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研究生:練竑初
研究生(外文):Lien, Hung-Chu
論文名稱:閾下刺激之單純曝光效果研究
論文名稱(外文):The study of mere exposure effect with subliminal stimulus
指導教授:陳學志陳學志引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Hsuen-Chih
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:心理學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:閾下曝光效果單純曝光效果閾下刺激無意識認知
外文關鍵詞:subliminal exposure effectmere exposure effectsubliminal stimuliunconscious cognition
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自從Zajonc(1968)的研究問世以來,單純曝光效果在社會認知方面就成為重要的研究課題。隨著刺激曝光的次數增加,人們對於刺激的熟悉度與喜好度也會跟著提升,從許多方面來看,這都可以算是一個有趣又值得研究的方向。而閾下曝光效果就位於單純曝光效果與無意識認知的交會處,在Kunst-Wilson與Zajonc(1980)之後,這方面的研究更是令人感到不可思議,人們竟然會對無法意識到的刺激,做出和意識層次相同的反應,這類的研究成果撼動著訊息處理理論的深厚根基。而現今關於閾下曝光效果的研究,對於閾下曝光效果的形成歷程並不清楚,學者們嘗試對閾下曝光效果提出多種解釋:Birnbaum與Mellers(1979b)提出了「主觀認知單因子模式」,認為當觀看了重複呈現的刺激後,會形成一種主觀認知來影響受試者對刺激的喜好度與熟悉度的判斷。Morelandm與Zajonc(1977)認為單因子模式並不足以解釋曝光效應的形成機制,因而提出了「二因子模式」,一為主觀感情,另一為主觀認知,此兩者影響了受試者對喜好度、熟悉度的評量。當刺激呈現的強度微弱時,刺激重複曝光後容易形成主觀情感;刺激呈現的強度較強時,刺激重複曝光後,則兩條途徑都會受到影響而形成主觀情感與主觀認知。然而Seamon、Brody與Kauff(1983a, 1983b)重新驗證了Kunst-Wilson與Zajonc(1980)的研究,卻提出另一個「熟悉度中介變項理論」,認為刺激的熟悉度與刺激的連結提取,都會影響到受試者對於刺激的記憶。面對上述三個競爭性的理論,本研究試圖尋找真正符合閾下曝光效果之理論模式。此外,本研究主要的方向,還包括對閾下曝光效果的深入探討:第一、以動態影片的呈現方式來重新驗證Kunst-Wilson與Zajonc(1980)所提出之「閾下曝光效果」;第二、深入研究其他變項對於「閾下曝光效果」的影響歷程。在本研究中也試圖操弄一些變項,這些變項是過去在閾下曝光效果方面沒有經過驗證的,甚至在單純曝光效果方面,也只有一些文獻曾經做過類似的研究。這些操弄變項包括刺激呈現的情境、刺激呈現的位置以及刺激的喜好度。藉由這兩個目的,希望能使我們對於閾下知覺有更深一層的瞭解,進而對無意識認知有更寬廣的認識。本研究總共進行了四個實驗來檢驗與驗證筆者所提出的假設。在實驗一中,操弄的獨變項為是否在動態影片中穿插閾下刺激圖片。結果發現,在動態影片中穿插閾下刺激是可以引發閾下曝光效果的,而「熟悉度中介變項理論」是較符合閾下曝光效果的形成歷程的。在實驗二中,操弄的獨變項為是否在動態影片中穿插閾下刺激圖片,以及動態影片之情緒性,從結果中發現,動態影片之情緒性會左右閾下曝光效果:在觀看不同情緒性的影片之後,受試者會產生相對應的情緒感受。在實驗三中,操弄的獨變項為穿插閾下刺激圖片之呈現位置,從結果發現,閾下刺激呈現的位置會影響閾下曝光效果:當刺激呈現在影片畫格右半邊時才能引發閾下曝光效果,左半邊則否。在實驗四中,操弄的獨變項為是否在動態影片中穿插閾下刺激圖片,以及穿插閾下臉孔圖片之喜好度,從結果發現,閾下刺激喜好度可能會影響閾下單純曝光效果。
Since Zajonc (1968) raised his research, mere exposure effect has become an important issue in social cognition. With the increase on the times of the stimuli exposing, the familiarity and favorite of stimuli also raised. In many aspects, this can be an interesting and worth-studying orientation. Nowadays, we don’t know much about the forming process of subliminal exposure effect, and researchers tried to submit various explanations about this effect. Birnbaum and Mellers (1979b) has raised subjective cognition one-factor model. They suggested that after looking at repeated-displaying stimuli, subjects would form a subjective cognition, which can affect their judgment in the favorite and familiarity of the stimuli. Morelandm and Zajonc (1977) suggested that one-factor model couldn’t explain the forming mechanism of exposure effect, thus they raised two-factor model, one is subjective affection, and the other is subjective cognition. Both this two affects what subjects judge in familiarity and favorite. However, when Seamon, Brody and Kauff (1983a, 1983b) examined the research of Kunst-Wilson and Zajonc (1980), they raised familiarity mediate theory.
Faced with three competitive theories, this study tries to seek for the true model which corresponds to the subliminal exposure effect. Besides, this study tries to discuss in two orientations. First, we try to use moving film to review the subliminal exposure effect. In this study, we also try to manipulate some variable concluding the situation which the stimuli present, the position which the stimuli present and the favorite of stimuli. We hope that we can have further understanding about subliminal perception by means of these two purposes. Furthermore, we can have profound about unconsciousness. In this research, we have four experiments to examine our hypothesis. In experiment Ⅰ, we found that moving film can stimulate subliminal exposure effect, and familiarity mediate theory is much more in correspond to the forming process of subliminal exposure effect. In experiment Ⅱ ,we found that the emotion of moving film can affect the subliminal exposure effect. In experiment Ⅲ, we found that the position which the subliminal stimuli presents would affect the subliminal exposure effect. In experiment Ⅳ, we found the favorite of subliminal stimuli can possibly affect the subliminal mere exposure effect .
目錄
緒論……………………………………………………………………………………1
意識的功能…………………………………………………………………………1
有限的意識…………………………………………………………………………4
意識的分離…………………………………………………………………………6
無意識認知………………………………………………………..………………11
無意識知覺………………………………………………………..………………22
單純曝光效果探討………………………………………………..………………28
閾下曝光效果探討………………………………………………..………………38
研究目的………………………………………………………..…………………46
實驗一………………………………………………………………………………..51
實驗方法………………………………………………………..…………………52
實驗設計……………………………………………………..…………………52
儀器與實驗材料………………………………………………………..………52
受試者………………………………………………………..…………………57
實驗程序………………………………………………………..………………57
問卷內容………………………………………………………..………………57
結果與討論………………………………………………………..………………58
閾下刺激操弄檢核………………………………………………………..……58
熟悉度評定之獨立樣本T檢定………………………………………………..59
喜好度評定之獨立樣本T檢定………………………………………………..60
實驗二………………………………………………………………………………..64
實驗方法………………………………………………………..…………………65
實驗設計………………………………………………………..………………65
儀器與實驗材料………………………………………………………..………65
受試者………………………………………………………..…………………67
實驗程序………………………………………………………..………………67
問卷內容………………………………………………………..………………68
結果與討論………………………………………………………..………………69
閾下刺激操弄檢核………………………………………………………..……69
情緒操弄檢核………………………………………………………..…………71
熟悉度評定之獨立樣本二因子變異數分析…………………………………..72
喜好度評定之獨立樣本二因子變異數分析…………………………………..76
實驗三………………………………………………………………………………..83
實驗方法………………………………………………………..…………………83
實驗設計………………………………………………………..………………83
儀器與實驗材料………………………………………………………..………84
受試者………………………………………………………..…………………85
實驗程序………………………………………………………..………………85
問卷內容………………………………………………………..………………85
結果與討論………………………………………………………..………………86
閾下刺激操弄檢核………………………………………………………..……86
熟悉度評定之事前比較………………………………………………………..86
喜好度評定之事前比較………………………………………………………..89
實驗四………………………………………………………………………………..93
實驗方法………………………………………………………..…………………93
實驗設計……………………………………………………….………93
儀器與實驗材料………………………………………………………..………94
受試者………………………………………………………..………………....96
實驗程序………………………………………………………..……………....96
問卷內容………………………………………………………..……………...97
結果與討論………………………………………………………...……………...97
閾下刺激操弄檢核……………………………………………………...……...97
熟悉度評定之獨立樣本二因子變異數分析……………………………….…98
喜好度評定之獨立樣本二因子變異數分析…………………………………100
綜合討論……………………………………………………………………………104
限制與檢討………………………………………………………………………108
未來研究可能之方向……………………………………………………………109
結語………………………………………………………………………………111
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………113
附錄一……………………………………………………………………………127
附錄二……………………………………………………………………………129
附錄三……………………………………………………………………………132
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