
REFERENCES [1]J. B. Keller, "Geometrical Theory of Diffraction," Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 52, pp. 116130, February 1962 [2]R. G. Kouyoumjian and P. H. Pathak, "A Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction for an Edge in a Perfectly Conducting Surface," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 62, pp. 14481461, Nov. 1974. [3] D. C. Hogg and T. S. Chu, "The role of rain satellite communications," proceeding of the IEEE, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 13081331, 1975. [4] J. W. Ryde, "Attenuation of centimetre and millimetre wave by rain, hail, fog, and clouds," Rep. 8670, General Electric Co. Res. Lab., Wembley, England, 1945. [5] H. E. Bussey, "Microwave attenuation statistics estimated from rainfall and water vapor statistics," Proc. IRE, Vol. 38, pp. 781785, 1950. [6] T. Oguchi, "Attenuation of electromagnetic wave due to rain with distorted raindrops," J. Radio Res. Lab., Vol. 7, pp. 467485, 1960. [7] R. G. Medhurst, "Rainfall Attenuation of Centimeter Waves: comparison of theory and measurement," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. AP13, pp. 550564, July 1965. [8] D. T. Thomas, "Crosspolarization distortion in microwave radio transmission due to rain," Radio Sci., Vol. 6, No. 10, pp. 833839, 1971. [9] T. Oguchi, "Attenuation and phase rotation due to rain : Calculation at 19.3 and 34.8 GHz," Radio Sci., Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 3138, 1973. [10] J. A. Morrison and M. J. Cross, "Scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by axisymmetric raindrops," Bell Syst. Tech. J., Vol. 53, pp. 9551019, JulyAug. 1974. [11] C. Warner and A. Hizal, "Scattering and depolarization of microwave by spheroidal raindrops," Radio Sci., Vol. 11, No. 11, pp. 921930, 1976. [12] M. A. Morgan, " Finite element computation of microwave scattering by raindrops," Radio Sci., Vol.15, No. 6, pp. 11091119, 1980. [13] T. Oguchi, "Scattering from hydrometeors: A survey," Radio Sci., Vol. 16, pp. 691730, 1981. [14] T. Oguchi, "Electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering in rain and other hydrometeors," IEEE Proc., Vol. 71, pp. 10291078, 1983 [15] T. S. Yeo, P. S. Kooi, and M. S. Leong, " A TwoYear measurement of rainfall attenuation of CW microwaves in Singapore," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 41, No. 6, pp. 709712, 1993. [16] S. O. Ajose, M. N. O. Sadiku, and U. Goni, "Computation of attenuation, phase rotation, and crosspolarization of radio waves due to rainfall in tropical regions," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 15, Jan. 1995. [17] L. W. Li, P. S. Kooi, M. S. Leong, T. S. Yeo, and M. Z. Gao, "Microwave attenuation by realistically distorted raindrops : Part I  Theory," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 43, No. 8, pp. 811821, 1995. [18] L. W. Li, P. S. Kooi, M. S. Leong, T. S. Yeo, and M. Z. Gao, "Microwave attenuation by realistically distorted raindrops : Part II  Predictions," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 43, No. 8, pp. 821828, 1995. [19] R. K. Crane, Electromagnetic wave propagation through rain, New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc. 1996. [20] J. W. Ryde, “Echo intensity and attenuation due to clouds, rain, sand, and duststoms at centimetre wavelengths,” Rep. 7831, General Electric Co. Research Labs., Wembley, England, Oct. 1941. [21] J. W. Ryde and D. Ryde, “Attenuation of centimetre waves by rain, hail, and clouds,” Rep. 8516, General Electric Co. Research Labs., Wembley, England, Oct. 1944. [22] G. Mie, “Beitrüge zur Optik trüber Medien, Speziell Kolloidaler Metallosungen,” Ann. Der phys., Vol. 25, pp. 377445, Mar. 1908. [23]T. Oguchi, "Attenuation of electromagnetic wave due to raindrops (Part II)," J. Radio Res. Labs. Vol. 11, pp. 1944, 1964. [24]A. R. Holt, N. K. Uzunoglu, and B. G. Evans, “An integral Solution to Scattering of Electromagnetic radiation by dielectric spheroids and ellipsoids,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propag., Vol. AP26, No. 5, Sep. 1978. [25]P. C. Waterman, “Matrix formulation of electromagnetic scattering,” Proc. IEEE., Vol. 53, No. 8, pp. 805812, 1965. [26]S. K. Chang and K. K. Mie, “Application of the Unimoment method to electromagnetic scattering of dielectric cylinders,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 3542, 1976. [27]D. J. Fang, and F. J. Lee, “Tabulations of raindrop induced forward and backward scattering amplitudes,” COMSAT Tech. Rev., Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 455486, 1978. [28]K. K. Mie, “Unimoment method of solving antenna and scattering problems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 22, No. 6, pp. 760766, 1974. [29]L. W. Li, P. S. Kooi, M. S. Leong, and T. S. Yeo, "On the simplified expression of realistic raindrop shapes," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 201205, 1994. [30]A. R. Cherrette, S. W. Lee and R. J. Acosta, "A Method for Producing a Shape Contoured Radiation Pattern using a Single Reflector and a Single Feed," IEEE Trans. Ant. Propagat., Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 698706, June 1989. [31]J. Michael Johnson and Yahya RahmatSamii, "Genetic Algorithms in Engineering Electromagnetic," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 725 [32]M. Kline and I. Kay, Electromagetic Theory and Geometrical Optics, Wiley Interscience, New York, 1965. [33]Roger F. Harrington, "Time Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields," McGrawHill, Inc. New York, 1961. [34]R. F. Harrington, Field Computation by Moment Method, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1968. [35]R. J. Marhefka, "NEC  basic scattering code, user’s manual (version 3.2)," Final Report 7184224, The Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Dec. 1990. Prepared under Contract No.. N6053085C0249 for Naval Weapons Center. [36]W. D. Burnside, J. J. Kim, B. Grandchamp, R. G. Rojas and P. Law, "Airborne Antenna Radiation Pattern Code User’s Manual" Technical Report 7161994, Sep. 1985. [37]P.R. Foster, "Recent Enhancements to ALDAS V3.00", ACES97, Monterey, CA. [38]Tatsou Itoh, "Numerical Techniques for Microwave and MillimeterWave Passive Structures," John Wiley and Sons Inc. [39]Karls Kunz And Raymond J. Luebbers, "The Finite Difference Time Domain Method for Electromagnetics," CRC Press, Inc. 1993 [40]G. A. Deschamps, "Ray Techniques in Electromagnetics," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 60, Sept. 1972. [41]R. G. Kouyoumjian, and P. H. Pathak, "A Uniform GTD Approach to EM Scattering and Radiation, " in Acoustic, Electromagnetic and Elastic Wave ScatteringHigh and Low Frequency Asymptotics, Vol. 2,edited by Varadan and Varadan, North Holland Publishers, 1986 [42]P. H. Pathak, Nan Wang and W. D. Burnside and R. G. Kouyoumjian, "A Uniform GTD solution for the radiation from sources on a convex surface," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagat., Vol.Ap29, no. 4, pp. 609622, July 1981 [43]P. H. Pathak and R. G. Kouyoumjian, "An analysis of the Radiation from Apertures in Curved Surfaces by the Geometry Theory of Diffraction," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 62, No. 11, pp. 14381447, November 1974. [44]P. H. Pathak, "Techniques for high frequency problems," Ch. 4 in Antenna Handbook  Theory, Application, and Design, Y. T. Lo and S. W. Lee, Eds. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988. [45]S. K. Jeng, “Nearfield scattering by physical theory of diffraction and shooting and bouncing rays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 37, pp. 194205, Feb. 1989. [46]H. Ling, RC. Chou and S. W. Lee, "Shooting and Bouncing Rays: Calculating RCS of an Arbitrary Cavity," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol.37, pp. 194205, February 1989. [47]S. W. Lee, RC. Chou, and H. Ling, "SBRI:Computer Code for Calaulating RCS of an Sinlet," University of Illinois, Urbana, IL., August 1988. [48]R. J. Burkholder, "HighFrequency Asymptotic Methods for Analyzing the EM Scattering by OpenEnded Waveguide Cavities," Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, June 1989. [49]P. H. Pathak and R. J. Burkholder and RC Chou, "Some Extensions to the GRE Analysis of EM Scattering by NonUniform Open Waveguide Cavities," Report 7196305, The Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory, December 1991. [50]P. H. Pathak, "An Equivalent Magnetic Point Current Source for Far Zone Fields of an Aperture in a PEC Surface Which is Convexly Curved,", Class Notes, The Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory, December 1995 [51] HsiTseng Chou, "Development of Gaussian Ray Basis Elements for Efficient GRE Analysis of EM Backscatter from Open Cavity," Master Thesis, The Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory, 1993. [52] Pelton, E. L., R. J. Marhefka and W. D. Burnside, "An Iterative Approach for Computing an Antenna Aperture Distribution from Given Radiation Pattern Data," Tech. Report (78) 4586, ElctroScience Lab., The Ohio State University [53] Mantz, J. R. and R. F. Harrington, "Computational Method for Antenna Pattern Synthesis," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propagation, Vol.23, No. 4, pp. 507512, July 1975. [54] R. J. Burkholder, P. H. Pathak and G. Zogbi, "Efficient Planar Antenna Near Field Analysis using Gaussian Aperture Elements," Report 7255211, The Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory, October 1992 [55] J. J. Maciel and L. B. Felson, "Systematic Study f Fields Due to Extended Aperture by Gaussian Beam Discretization," IEEE Tans. on Antennas and Propagat. Vol. 37, pp. 884892, July 1989. [56] Einziger, P. D., S. Raz and M. Shapira, "Gabor Representation and Aperture Theory," Journal Opt. Soc. Am., Vol.3, pp. 508522, April 1986. [57] J. B. Keller, "Diffraction by Aperture," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 28, pp. 426444, April 1957. [58] D. R. M. Lewis, and J. Boersma, "Uniform Asymptotic Theory of Diffraction by a Plane Screen," SIAM Journal of Applied Mathematics, Vol. 16, pp. 783807, 1968. [59] A. K. Bhattacharyya and D. L. Sengupta, Radar Cross Section Analysis and Control, Arteh House, Norwood, MA, pp. 3638, 1991. [60] A. K. Bhattacharyya and D. L. Sengupta, Radar Cross Section Analysis and Control, Arteh House, Norwood, MA, pp. 5153, 1991. [61] P. Y. Ufimtsev, "Approximate Computation of the Diffraction of Plane Electromagetic Wave at Certain Metal Bodies," Sov. Phys., Tech. Phys., pp. 17081718, 1957. [62] P. Y. Ufimtsev, "Method of Edge Waves in Physical Theory of Diffraction," translated by U. S. Airforce Foreign Tech. Divn., WrightPatterson AFB, OH, Sept. 1971. [63] R. Mittra, Y. Rahmat Sammi, and W. L. Ko," The Spectral Theory of Diffraction," Applied Physics, Vol. 10, pp. 113, 1976. [64] G. J. Burke, and A. J. Poggi, "Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC)  Method of Moment,, " NOSC/TD 116, Naval Ocean System Center, San Diego, California, 1977. [65] J. Doble, Introduction to radio propagation for fixed and Mobil communications, Boston, Artech House Publications, 1996. [66] G. Feldhake, "Estimating the attenuation due to combined atmospheric effects on modern earthspace paths," IEEE Antennas Propagat. Magazine, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 2634, Aug. 1997. [67] H. R. Prupacher and R. L. Pitter, "A semiempirical determination of the shape of cloud and rain drops," J. Atmos. Sci., Vol. 28, pp. 8694, 1971. [68] T. Oguchi, "Scattering properties of PruppacherandPitter from raindrops and cross polarization due to rain : Calculations at 11, 13, 19.3 and 34.8 GHz," Radio Science., Vol. 12, pp. 4151, 1977. [69] J. O. Laws and D. A. Parson, "The relation of raindropsize to intensity," Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, Vol. 24, pp. 452460, 1943. [70] M. F. Iskander, H. Y. Chen, and J. E. Penner, "Optical scattering and absorption by branched chains of aerosols," Appl. Opt. Vol. 28, No. 15, pp. 30833091, 1989. [71] H. Y. Chen and M. F. Iskender, "Light scattering and absorption by fractal agglomerates and coagulations of smoke aerosols," J. Modern Opt. Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 171181, 1990. [72] M. F. Iskender, H. Y. Chen, and J. E. Penner, "Resonance optical absorption by fractal agglomerates of smoke aerosols," Atmos. Environ., Vol. 25A. No. 11, pp. 25632569, 1991. [73] J. Van Bladel, "Some remarks on Green’s Dyadic for infinite space," IRE Trans. Antennas Propagat. Vol. AP90, pp. 563566, Nov. 1961. [74] D. E. Livesay and K. M. Chen, "Electromagnetic field induced inside arbitrarily shaped biological bodies," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., Vol. MTT22, no. 12, pp. 12731280, Dec. 1974. [75] P. S. Ray, "Broadband complex refractive indices of ice and water," Appl. Opt., Vol. 11, No. 8, pp. 18361844, 1972. [76] M. N. O. Sadiku, "Refractive index of snow at microwave frequencies," Appl. Opt., Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 572575, 1985. [77] P. C. Waterman, "Scattering by dielectric obstacles," Alta Freq., Vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 348362, 1969. [78] D. P. Lin and H. Y. Chen, " An empirical formula for the prediction of rain attenuation in frequency range 0.6100 GHz," accepted for IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Nov. 2001. [79] D. V. Rogers and R. L. Olsen, "Calculation of radiowave attenuation due to rain at frequency up to 1000GHz," Rep. 1299, Communications Res. Cen. Dept. of Commun. (Ottawa, Canada), Nov. 1976. [80] J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory, New York: McGrawHill, pp. 563573, 1941. [81] D. A. de Wolf and A. J. Zwiesler, "RayleighMie approximation for lineofsight propagation through rain at 590 GHz, " IEEE Trans.Antennas Propagat., Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 273279, Mar. 1996. [82] W. T. Barnett, "Some experimental results on 18 GHz propagation," in Conf. Rec. 1972 Nat. Telecommunication Conf., pp. 10E110E4. ( IEEE Publication 72 CHO 6015NTC ) [83] D. P. Lin and H. Y. Chen, "Volume Integral Equation Solution of EM Scattering and Absorption by raindrops in the range 0.6100 GHz,", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 494499, Mar. 2001. [84] L. H. Lafara, Computer Method for Science and Engineering, Hayden, New York, pp. 148157, 1973. [85] A. Ishimaru and J. C. Lin, "Multiple scattering effects on wave propagation through rain," in NATO/AGARD Conf. Proc. No. 107, pp. 113, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Brussels, Belgium, 1973. [86] R. L. Olsen, D. V. Rogers, and D. B. Hodge, "The relation in the calculation of rain attenuation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. AP26, No. 2, pp. 318329, Mar. 1978. [87] J. S. Marshall and W. Mck. Palmer, "The distribution of raindrops with size," J. Meteor., Vol. 5, pp. 165106, Aug. 1948. [88] J. Joss, J. C. Thams, and A. Waldvogel, "The variation of raindrop size distributions at Loearno," in Proc. Int. Conf. Cloud Physics, pp. 369373, 1968.
