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研究生:張凱勝
研究生(外文):Chang Kai-Sheng
論文名稱:亞太安全多邊對話機制-東協區域論壇之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Mechanism of Multilateral Dialogue in Asia-Pacific Security- Research into the ASEAN Regional Forum
指導教授:林若雩林若雩引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin Juo-Yu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:東南亞研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:205
中文關鍵詞:東協東協區域論壇綜合性安全合作性安全權力真空
外文關鍵詞:ASEANASEAN Regional ForumComprehensive SecurityCooperative Securitypower vacuum
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:383
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
論文提要內容:
本文是以亞太地區第一個多邊安全對話機制-東協區域論壇為研
究對象。在問題意識上,首要釐清的是:(1)為何要成立東協區域論
壇(2)東協區域論壇之內涵為何,並由前兩者延伸出,
構成本文各章重心的九個研究架設,換言之,本文的研究重心即是解釋這些研究假設。
本文共分五章,第二章是探討東協區域論壇最根本的問題,即
是其緣起的歷史背景與因素,而歷史文獻則提供了這方面的資料。二
戰結束後,美國為執行圍堵政策,分別與東亞盟邦建立雙邊軍事關係
,期間雖有東南亞公約組織(SEATO)的多邊安全架構,但成效不彰。
在東亞各國國情複雜與其間關係的敵友不明下,美國難以將其統合
成類似北約組織(NATO),只能因地制宜的維持雙邊架構,而這也
符合東亞各國的各自需求。後冷戰時期,這樣的雙邊架構並未發生質
變,但多邊安全機制卻已開始醞釀,能否成功取決於東協國家與美國的
態度,因前者已有一東協後部長會議(ASEAN-PMC)討論安全的機
制,後者考量到多邊架構能否發揮實質功能,與其主導地位可能被取
代之疑慮。中共與日本是區域大國,其對此的態度也應予以重視。
第三章是就當前東協區域論壇的運作與發展,即其內涵作一介紹
。第二屆的概念性文件(A Concept Paper)提出東協區域論壇運作的
四原則:(一)漸步演進途徑;(二)共識原則;(三)自願原則;
(四)雙軌並行。論壇的發展分為三階段:第一階段,提昇信心建立措施;
第二階段,發展預防外交機制;第三階段,推敲解決衝突途徑。
東協區域論壇既是以區域安全為討論、對話場域,其對此之看
法便關乎論壇能否降低區域衝突的作用。亞太安全四個潛在衝突點:
台海問題、朝鮮半島問題、南海問題、柬埔寨問題。東亞金融危機則
成為檢驗論壇能否處理綜合性安全的能力,然而卻凸顯出美國於此時
的重要性。經由第四章的探討,論壇對潛在衝突的降溫仍未有所成效
,軍備競賽仍無法避免。
在研究發現上,(一)共同性安全、綜合性安全、合作性安全等
三安全概念的整合,才能有效處理區域安全的問題,這打破了單一安
全概念無法有效解釋亞太安全的侷限性;(二)亞太地區的環境與歐
洲不同,若將後者的經驗解釋前者,將會圓枘方鑿,相異地區發展所
得之理論,未必能放諸四海而皆準;(三)華爾茲的結構現實主義對
釐清美國與東協對多邊安全架構的態度,以及處理多邊與雙邊的矛盾
情節上,提供了最佳論據;(四)美國是以另一種型態駐留亞太地區,
不因撤出菲律賓的基地而產生權力真空;(五)多邊安全機制是立基
於雙邊架構之上,且兩者並存,但現今情勢是雙邊作用大於多邊,而
這正是當前亞太安全的圖像;(六)以東協國家代表東協十國對區域
事務一致的看法,實是忽略其多元分歧的特性,這是研究東南亞事務
時所應注意的;(七)東協區域論壇成員國的協調、整合、相容是論
壇發展的基礎。
至於論壇未來的發展,應朝制度化、與非東協國家的聯合主席
、強化綜合性安全與合作性安全等方面發展
Abstract
ASEAN Regional Forum(ARF) is the first multilateral security dialogue in Asia- Pacific as well as the object of this thesis. Most importantly of this thesis is to clean up the consciousness of this thesis: (1)what''s the reason to establish the ARF; (2)what''s the content of the ARF. There are nine hypotheses from former and structure the chapters and center of thesis.
There are five chapters of the thesis. Chapter tow is to probe the fundamental question: the origin of historical background and factors of the ARF. After the World War II, U.S. established the bilateral military relations in order to implement the cotainment policy. Meanwhile, the SEATO was established, a multilateral security framework, but it wouldn''t work effectively. U.S. was hardly to make up the structure like NATO in East Asia where has complex and diverse situation. To maintain the bilateral relations, it is suitable for U.S. and East Asia''s states in the changeable condition. In the post-Cold War, the bilateral relations is still the adamantine, but multilateral security structure is also run up in this time. The multilateral security framework can work or not, it depends on the position of ASEAN states and U.S. China and Japan are power states in the region, their position are also important to notice.
The chapter three is the ARF''s work and development. A Concept Paper submitted the four principles of ARF''s work: (1)gradually revolving; (2)consensus principle; (3)voluntary principle; (4)two tracks co-existence. The development stages: fist step is the promotion of confidence building measures; second step is the development of preventive diplomacy; third step is elaboration of approaches to conflicts.
There are four potential conflicts in Asia-Pacific conflicts in Asia-Pacific: Taiwan Strait tension, Korean Peninsula tension, South China Sea issue, Cambodia issue, all of them are the ARF concerned. The current East Asia Financial crisis is the opportunity to exam the function of the ARF, whether it can reduce conflicts or not? In fact, U.S. is outstanding during this time. Through the research of the chapter four, many evidences show the ARF can''t reduce the potential conflicts effectively, arm race is still growth.
Finally, we find seven points in the conclusion: (1)common security, comprehensive security, cooperative security can''t explain the Asia-Pacific security completely by individual, but they can work in integration, it is very important to researcher. (2)The environment between the Europe and Asia-Pacific is very different, so they can not explain the situations of Asia-Pacific and somewhere else form the experience and theories of Europe. (3)It is very helpful to clean up the position of ASEAN and U.S., and cope with the contradiction between the multilateral and bilateral from Kenneth N. Waltz''s neorealism. (4)There is no power vacuum since U.S. withdrew it''s troop from Philippines, the reason is the advanced technology changed the type of presentation in the Asia-Pacific. (5)Multilateral security mechanism is based on the bilateral framework, and they are co-existence. In the situation of the present, the function of bilateral is more useful than multilateral, and this is the drawing of Asia-Pacific security. (6)ASEAN states can''t delegate the whole Southeast Asia states, because there are many diversities and pluralities among them. (7)Coordination, integration. Coexistence ate the fundamental of the development of the ARF.
The future development of the ARF ., it should toward the institutionalization, co-chair jointly by non ASEAN states, strengthen comprehensive security and cooperative security.
目 錄
第一章 緒 論……………………………………………………………..1
第一節 引 言…………………………………………………………1
第二節 研究動機與目的………………………………………………4
第三節 研究理論與分析架構…………………………………………9
第四節 研究方法與限制……………………………………………..15
第五節 相關安全概念的名詞解釋…………………………………..17
第二章 東協區域論壇的緣起與主要國家的態度………………………..23
第一節 曾出現過的多邊安全架構與
東協區域論壇的成立………………………………………..24
第二節 美國的態度…………………………………………………..34
第三節 東協的態度…………………………………………………..47
第四節 中共與日本的態度…………………………………………..52
第五節 小結…………………………………………………………58
第三章 東協區域論壇當前之運作與發展……………………………….59
第一節 東協區域論壇當前之運作概況…………………………….59
第二節 東協區域論壇當前之發展階段…………………………….66
第三節 小結………………………………………………………….80
第四章 東協區域論壇對區域衝突的看法……………………………...81
第一節 台海問題…………………………………………………….81
第二節 朝鮮半島問題……………………………………………….87
第三節 南海問題…………………………………………………….92
第四節 柬埔寨問題………………………………………………….102
第五節 東亞金融危機……………………………………………….103
第六節 小結………………………………………………………….112
第五章 結 論…………………………………………………………….113
第一節 研究展望…………………………………………………….113
第二節 研究展望…………………………………………………….116
參考書目…………………………………………………………………..121
附錄一:第一屆東協區域論壇主席聲明……………………………….139
附錄二:第二屆東協區域論壇主席聲明……………………………….143
附錄三:第三屆東協區域論壇主席聲明……………………………….151
附錄四:第四屆東協區域論壇主席聲明……………………………….163
附錄五:第五屆東協區域論壇主席聲明……………………………….173
附錄六:東協區域論壇概念性文件…………………………………….187
附錄七:Summary of ARF agreed CBMs………………………………195
附錄八:ARF agreed CBMs:
Bilateral Regional Security Dialogues………………………...197
附錄九:ARF Agreed CBMs:
High Level Defence Contacts since 1995……………………..199
附錄十:ARF agreed CBMs:
Defence Training/Exchanges since 1995……………………...201
附錄十一:ARF agreed CBMs: Provision of Information……………...203
附錄十二:ARF agreed CBMs: Participation in
Global Arms Control and Disarmament Regimes…………...205
圖表目錄
圖1-1 東協區域論壇的成員國…………………………………………….7
圖1-2 東協欲以雙邊及多邊達到亞太全力平衡…………………………13
圖5-1 東協區域論壇的展………………………………………………...116
表 2-1 亞太安全體系的相關提案………………………………………...33
表 2-2 美國與亞太國家的雙邊與多邊軍事演習………………………...45
表 2-3 美國在亞太地區的軍事交往……………………………………...46
表 2-4 東南亞的主權、合法性與領土衝突……………………………...48
表 3-1 東協區域論壇的會議與活動(1994-1999)……………………..64
表 3-2 曾於東協區域論壇舉行期間討論的主題………………………...65
表 3-3 東協區域論壇之成員同意新加入論壇之標準…………………...66
表 3-4 東協區域論壇信心建立措施輔助小組(ISG)
召開的時間及地點………………………………………………..72
表 3-5 東協區域論壇成員國執行各項信心建立措施項目摘要………...76
表 4-1 新防衛指針達成之美日安保相關事項之演進…………………...91
表 4-2 中國人民解放軍海軍配有艦載直昇機之水面艦………………...97
表4-3 南沙群島爭議之時間序列……………………………………….. 101
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劉必榮,1995,〈後冷戰時期東南亞政治秩序〉,《東吳大學政治學報》, 第4期。
鄭端耀,1997,〈國際關係『新自由制度主義』理論之分析〉,《問題與研究》,第36卷 第12期。
羅致政,1997,〈美國擴展民主戰略的理論與實踐〉,《台灣政治學刊》, 第2期。
羅致政,1996,〈台灣安全多邊化戰略〉,《問題與研究》,第35卷 第9期。
(三)報紙
中國時報
聯合報
自立早報
自由時報
聯合早報
明報
(四)學位論文
張國城,民國85年。《後冷戰時期中共擴張海權之研究》。台北:台灣大學三民主義研究所碩士論文。
二、英文部份
(一)專書
Acharya, Amitav and Richard Stubbs (ed.). 1995. New Challenges for ASEAN Emerging Policy Issues. Canada: University of British Columbia Press.
…………. . 1995. New Challenges for ASEAN. Canada: University of British Columbia Press.
Antolik, Michael. 1990. ASEAN and the Diplomacy of Accommodation. New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc.
Asmus, Ronald D. 1994. The New U.S. Strategic Debate. U.S.: RAND.
Austin, Grer. 1998. China''s Ocean Frontier: International Law, Military Force and National Development. Canberra: Allen & Unwin Australia Pty Ltd.
Babbage, Ross. and Sam Bateman (ed.). 1993. Maritime Change: Issues for Asia. Canberra: Allen & Unwin Australia Pty Ltd.
Baldwin, David A.(ed.). 1993. Neorealism and Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate. New York: Columbia University Press.
Ball, Desmond. and Pauline Kerr. 1996. Presumptive Engagement: Australia''s Asia─Pacific Security Policy in 1990s. Canberra: Allen & Unwin Australia Pty Ltd.
Ball, Desmond. 1995. Developments Signals Intelligence and Electronic Warfare in Southeast Asia. Canberra: Australian National University.
Bennett, A. LeRoy. 1995. International Organizations Principles and Issues. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Buszynski, Leszek. 1983. S.E.A.T.O.: The Failure of an Alliance Strategy. Singapore : National University of Singapore.
Butfoy, Andy. 1995. Recasting Common Security. Working Paper No. 1995/8. Canberra: National Library of Australia.
Carter, Ashton., William J. Perry and John D. Steinbruner. 1992. A New Concept of Cooperative Security. Washington, D.C.: The Booking Institution.
Clark, Ian. 1989. The Hierarchy of States: Reform and Resistance in the International Order. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Claude , Inis L. Jr. 1964. Swords Into Plowshares: The Problems and progress of International Organization. New York: Random House.
Chalmers, Malcolm. 1996. Confidence-Building in South-East Asia. Boulder: Westview Press
Chen, Min. 1992. The strategic Triangle and Regional Conflicts: Lessons From the Indochina Wars. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers,Inc.
Chia Siow Yue (ed.). 1997. APEC Challenges and Opportunities. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press.
Craig, Gordon A. and Francis L. Loewenheim (ed.). 1994. The Diplomats: 1939~1979. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Cossa, Ralph A. (ed.). 1995. Asia Pacific Confidence and Security Building Measures. Washington, D.C.: The Center for Strategic and International Studies(CSIS).
Cunha, da Cerek (ed.). 1996. The Evolving Pacific Power Structure. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies(ISEAS).
Desjardins, Marie-France. 1996. Rethinking Confidence-Building Measures. London: The International Institute for Strategic Studies.
Everett, Michael W and Mary A. Sommerville (ed.). Multilateral Activities in South East Asia. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press.
Ellings, Richard J and Sheldon W. Simon (ed.). 1996. Southeast Asian Security in the New Millennium. U.S.: The National Bureau of Asian Research.
Frankel, Benjamin (ed.). 1996. Roots of Realism. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd.
Fukuyama, Francis and Kongdan Oh. 1993. The U.S.-Japan Security Relationship After the Cold War. U.S.: RAND.
Funabashi, Yoichi, Michel Oksenberg and Heinrich Weiss. 1994. An Emerging China in A World of Interdependence. New York/Paris/Tokyo: The Trilateral Commission.
Gelman, Harry. 1993. Russo-Japanese Relations and The Future of the U.S.-Japanese Alliance. U.S.: RAND.
Goodman David S.G. and Gerald Segal (ed.). 1996. China Rising: Nationalism and Interdependence. London : Routledge.
Goodman, David S.G. 1994. Deng Xiapoing and the Chinese Revolution. London : Routledge.
Gill, Bates. and J.N. Mak (ed.). 1997. Arms, Transparency and Security in South-East Asia. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hamzah, B.A (ed.). 1992. Southeast Asia and Regional Peace: A Study of the Southeast Asia Concept of Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality (Zopfan). Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Strategic and International Studies( ISIS). Malaysia.
Hass, Mohamed Jawhar and Thangam Ramnath (ed.). 1996. Conceptualising Asia-Pacific Security. Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Strategic and International Studies( ISIS) Malaysia.
Hickey, Dennis Van Vranken. 1997. Taiwan''s Security in the Changing International System. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers,Inc.
Hsiung , James C (ed.).1993. Asia Pacific in the New World Politics. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.
Jeshurn, Chandran. (ed.). 1993. China, India, Japan and the Security of southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies(ISEAS)
Krepon, Michael and Amit Sevak (ed.). 1995. Crisis Prevention, Confidence Building, and Reconciliation in South Asia. New York: St. Martin''s Press.
Katzenstein , Peter J and Nobuo Okawara. 1993. Japan''s National Security Structures, Norms and Policy Responses in a Changing World. New York: Cornell University East Asia Program Press.
Keohane, Robert O. 1989. International Institutions and State Power Essays in International Relations Theory. Boulder/ Sa Fran cisco/London:Westview press.
………… . 1986. Neorealism and Its Critics. New York: Columbia University Press.
Kihl, Young Whan and Peter Hays (ed.). Peace and Security in Northeast Asia The Nuclear Issue and the Korean Peninsula. New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc.
King, Peter. and Yoichi Kibata (ed.). 1996. Peace Building in the Asia Pacific Region. Canberra: Allen & Unwin Australia Pty Ltd.
Koh, Tommy T.B. 1995. The United States and East Asia: Conflict and co-operation. Singapore: Times Academic Press.
Lau, Teik Soon. and Lee Lai To (ed.). 1988. The Security for the Sea Lanes in the Asia-Pacific Region. Singapore: Heinemann Publishers Asia Pte Ltd.
Liao, Kuang-sheng (ed.). 1993. The New International Order in East Asia. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies.
Leifer, Michael. 1989. ASEAN and the Security of South-East Asia. London: Routledge.
…… . 1996. The ASEAN Regional Forum. London: The International Institute for Strategic Studies.
Lilley, James R. and Chuck Downs (ed.). 1997. Crisis in the Taiwan Strait. Washington, D.C.: National Defense University.
Lowry, Robert. 1996 The Armed Forces of Indonesia. Canberra: Allen & Unwin Australia Pty Ltd.
Lu, Ning. 1995. Flashpoint Spratlys! Singapore: Dolphin Trade Press Pte Ltd.
Mack,Andrew (ed.). 1993. Asian Flashpoint: Security and Korean Peninsula. Canberra: Allen &Unwin Australia Pty Ltd.
….. . 1993. Concepts of Security in The Post-Cold War. Working Paper 1993/8. Canberra: National Library of Australia.
Mastny, Vojtech. 1986. Helsinki, Human Right, and European Security: Analysis and Documentation. Durham: Duke University Press.
Maull, Hanns., Gerald Segal and Jusuf Wanandi (ed.). 1998. Europe and the Asia pacific. London : Routledge.
Mcdougall, Derek. 1997. The International of the New Asia Pacific. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers,Inc.
Morrison, Charles E (ed.). 1997. Asia Pacific Security Outlook 1997. Honolulu, Hawaii: East-West Center.
Nixon, Richard. 1983. Real Peace. Boston: Little and Brown Company.
O''Neill, Robert. 1992. Security Challenges for Southeast Asia After the Cold War. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies(ISEAS).
Palme, Olaf et al. 1982. Commonity Security: A Blueprint for Survival. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Pollack, Jonathan D. and Young Koo Cha. 1995. A New Alliance for the Next Century. U.S.: RAND.
Shambaugh, David. and Richard H. Yang (ed.). 1997. China''s Military in Transition. New York: Oxford University Press.
Soesastro, Hadi and Anthony Bergin (ed.). 1996. The Role of Security and Economic Cooperation Structures in the Asia Pacific Region Indonesian and Australian Views. Jakarta, Indonesia: Center for Strategic and International Studies(CSIS).
Swaine, Michael D. 1998. The Role Of the Chinese Military in National Security Policymaking. U.S.: RAND
Tan, Gerald. 1996. ASEAN Economic Development and Co-operation. Singapore: Time Academic Press.,
Thaib, Dr Lukman. 1997. The Politics and Governments of South East Asia. Kuala Lumpur: Golden Books Center Sdn.Bhd.
Vatikiotis, Michael R.J. 1996. Political Change in Southeast Asia. London : Routledge.
Waltz, Kenneth N. 1979. The Theory of International Politics. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Wanandi, Jusuf (ed.). 1996. Regional Security Arrangements Indonesian and Canadian Views. Jakarta, Indonesia: Center for Strategic and International Studies(CSIS).
Weiss, Thomas G. (ed.). 1993. Collective Security in a Changing world: A World Peace Foundation Study. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.
Wong, Anny. 1991. Japan''s Comprehensive National Security Strategy and Its Economic Cooperation With the ASEAN Countries. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies.
Yergin, Daniel. 1977. Shattered Peace: The Origins of the Cold War and National Security State. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
The United States Security Strategy for the East Asia-Pacific Region 1995. Washington D.C.: Pentagon.
The United States Security Strategy for the East Asia-Pacific Region 1998. Washington D.C.: Pentagon.
(二)期刊
Acharya, Amitav. Aug/Sep 1987. "The Asia-Pacific region: cockpit for superpower rivalry," World Today, Vol. 43, p.155.
Andrew Mack. Summer 1992. "Security Cooperation in Northeast Asia: Problems and Prospects," Journal of Northeast Asian Studies, p. 22.
Antolik, Michael. September 1994. "The ASEAN Regional Forum: The Spirit of Constructive Engagement," Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp.117-120.
Awanohara, Susumu. April 15, 1993. "Group Therapy," Far Eastern Economic Review, p.11.
Baker, James A. III. Winter 1991/92. "America in Asia: Emerging Architecture for A Pacific Community," Foreign Affairs, Vol. 70, No. 5, pp.4-13.
Busse, Nikolas. 1999. "Constructivism and Southeast Asian Security," The Pacific Review, Vol.12, No.1, pp.39-60.
Christensen, Thomas J. Spring 1999. "China. The U.S.-Japan Alliance, and the Security Dilemma in East Asia," International Security, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp.49-60.
Dewitt, David. 1994. "Common, Comprehensive, and Cooperative Security," The Pacific Review, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp.1-15
Evans, Gareth. Fall 1994. "Cooperative Security and Intrastate Conflict," Foreign policy, No. 96, p.7.
Evans, Paul M. 1994. "Building Security: The Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific(CSCAP)," The Pacific Review, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp.125-127.
Garofano, John. April 1999. "Flexibility or Irrelevance: Ways Forward for the ARF," Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp.74-94.
Gregson, W.C. and Bruce Lemkin. April 1999. "A Snapshot of Pyongyang," Proceeding, US Naval Institute, , p.52.
Harding, Harry. Fall 1994. "Prospects for Cooperative Security Arrangements in the Asia-Pacific Region," Journal of Northeast Asian Studies, Vol. 13, No.3, pp.31-41.
Hong, Soon-young. May/June, 1999. "Thawing Korea''s Cold War The Path to Peace on the Korean Peninsula," Foreign Affairs, Vol.78,No.3, p.9.
Kazuhisa, Ogawa. July-September 1999. "Substantive Debate Needed on Defense Partnership," Japan Quarterly, Vol.46, No. 3, P.17.
K.Betts, Richard. Winter1994/94."Wealth, Power, and Instability East Asia and the United States after the Cold War," International Security, Vol.18, No.3, p.35.
Leifer, Michael. 1999. "The ASEAN Peace Process: A Category Mistake," The Pacific Review, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp.25-38.
Lim, Robyn, "The ASEAN Regional Forum: Building on Sand," Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp.126-133.
Mack, Andrew. Summer 1992. "Security Cooperation in Northeast Asia: Problems and Prospects," Journal of Northeast Asian Studies, Vol.12, pp.21-22.
……… and Pauline Kerr. Winter 1995. "The Evolving Security Discourse in theh Asia-Pacific," The Washington Quaterly, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp.124-125.
Moller,Kay. March 1996. "East Asian Security: Lessons from Europe?", Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol.17, No.4, p360.
Narine, Shaun. October 1997. "ASEAN and ARF The Limits of the ''ASEAN Way''," Asian Survey, Vol.XXXVII, No. 10, pp963-964.
Nossov, Mikhail G. March 1989. "The USSR and The Security of The Asia-Pacific Region From Vladivostok to Krasnoyarsk," Asian Survey, Vol. XXIX, No. 3, p. 253.
Przystup, James J. 1998 "U.S. Interests in The Asia-Pacific Region," ISSUES ''98: The Candidate''s Briefing Book, p. 493.
Robertson, Brian. March1996. "Security Cooperation in Asia-Pacific", Proceedings, US Naval Institute, pp.66-67.
Rosenberg, David. April 1999. "Environmental Pollution Around the South China Sea: Developing A Regional Response," Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 21, No. 1, p.128.
Storey, Ian James. April 1999. "Creeping Assertiveness: China, the Philippines and the South China Sea Dispute," Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp.95-118.
Wanandi, Jusuf. July 31, 1998. "Boost ARF-and Security The Forum Needs Real Programs, Preventive Diplomacy," Asiaweek, p.59.
Yasuhiko, Yoshida. January-March 1999. "Pyongyang''s Airborne Threat to Improved Diplomatic Ties," Japan Quarterly, Vol.46, No.1, p.10.
(三)報紙
Los Angeles Times
Philippine Daily Inquirer
Philippine Star
The Straits Times
The Nation
The Manila Times
The New York Times
Washington Post
三、日文部份
(一) 期刊
宇垣 大成,1999年3月,〈特殊潛水艇侵入事件 緊迫 北朝鮮情勢〉,《世界 艦船》,頁一○四。
川村純彥,1996年8月,〈南支那海 1996〉,《世界 艦船》,頁七十七。
〈中國軍艦 現勢〉,1999年3月,《世界 艦船》,頁二十八~三十四。
日野 景一,1997年12月〈日米防衛協力 正適合意振 〉,《世界 艦船》,頁一一○。
(二)報紙
日本讀賣新聞
日本朝日新聞
四、有關東協及東協區域論壇的相關網站
http://www.dfat.gov.au/arf
http://www.asean.or.id/
http://www.csis.org/
http://www.stimson.org/
http://www.icg.org/intelweb/pacific.html
http://hantilus.org/napsnet/index.html
http://coombs.aus.edu.au/Depts/RSPAS/AUSCSCAP/Auscscap.html
http://sipri.se/
http://www.isn.ethz.ch/iiss/news497.htm#6
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