換格式」。台北市立圖書館館訊14卷3期(民國86年3月),頁50-63。
吳政叡。「政府資訊指引服務」。國立中央圖書館臺灣分館館刊3卷4期(民國86年6月),頁16-31。
吳政叡。「從元資料看未來資料著錄的發展趨勢」。資訊傳播與圖書館學4卷2期(民國86年12月),頁42-51。
陳昭珍。「電子資訊的組織模式」。圖書館學刊 12期(民國86年12月),頁161-182。
陳昭珍。「政府出版品電子化格式與作業標準」。政府出版品電子化研討會論文集(民國88年3月3日),頁1-22。
陳雪華。「網路資源之組織與整理」。圖書館學刊 11期(民國85年12月),頁23-46。
陳雪華。「網路資源組織與Metadata之發展」。圖書館學刊 12期(民國86年12月),頁19-37。
陳雪華,陳昭珍,陳光華。「數位圖書館/博物館中詮釋資料之理論與實作」。圖書館學刊 13期(民國87年12月),頁41。
陳瑩芳。「各國政府出版品網路檢索現況」。研考雙月刊 23卷2期(民國88年4月),頁59-75。
莊瑞杰。「建構資料倉儲的精髓:Metadata及管理工具」。資訊與電腦(民國86年8月),頁59-61。
張世敏,「新一代的標記語XML」。網路資訊 5月號(民國87年5月),頁168-170。
張嘉彬。「Z39.50初探」。美國資訊科學學會台北學生分會會訊 10期(民國86年9月),頁20-38。
傅雅秀。「美國聯邦政府資訊政策初探」。書府 15期(民國83年6月),頁33-41。
二、英文部分
(一)圖書
Ambur, Owen. Needles in Haystacks: Getting to the Point of Federal Records with Document Metadata and Electronic Ducument Management Systems. College Park: University of Maryland, November 23, 1996 DRAFT.
Bertot, John Carlo and Charles R. McClure. Sailor Assessment Final Report: Findings and Future Sailor Development. Baltimore, MD: Division of Library Development and Services, 1996.
Chief Information Officers. Working Group. Report of the Federal CIO Working Group. Washington, DC: Federal Chief Information Officers Working Group, 1996.
Clinton, William J. and Gore, Albert Jr. Technology for America''s Growth: A New Direction to Build Economic Strength. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1993.
Commission on Federal Paperwork. The Federal Information Locator System. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1977.
Gore, Albert Jr. Report of the National Performance Review: From Red Tape to Results, Creating a Government that Works Better & Costs Less. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1993.
Government Printing Office. Helpful Hints for Searching Federal Databases Online via GPO Access. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1996.
Government Printing Office, Office of Electronic Information Dissemination Services. GPO Access Training Booklet: A Service of the Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1998.
Henderson, Jennifer J. Potholes on the Information Bridge to the 21st Century: the Second Annual OMB Watch Report on the U.S. Federal Government Information Locator Service(GILS). Washington, D.C.: OMB Watch, 1997.
Hernon, Peter, McClure, Charles R. and Harold C. Relyea. Federal Information Policies in the 1990s: Views and Perspectives. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1996.
McClure, Charles R., Bishop, Ann, Doty, Philip, and Pierrette Bergeron. Federal Information Inventory/Locator Systems: From Burden to Benefit. Final Report to the General Services Administration Regulatory Information Service Center and the Office of Management and Budget, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs. Syracuse, NY: School of Information Studies, 1990.
McClure, Charles R., Ryan, Joe and William E. Moen. Identifying and Describing Federal Information Inventory/Locator Systems: Design for Networked-based Locators. 2vols. Bethesda, MD: National Audio Visual Center, 1992.
Moen, William E. The Government Information Locator Service: Discovering, Identifying, and Accessing Spatial Data. In Geographic Information Systems and Libraries: Patrons, Maps and Spatial Information. Proceedings of the 1995 Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing, pp.41-67. Champaign-Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, School of Library and Information Science, 1995.
Moen, William E. A Guide to the ANSI/NISO Z39.50 Protocol: Information Retrieval in the Information Infrastructure. Bethesda, MD: NISO Press, 1995.
Moen, William E. and Charles R. McClure. Project Progress Report: An Evaluation of the Federal Government Implementation of the Government Information Locator Service (GILS). Denton, TX: School of Library and Information Sciences, 1997.
Moen, William E. and Charles R. McClure. Work Plan: An Evaluation of the Federal Government Implentation of the Government Information Locator Service (GILS). Denton, TX: School of Library and Information Sciences, 1996.
Moen, William E. and Charles R. McClure. The Government Information Locator Service (GILS): Expanding Research and Development on the ANSI/NISO Z39.50 Information Retrieval Standard. Final Report. Gaithersburg, MD: NISO Press, 1994.
Office of Management and Budget. Guidance on Developing a Handbook for Individuals Seeking Access to Public Information. Washington, DC: Office of Management and Budget, 1997.
(二)期刊論文
Adams, Margaret O. and Thibodeau, Sharon. G. "The Government Information Locator Service: Origins and Potential." Journal of Government Information 23(4)(1996):453-462.
Aldrich, Duncan M. "Depository Libraries, the Internet and the 21st Century." Journal of Government Information 23(4)(1996):381-391.
Andrews, Judy and Lucy Duhon. "GILS, Government Information Locator Service: Lending Old and New to Access U.S. Government Information. " The Serials Librarian 31(1/2)(1997): 327-333.
Bass, Gary D. and David Plocher. "Finding Government Information: The Federal Information Locator System (FILS)." Government Information Quarterly 8(1)(1991):11-32.
Christian, Eliot J., "The Government Information Locator Service (GILS)," Information Services and Use 16(1)(1996):25-42.
Christian, Eliot J., "Government Information Locator Service." Library Hi-Tech 13(1-2)(1995):47-48.
Christian, Eliot J., "Helping the public find Information: the U.S. Government Information Locator Service (GILS)," Journal of Government Information 21(4)(1994):305-314.
"Federal Information Technology," Executive Order 13011. Federal Register 61(140)(July 1996):37657-37662.
"GILS Conference Opens Amid Perception It Is in Trouble," Electronic Public Information Newsletter 6(11)(November 1996):75.
Maguire, Carmel, "Metadata in Australia, " Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science 24(1)(October/November 1997):18-21.
McClure, Charles R., Bishop, Ann, Doty, Philip & Pierrette Bergeron, "OMB and the Development of A Government Wide Information Inventory/Locator System," Government Information Quarterly 8(1)(1991):33-57.
McConnell, Bruce W., "New Wine in Old Wineskins: U.S. Government Information in a Networked World," Journal of Government Information 23(3)(1996): 217-225.
Okay, John and Roxanne Williams, "Interagency Workshop on Public Access: A Summary for Historical Purposes," Government Information Quarterly 10(2)(1992):237-253.
Pesachowitz, Alvin, "Interagency Conference on Public Access," Government Information Quarterly 9(2)(1992):187-198.
Phillips, Reed and Theresa Carroll, "Interagency Public Access Conference: Summary Report," Government Information Quarterly 10(4)(1993):461-476.
Plocher, David, "The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995: A Second Chance for Information Resources Management, " Government Information Quarterly 13(1)(1996):35-50.
Sprehe, J. Timothy, "U.S. Government Printing Office, No More," Journal of Government Information 23(3)(1996):281-285.
(三)網路資源
Ambur, Owen, "Needles in Haystacks: Getting to the Point of Federal Records with Document Metadata and Electronic Document Management Systems, " 1996, <http://www.erols.com/ambur/Needles.html>
"Application Profile for the Government Information Locator Service (GILS): version2, " 1997, <http://www.gils.net/prof_v2.html> (15 Nov. 1998)
"Attribute Set BIB-1 (Z39.50-1995): Semantics, " 1997, (28 Nov. 1997)
Australian Government Locator Service Working Group (AGLS WG), "Australian Government Locator Service Implementation Plan: A Report by the Australian Government Locator Service Working Group (AGLS WG), " Dec. 1997, <http://www.ogit.gov.au/implementationplan.htm> (19 Oct. 1998)
"Canadian GILS Pilot Project, ", 1996, <http://gils.gc.ca/gils/info_e.html>
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Office of Management and Budget Watch, "People and Their Governments in the Information Age: Putting Government Information Online , " 1995, <http://ombwatch.org/www/ombw/info/gils.html > (為PDF檔)
Office of Management and Budget Watch, "Potholes on the Information Bridge to the 21st Century: The Second Annual OMB Watch Report on the U.S. Federal Government Information Locator Service (GILS), " 1997, <http://ombwatch.org/www/ombw/info/gils.html > (為PDF檔)
"SGML & SML in GILS, " 1998, <http://www.gils.net/sgml_xml.html> (30 May 1998)
Stephenson, Francine, "Toward a Government Information Locator Service(GILS)for North Carolina: A Project of the Office of State Planning, " 14 Mar. 1997, <http://www.ncgils.state.nc.us/plan.html> (4 Jan. 1999)
"Topic in GILS implementation Software: Metadata Collectors, " 5 Dec. 1998, <http://www.gils.net/software.htm#metadata>
Turner, Fay, "The U.S. Government Information Locator Service (GILS): Description and Status, " Network Notes 23,1996,<http://gils.gc.ca/gils/backg_e.html>
Washington State Library, "State of Washington Government Information Locator Service: Report to the Legislature, " 1997, <http://www.wa.gov/wsl/gils/gilseval.htm> (為Word文件: gilseval.doc)
Washington State Library, "Agency Guide to Indexing Websites, " Mar. 1998, <http://www.statelib.wa.gov/info_rscrs/dbs_tools/find-it/ag_guide.htm> (14 Dec. 1998)
Washington State Library, "Washington GILS Subject Tree, " <http://www.statelib.wa.gov/info_rscrs/dbs_tools/find-it/gilstree.htm> (14 May. 1999)
Yudina, Tatyana, "Information System Russia project, " 22 Jul. 1998, (24 Jul. 1998) (為Word文件: gils-isrussia.doc)
Z39.50 Maintenance Agency, "Information Retrieval (Z39.50): Application Service Definition and Protocol Specification, " July 1995,
(四)電子論壇
ASF Forum:<http://www.cni.org/Hforums/asf/>
GILS Forum:總計1,429篇。<http://www.cni.org/Hforums/gils/>
1.1994年8月12日(五)至1994年12月21日(三),計158篇。
2.1995年1月5日(四)至1995年12月29日(五),計484篇。
3.1996年1月2日(二)至1996年12月29日(日),計396篇。
4.1997年1月3日(五)至1997年12月24日(三),計200篇。
5.1998年1月5日(一)至1998年12月31日(四),計191篇。
St-gils Forum:Majordomo@sparkie.osl.state.or.us
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