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研究生:蕭霖
論文名稱:過量教育的測量模式之比較研究
指導教授:鄭同僚鄭同僚引用關係詹志禹詹志禹引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:教育學系
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:232
中文關鍵詞:過量教育人力資本薪資函數標準差模式半標準差模式眾數模式資格模式
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由於近年來高等教育迅速擴充,過量教育的疑慮逐漸浮現。本研究針對過量教育的現象,作實證的探討。
研究發現,過量教育的比例以「資格模式」最高,以「標準差模式」最低。將過量教育此一指標用於國際比較,則以「眾數模式」最為合適,「標準差模式」因統計分配的性質而較不合適。以「資格模式」與「非資格模式」相較,「非資格模式」中的「半標準差模式」與「資格模式」最為接近。
在人力資本論中的薪資函數,教育與職業不相稱的變項得以修正傳統只投入受教程度的偏差。亦即教育與職業不相稱的變項對於薪資有顯著的影響,而非以往研究之單純決定於教育程度。薪資函數在投入教育與職業不相稱的變項後,統計的解釋量增加。其次,我國的教育的報酬率不論在過量教育或是適量教育方面,均高於歐美國家,教育投資的數量仍屬合適。
在影響過量教育的機率,受到教育年數、經驗的增加、受雇於公部門,而顯著增加。而職業類別中的「專業人員」,則較之於「技術工、非技術工、體力工」在過量教育的機率顯著較少。至於學科類組的差異對過量教育機率,僅有微弱的證據支持人文類組較理工類組有過量教育的情形。
最後,「資格模式」在薪資的迴歸方程式中解釋量最小,並且與其他模式差異較大,這與適量教育與否完全由個人主觀判斷有密切關係,如果能夠參考雇主評定法或是工作分析法,將會使「資格模式」的資料更加可靠。
The phenomenon if overeducation has gradually appeared due to an expansion of higher education. This study is therefore designed to examine whether higher education has been over exceeded.
These findings of this study indicate that the Qualification Model is placed the highest ratio of overeducation while the Standard-Deviation Model is the lowest one. Compared the indicators of overeducation to international standard, Mode Model is the fittest indicator, yet, Standard-Deviation Model is not the best one because of its characteristics of normal distribution. In addition, compared Qualification Model to Non-Qualification Model, the Mean Model of Non-Qualification Model is closed to Qualification Model.
In the wage function of human capital theory, the variable of mismatch between education and occupation can be modified based on the bias of traditional view for education. In other words, the mismatch between education and occupation variable has a deep influence on wage. This finding differs from previous studies; wage depends on education factor only. When adding the variable of mismatch between education and occupation to wage function, it has more statistic explanation. Next, rate of returns in Taiwan, no matter overeducation or adequate-education is higher than rate of returns in American and Europe.
Due to an increase on years of education, working experience, working in public sector, the factors influence overeducation are getting more. In addition, among all occupations, professional is relatively reduced in the probability of overeducation, comparing to non-professional. Moreover, in the field of science, it is revealed that the humanities have a bit overeducation than the engineering.
Finally, Qualification Model explains less regarding salary than any models in examination. This indicates that personal view deices whether education influences wage or not. If taking the method of employer’s evaluation or the method of job analysis as a reference for Qualification Model, it will make Qualification Model become more reliable.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究問題 5
第三節 研究架構 6
第四節 重要名詞釋義 6
第二章 文獻探討 8
第一節 教育與職業不相稱 9
第二節 過量教育的內涵 12
第三節 過量教育的測量 16
第四節 各種經濟理論對過量教育的評論 23
第五節 過量教育的影響 31
第六節 過量教育在教育上的意義與影響 41
第七節 各國高等教育的發展趨勢過量教育的現況 49
第三章 研究方法 56
第一節 研究變項 56
第二節 樣本描述 65
第三節 研究假設 66
第四節 教育投資報酬模式 67
第五節 過量教育的測量 72
第六節 過量教育的發生機率 74
第四章 研究結果 79
第一節 資料的整理分類與交叉分析 79
第二節 薪資函數的迴歸分析 109
第三節 變項間的變異數分析 123
第四節 過量教育的logistic迴歸分析 158
第五節 人文與理工學科在過量教育的logistic分析 167
第五章 討論與結論 171
第一節 討論 171
第二節 結論與建議 191
第三節 研究限制與進一步研究方向 195
參考書目 197
附錄 213
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