(18.207.238.169) 您好!臺灣時間:2019/12/09 20:17
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
本論文永久網址: 
line
研究生:陳冠豪
研究生(外文):chen kuan hao
論文名稱:應用免疫組織化學染色法探究豬瘟病毒不同分離株之致病性
論文名稱(外文):Application of Immnuohistochemistry for Study the Pathogenesis of Different Isolated Classical Swine Fever Virus
指導教授:簡茂盛簡茂盛引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:獸醫病理學研究所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:豬瘟免疫組織化學染色不同分離株
外文關鍵詞:classical swine feverimmunohistochemistrydifferent isolated strains
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:538
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
摘要
本實驗以不同之豬瘟病毒株 (ALD strain、外來型PT strain、本土型94.4 strain及LPC strain) 進行豬隻攻毒試驗,並於攻毒後4、7、14、21天進行解剖,以臨床症狀及病理變化,並配合免疫組織化學染色法來區分各病毒株之間的毒力強弱,並探討病變與免疫組織化學染色之間的相關性及其可能之致病機轉。結果顯示,以不同的病毒株在攻毒後除LPC strain外均能引起典型豬瘟病徵,包括有發燒、白血球、血小板減少症、脾臟梗塞、出血及非化膿性腦炎等病變,但各分離株之間的差異在於病變出現時間及程度上的不同,其中以ALD strain之病變程度最強,PT strain次之,94.4 strain最弱,但在LPC strain則不見任何病理上反應。而在免疫組織化學染色方面,其呈色反應結果與病變的嚴重程度及呈現部位相互符合,惟在出血病變部位並未呈現有明顯之抗原反應。另外,病毒蛋白在感染初期之4天內能被偵測到的部位,是以扁桃腺腺窩上皮細胞、淋巴濾泡之網狀內皮細胞及骨髓造血細胞,為主要的標的細胞,但在攻毒7-14天後不論ALD strain,PT strain及94.4 strain均能在多種臟器中呈現明顯之呈色反應,包括骨髓、淋巴組織、肺臟、腸管、胰臟、皮膚、唾液腺及腦等,而這些臟器內呈色反應陽性細胞是以單核巨噬細胞、造血細胞、血管內皮細胞、神經膠質細胞及上皮細胞為主,但其中皆以造血細胞、單核巨噬細胞及上皮細胞的呈色最強。依上述的病理變化與免疫組織化學染色之結果,可證實外來型PT strain之毒力確實高於本土型94.4 strain。而病毒主要的標的細胞為單核巨噬細胞、造血細胞及上皮細胞。另外,骨髓細胞於PT strain及94.4 strain感染4 - 21天後均能導致造血細胞發生細胞凋亡現象,惟發生之比率不高,約只佔6-10%。此外,在本實驗中在各臟器出血部位並無法偵測到病毒蛋白的存在,是否其出血機制與病毒直接傷害血管內皮細胞之推論有所差異,值得再做進一步之探討。
Abstract
The aim of this study is to utilize pathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique to compare the variant virulence and pathogenicity of different classical swine fever virus (CSFV) that include new invaded PT strain, native 94.4 strain, ALD, and LPC strain. The clinical sings, histopathological lesions and IHC results were examined after 4, 7, 14, and 21 days post inoculation (DPI) on experimental challenged pigs. Except for LPC inoculated and control group, all experimental pigs illustrated the typical lesions of CSFV infection including fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhage, spleen infarct, and nonsuppurative meningoencephalitisis. However, there were significantly differences on lesions severity and developing time in individual organs between different CSFV isolates. The results also demonstrated that ALD strain induced the most severity than PT strain and following by the least severity on 94.4 inoculated group. Meanwhile, the CSFV antigen showed well correspondently and associated with histopathological lesions according to IHC analysis. In PT and 94.4 group, the CSFV antigen was detected firstly at epithelium of crypt in tonsil, reticular endothelial cells in lymphoid follicle and haemopoietic cells in bone marrow on 4DPI, but between 7DPI to 14DPI, CSFV antigen was noted in various organs including bone marrow, lymphoid organ, lung, intestines, pancreas, skin, salivary gland and brain. Moreover, the IHC positive cells included macrophages, haemopoietric cells, epithelial cell, lymphocytes, endothelial cell and glial cells; and among them, the strongest IHC developments located on haemopoietic cells, macrophages and epithelial cells. These results showed that the virulence of PT strain was indeed higher than 94.4 strain and the target cells of CSFV were macrophages, haemopoietic cells and epithelial cells in vivo and the percentage of apoptotic cells in bone marrow was only 6-10% on 4-21 DPI. In addition, CSFV antigen was not detected in the endothelium of blood vessel associated with hemorrhagic lesions among organs and whether the mechanism of virus could directly damage the endothelium to cause hemorrhage still need more investigation in future.
目錄
頁次
中文摘要 ----------------------------------------------- Ⅰ
英文摘要 ----------------------------------------------- Ⅱ
目錄 --------------------------------------------------- Ⅳ
圖次 --------------------------------------------------- Ⅴ
表次 --------------------------------------------------- Ⅵ
第一章 前言 -------------------------------------------- 1
第二章 文獻探討 ---------------------------------------- 3
第一節 豬瘟 ------------------------------------------- 3
第二節 免疫組織化學染色技術 ---------------------------- 17
第三章 材料與方法 ------------------------------------- 28
第四章 結果 --------------------------------------- 39
第一節 豬瘟免疫化學染色標準流程建立 ------------------ 39
第二節 不同豬瘟病毒株人工感染試驗結果 ---------------- 39
第二節 一、體溫變化 ------------------------------------ 39
第二節 二、臨床症狀及評分 ----------------------------- 40
第二節 三、血液學變化 ----------------------------------- 42
第二節 四、肉眼病變 ------------------------------------ 47
第二節 五、顯微病變 ------------------------------------- 49
第二節 六、免疫組織化學染色結果 ----------------------- 55
第二節 七、TUNEL ASSAY ----------------------------- 65
第三節 臨床病例之病理學變化 --------------------------- 77
第五章 討論 -------------------------------------------- 84
參考文獻 ----------------------------------------------- 96
圖次
頁次
圖1 豬瘟病毒實驗豬隻之體溫變化及臨床症狀積分柱狀圖 ------- 44
圖2 豬瘟病毒實驗豬隻之白血球及血小板變化 --------------- 45
圖3 豬瘟病毒實驗豬隻之紅血球變化 ---------------------- 52
圖4 豬瘟病毒實驗豬隻之肉眼病變(一) ------------------- 63
圖5 豬瘟病毒實驗豬隻之肉眼病變(二) ------------------- 64
圖6 豬瘟病毒實驗豬隻之顯微病變及免疫組織化學染色結果(一) - 65
圖7 豬瘟病毒實驗豬隻之顯微病變及免疫組織化學染色結果(二) - 66
圖8 豬瘟病毒實驗豬隻之免疫組織化學染色結果(三) ---------- 67
圖9 豬瘟病毒實驗豬隻之免疫組織化學染色結果(四) ---------- 68
圖10 骨髓Apoptosis比較圖及豬瘟病毒感染比例比較圖 ---------- 76
圖11 臨床豬瘟病例肉眼病變(一) ---------------------------- 80
圖12 臨床豬瘟病例肉眼病變(二) ---------------------------- 81
圖13 臨床豬瘟病例環狀病毒原位雜交法結果 ------------------ 82
表次
頁次
表一 臨床症狀評分表 ------------------------------ 37
表二 病理變化評分表 ------------------------------ 38
表三 肉眼病理變化積分表 -------------------------- 69
表四 顯微病理變化積分表 -------------------------- 70
表五 IHC中樞神經系統積分表 ---------------------- 71
表六 IHC淋巴造血系統積分表 ---------------------- 72
表七 IHC消化系統積分表 -------------------------- 73
表八 IHC肺臟、腎臟、及膀胱積分表 ------------------ 74
表九 IHC其他臟器積分表 -------------------------- 75
表十 骨髓apoptosis 分析結果表 ---------------------- 76
表十一 臨床病例實驗室診斷結果表 -------------------- 83
參考文獻
王金順。1997。豬瘟病毒之持續性感染現象。碩士論文。國立中興大學獸醫學研究所。台中市。中華民國。
林再春。1968。應用螢光抗體法測定豬瘟病毒感染增殖之研究。臺灣畜衛試研報。5: 23-24。
林再春,賴秀穗,程永昌,謝竹茂,陳由昌,陳正吉,李正雄,吳義興。1969。豬瘟螢光抗體診斷法之研究。臺灣畜衛試研報。6: 23-32。
林再春,謝竹茂,蘇杰夫。1972。兔化豬瘟疫苗接種豬體內病毒分佈消長試驗。臺灣畜衛試研報。9: 7-14。
林榮培,黎南榮,林有良,林敬,黃天祥,楊揚輝。1995。以聚合鏈反應技術檢測豬瘟帶毒豬。臺灣畜衛試研報。31: 5-11。
黃天祥,潘居祥,林有良,陳聖怡,李淑慧,楊揚輝,潘英章。1994。豬瘟活體快速診斷。臺灣畜衛試研報。30: 7-10。
劉振軒,王繡真,蘇豐振,傅千惠。1997。改良式免疫組織化學染色技術應用於福馬林液固定與石蠟包埋豬組織之研究。中華獸醫誌。23: 523-530。
劉振軒,許永祥,祝志平,葉祥森,賴銘淙,王繡真。1999。免疫組織化學染色技術與圖譜。台灣養豬科學研究所,新竹,pp.1-19。
魯懿萍,潘銘正,傅祖慧。1995。免疫酵素法在豬瘟實驗室診斷上之應用。中華獸醫誌。21: 354-364。
Agnes, B., H. Navabi, B. Bier, W. Bocher, B. Jasani, and K. W. Schmid. 1994. Wet autoclave pretreatment for antigen retrieval in diagnostic immunohistochemistry. J. Pathol. 174: 223-228.
Ahmad, A., G. C. Dulac, and A. Bouffard. 1989. Application of peroxidase labeled antibody assays for detection of porcine IgG antibodies to hog cholera and bovine viral diarrhea viruses. J. Virol. Methods. 23: 253-262.
Alexander, D. J. 1997. Newcastle disease and other avian paramyxoviridaes infections. Disease of Poultry. 10th ed. Mosby-Wolfe. London, UK. pp. 541-567.
Armengol. E, K. H. Wiesmuller, D. Wienhold, M. Buttner, E. Pfaff, G. Jung, and A. Saalmuller. 2002. Identification of T-cell epitopes in the structural and non-structural proteins of classical swine fever virus. J. Gen. Virol. 83: 551-60.
Barker, J. A., and E. Sheffy. 1960. A persistent hog cholera viremia in young pigs. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 105: 675-678.
Bergroth, V. 1983. Comparison of various immunohistochemical methods. Histochemistry. 77: 177-184.
Bosman F.T. 1990. General approach to tumour markers in diagnostic pathology. In Histochemistry in pathology, 2nd ed., M. I. Filipe, B. D. Lake, Churchill livingstone, London, USA, pp. 49-59.
Bruschke, C. J. M., M. M. Hulst, R. J. M. Moormann, P. A. van Rijn, and J. T. van Oirschot. 1997. Glycoprotein Erns of pestiviruses induces apoptosis in lymphocytes of several species. J. Virol. 17: 6692-6696.
Buonavoglia, C., E. Falcone, S. Pestalozza, L. D. Trani, and E. D. Amore.1989. A rapid serum neutralization test in microplastes for the detection of antibodies to hog cholera virus. J. Virol. Methods. 23: 77-79.
Burnett, R., Y. Guichard, and E. Barale. 1997. Immunohistochemistry for light microscopy in safety evaluation of therapeutic agents: an overview. Toxicology. 119: 83-93.
Coons, A. H., H. J. Creech, and R. N. Jones. 1941. Immunological properties of an antibody containing a fluorescent group. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 47: 200-202.
Carbry, E. A. 1965. The role of immune tolerance in transmission of hog cholera. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 146: 233-237.
Carbrey, E. A., W. C. Stewart, J. I. Kresse, and L. R. Lee. 1969. Comfirmation fo hog cholera diagnosis by rapid serum-neutralization technique. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 150: 2201-2210.
Carbrey, E. A., W. C. Stewart, J. I. Kresse, and M. L. Snyder. 1980. Persistent hog cholera infection detected during virulence typing of 135 field isolates. Am. J. Vet. Res. 41: 946-949.
Carrasco, L., E. Ruiz-Villamor, J. C. Gómez-Villamados, F. J. Salguero, M. J. Bautista, M. Macia, M. Quezada, and A. Jover. 2001 (a). Classical swine fever: morphological and morphometrical study of pulmonary intravascular macrophages. J. Comp. Path. 125: 1-7.
Carrasco L., E. Ruiz-Villamor, J. C. Gòmez-Villamandos, M. J. Bautista, A. Nunez, M. Quezada, and M. A. Sierra. 2001 (b). Atypical cilia in the bronchiolar epithelium of pigs experimentally infected with hog cholera virus. J. Comp. Path. 124: 29-35.
Cowart, W. O., L. G. Morehouse, and R. Moody. 1969. Laboratory diagnosis of hog cholera in Missouri. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 154: 1581-1582.
Corthier, G. 1978. Cellular and humoral immune response in pigs given vaccine and chronic hog cholera viruses. Am. J. Vet. Res. 39: 1841-1843.
Curran, R. C., and J. Gregory. 1977. The unmasking of antigens in paraffin sections of tissue by trypsin. Experientia. 33: 1400-1.
Dahle, J., and B. Liess. 1992. A review on classical swine fever infections in pigs: epizootiology, clinical disease and pathology. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15: 203-211.
Easterday, B. C., V. S. Hinshaw, and D. A. Halvorson. Influenza. In Disease of Poultry, 10th ed., Mosby-wolfe, London, UK. pp. 583-606.
Falk, E., J. T. Fallon, A. Mailhac, A. Fernandez-Ortiz, B. J. Meyer, D. Weng, P. K. Shah, J. J. Badimon, and V. Fuster. 1994. Muramidase: A useful monocyte/macrophage immunocytochemical marker in swine, of special interest in experimental cardiovascular disease. Cardiovasc. Pathol. 3: 183-189.
Fenner, F. J., E. P. J. Gibbs, F. A. Murphy, R. Rott, M. J. Studdert, and D. O. White. 1993. Flaviviridae. In Veterinaty virology, 2nd ed., Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, USA, pp. 441-455.
Fernelius. A. L. and L. F. Velicer. 1968. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Ⅳ partial purification by agar gel filtration. Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 25: 227-237.
Geoghegan W.D., and G. A. Ackerman. 1977. Adsorption of horseradish peroxidase, ovomucoid and anti-immunoglobulin to colloidal gold for the indirect detection of concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin and goat anti-human immunoglobulin G on cell surfaces at the electron microscopic level: a new method, theory and application. J Histochem. Cytochem. 25: 1187-1200.
Gòmez-Villamandos, J. C., E. Ruiz-Villamor, F. J. Salguero, M. J. Bautista, L. Carrasco, C. Sánchz, M. Quezada, and M. A. Sierra. 1998. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural evidence of hog cholera virus infection of megakaryocytes in bone marrow and spleen. J. Comp. Path. 119: 111-119.
Gòmez-Villamandos, J. C., E. Ruiz-Villamor, M. J. Bautista, M. Quezada, C. P. Sánchez, F. J. Salguero, and M. A. Sierra. 2000. Pathogenesis of classical swine fever: renal haemorrhages and erythroidapedesis. J. Comp. Path. 123: 47-54.
Gòmez-Villamandos, J. C., E. Ruiz-Villamor, M. J. Bautista, C. P. Sánchz, P. J. Sánchez-Cordón, F. J. Salguero, and A. Jover. 2001. Morphological and immunohistochemical changes in splenic macrophages of pigs infected with classical swine fever. J. Comp. Path. 125: 98-109.
Gòmez-Villamandos, J. C., J. Hervas, A. Mendez, L. Carrasco, C. J. Villeda, P. J. Wilkinson, and M. A. Sierra. 1995. Pathological changes in the renal interstitial capillaries of pigs inoculated with two different strains of African swine fever virus. J. Comp. Path. 112: 283-98.
Hanson, R. P. 1957. Oirgin of hog cholera. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 131: 211.
Ho, W. C., N. J. Li and S. S. Lai. 1987. Purification and electron microscopic observation of hog cholera virus. J. Chinese. Soc. Vet. Sci. 13: 89-98.
Hooper, P. T., G. M. Russell, R. W. Selleck, R. A. Lunt, C. J. Morrissy, M. A. Braun, and M. M. Williamson. 1999. Immunohistochemistry in the identification of a number of new disease in Australia. Vet. Microbiol. 68: 89-93.
Hsu, S. M., L. Raine, and H. Fanger. 1981. Use of avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) in immunoperoxidase techniques. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 29: 577.
Hulst, M. M., D. F. Westra, G. Wensvoort, and R. J. M. Moormann. 1993. Glycoprotein E1 of hog cholera. J. Virol. 67: 5435-5442.
Husak, P. J., T. Kou, and L. W. Enquist. 2000. Pseudorabies virus membrane proteins gI and gE facilitate anterograde spread of infection in projection-specific neurons in the rat. J. Virol. 74: 10975-10983.
Johnson, K. P., L. C. Ferguson, D. P. Belington, and D. R. Redman. 1974. Multiple fetal malformations due to persistent viral infection. Ⅰ. Abortion, intrauterine death and gross abnormalities in fetal swine infected with hog cholera vaccine virus. Lab. Invest. 30: 608-617.
Kamolsiriprichaiporn, S., P. T. Hooper, C. T. Morrissy, and H. A. Westabury. 1992(a). A comparison of the pathogenicity of two strains of hog cholera virusⅠ. Clinical and pathological studies. Aust. Vet. J. 69: 240-244.
Kamolsiriprichaiporn, S., P. T. Hooper, C. T. Morrissy, and H. A. Westabury. 1992(b). A comparison of the pathogenicity of two strains of hog cholera virusⅠ. Virological studies. Aust. Vet. J. 69: 245-248.
Knoetig, S. M., A. Summerfield, M. Spagnulol-Weaver, and K. C. McCullough. 1999. Immunopathogenesis of classical swine fever: role of monocytic cells. Immunology. 97: 359-366.
Konig, M., T. Lengsfeld, T. Pauly, R. Stark, and H. J. Thiel. 1995. Classical swine fever virus: Induction of protective immunity by two structural glycoproteins. J. Virol. 69: 6479-6486.
Kubin, G. 1967. In vitro merkmale des schweine-pestivirus. Zbl. Vet. Med. B. 14: 543-552.
Lee, C. T., and S. S. Lai. 1980. Pathological pictures of rabbits and pigs infected with two lapinized hog cholera viruses. J. Chinese. Soc. Vet. Sci. 6: 113-121.
Lee, W. C., C. S. Wang, and M. S. Chien. 1999. Virus antigen expression and alterations in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subpopulations after classical swine fever virus infection. Vet. Microbiol. 67: 17-29.
Liebler-Tenorio, E. M., I. Greiser-Wilke, and J. F. Pohlenz. 1997. Organ and tissue distribution of the cytopathogenic bovine virus diarrhea virus in the early and advanced phase of experimental mucosal disease. Arch. Virol. 142: 1613-1634.
Liao, C. M., M. S. Chien, W. C. Lee, C. C. Lin, and C. I. Liu. 2001. Impairment on phagocytosis and oxidative burst of swine phagocytes against Salmonella spp. caused by classical swine fever virus infection. Taiwan. J. Vet. Med. & Anim. Husb. May 19, 7.
Loan, R. W. and D. P. Gustafson. 1964. Persistent infections of subculturable swine buffy coat cells with hog cholera virus. Am. J. Vet. Res. 25: 1120-1123.
Mattews, R. E. F. 1982. Togaviridae. In Classification and nomenclature of virus. Fourth report of the international committee on taxonomy of virus. Intervirology. 17: 1-109.
Matthaeus, W., and G. Korn. 1967. Die neutralisierenden antikorper im schwein nach experimenttaller infection mit schweinepestvirus. Zbl. Vet. Med. B. 13: 173-180.
Markowska-Daniel, I., Z. Pejsak, A. Winnicka, and R. A. Collins. 1999. Phenotypic analysis of peripheral leukocytes in piglets infected with classical swine fever virus. Res. Vet. Sci. 67: 53-57.
Mckissick, G. E. and D. P. Gustafson. 1967. In vivo demonstration of liability of hog cholera virus to lipolytic agents. Am. J. Vet. Res. 28: 909-941.
Mengeling, W. L., and R. A. Packer. 1969. Pathogenesis of hog cholera: host response. Am. J. Vet. Res. 30: 409-417.
Miller, K., J. Auld, E. Jessup, A. Rhodes, and M. Ashoton-Key. 1995. Antigen unmasking in formalin-fixed routinely processed paraffin wax-embedded sections by pressure cooking: a comparision with microwave oven heating and traditional methods. Advan. Anato. Path. 2: 60-64.
Mittelholzer, C., C. Mose, J. D. Tratschin, and M. A. Hofmann. 2000. Analysis of classical swine fever virus replication kinetics allows differentiation of highly virulent from avirulent strains. Vet. Microbiol. 74: 293-308.
Moennig, V.1990. Pestivirus: a review. Vet. Microbiol. 23: 35-54.
Moormann R. J., P. A. Warmerdam, B. van der Meer, and M. M. Hulst. 1990. Nucleotide sequence of hog cholera virus RNA: properties of the polyprotein encoded by the open reading frame spanning the viral genomic RNA. Vet Microbiol. 23: 185-191.
Moriguchi, R., Y. Fujimoto, and H. Iazwa. 1983. Marek''s disease in field chickens: correlation between incidence of Marek''s disease and nuclear inclusion formation in the feather-follicle epithelium. Avian. Dis. 28: 331-341.
Murphy, F. A., E. P. J. Gibbs, M. C. Horzinek, and M. J. Studdert. 1999. Parvoviridae. In Veterinaty virology, 3nd ed., Academic press, Inc., San Diego, USA, pp. 343-361.
Nakamura, S., J. Sasahara, M. Shimizu and Y. Shimizu. 1983. Replication of hog cholera virus in porcine alveolar macrophage culture. Natl. Inst. Anim. Health. Q. 23: 101-102.
Naritoku, W. Y., and C. R. Taylor. 1982. A comprarteive stuey of the use of monoclonal antibodies using three different immunohistochemical methods: an evaluation of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against human prostatic acid phosphatase. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 30: 253-260.
Narita, M. K. Kawashima and M. Shimizu. 1996. Viral antigen and B and T lymphocytes in lymphoid tissue of gnotobiotic piglets injected with hog cholera virus. J. Comp. Path. 114: 257-263.
Narita, M., K. Kawashima, K. Kimura, O. Mikami, T. Shibahara, S. Yamada, and Y. Sakoda. 2000. Comparative immunohistopathology in pigs infected with highly virulent or less virulent strains of hog cholera virus. Vet. Pathol. 37: 402-408.
Narita, M., K. Kimura, N. Tanimura, and H. Ozaki. 1999. Immunohistochemical detection of hog cholera virus antigen in paraffin wax-embedded tissues from naturally infected pigs. J. Comp. Path. 121; 283-286.
Narita, M. A. Uchimura, M. Kawanabe, H. Fukushi, and K. Hirai. 2001. Invasion and spread of equine herpesvirus 9 in the olfactory pathway of pig after intranasal inoculation. J. Comp. Path. 124: 265-272.
Nerlich, A. G., F. Parsche, T. Kirsch, I. Wiest and K. von der Mark. 1993. Immunohistochemical detection of interstitial collagens in bone and cartilage tissue remnants in an infant Peruvian mummy. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 91: 279-285.
Pan, I. C., T. S. Huang, C. H. Pan, S. Y. Chern, S. H. Lee, Y. L. Lin, B. Y. Huang, C. C. Lin, N. J. Li, J. P. Lin, Y. H. Yang, S. Y. Chiu, J. S. Chang, D. K. Hue, H. C. Lee and C. N. Chang. 1993. The skin, tounge, and brain as favorable organs for hog cholera diagnosis by immunofluorescence. Arch. Virol. 131: 475-481.
Paton, D. J., A. McGoldrick, S. Belak, C. Mittelholzer, F. Koenen, H. Vanderhallen, M. Vanderhallen, M. Biagetti, G.-M. De Mia, T. Stadejek, M. A. Hofmann, and B. Thuer. 2000. Classical swine fever virus: a ring test to evaluate RT-PCR detection methods. Vet. Microbiol. 73: 159-174.
Paton, D. J., A. McGoldrick, I. Greiser-Wilke, S. Parchariyanon, J.-Y. Song, P. P. Liou, T. Stadejek, J. P. Lowings, H. Bjorklund, and S. Belak. 2000. Genetic typing of classical swine fever virus. Vet. Microbiol. 73: 137-157.
Pauly, T., K. Elvers, M. Konig, T. Lengsfeld, A. Saalmuller, and H. J. Thiel. 1995. Classical swine fever virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte and identification of a T cell epitope. J. Gen. Virol. 76: 3039-3049.
Pearson, J. E. 1992. Hog cholera diagnostic techniques. Comp. Immun. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15: 213-219.
Peckham, C. J., J. R. Cole and A. R. Pursell. 1970. Fluorescent antibody and histopathologic procedures for hog cholera diagnosis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 157: 1204-1206.
Ponder, B. A., and M. M. Willkinson. 1981. Inhibition of endogenous tissue alkaline phosphatase with ehe use of alkaline phosphatase conjugates in Immunohistochemistry. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 29: 981-984.
Remond, M., E. Plateau, and C. Cruciere. 1981. In vitro study of the cellular response of pigs vaccinated against classical swine fever. Zbl. Vet. Med. B. 28: 743-748.
Rosell, C. J. Segales, J. Plana-Duran, M. Balasch, G. M. Rodriguez-Arrioja, S. Kennedy, G. M. Allan, F. McNeilly, K. S. Latimer, and M. Domingo. 1999. Pathological, immunohistochemical, and In-situ hybridization studies of natural cases of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs. J. Comp. Path. 120: 59-78.
Ruiz-Villamor, E., M. Quezada, M. J. Bautista, S. Romanini, L. Carrasco, F. J. Salguero, and J. C. Gòmez-Villamandos. 2001. Classical swine fever: pathogenesis of glomerular damages and immunocharacterization of immunocomplex deposits. J. Comp. Path. 124: 246-254.
Sabattini, E., K. Bisgaard, S. Ascani, S. Poggi, M. Piccioli, C. Ceccarelli, F. Pieri, G. Fraternali-Orcioni, and S. A. Pileri. 1998. The EnVisionTM+ system: a new immunohistochemical method of diagnostics and research. Critical comparison with APAAP, ChemMateTM, CSA, LABC, and SABC techniques. J. Clin. Pathol. 51: 506-511.
Sarli, G., L. Mandrioli, M. Laurenti, L. Sidoli, C. Cerati, G. Rolla, and P. S. Marcato. 2001. Immunohistochemical characterization of the lymph node reaction in pig post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Vet. Immuno. Immunopathol. 83: 53-67.
Sato, M., O. Milami, M. Kobayashi, and Y. Nakajima. 2000. Apoptosis in the lymphatic organs of piglet inoculated with classical swine fever virus. Vet. Micorbiol. 75: 1-9.
Shannon, A. D., C. Morrissy, S. G. Mackintosh, and H. A. Westbury. 1993. Detection of hog cholera virus antigens in experimentally- infected pigs using an antigen-capture ELISA. Vet. Microbiol. 34: 233-248.
Sharkey, R.M., F. J. Primus and D. M. Goldenberg. 1980. Comparison of the sensitivity of the indirect, antibody-conjugated and the triple-bridge immunoperoxidase methods for immunohistochemical detection of carcinoembryonic antigen. Histochemistry. 66: 35-42.
Shi, S. R., J. C. Richard, and C. R. Taylor. 1997. Antigen retrieval immunohistochemistry: past, present, and future. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 45: 327-343.
Shi, S. R., J. C. Richard, and C. R. Taylor. 2001. Antigen retrieval techniques: current perspectives. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 49: 931-937.
Shi, S. R., M. E. Key, and K. L. Kalra. 1991. Antigen retrieval in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues: an enhancement method for immunohistochemical staining based on microwave oven heating of tissue section. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 39: 741-748.
Shieh, W. J., J. Guarner, M. Layton, A. Fine, J. Miller, D. Nash, G. L. Campbell, J. T. Roehrig, D. J. Gubler, and S. R. Zaki. 2000. The role of pathology in an investigation of an outvreak of west nile encephalitis in New York, 1999. Emerging Infectious Disease. 6: 370-372.
Shimizu, M., S. Yamada, and T. Nishimori. 1995. Cytocidal infection of hog cholera virus in porcine bone marrow stroma cell cultures. Vet. Microbiol. 47: 395-400.
Sinclair, R. A., J. Burns and M. S. Dunnill. 1981. Immunoperoxidase staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, human renal biopsies with a comparison of the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) and indirect methods. J. Clin. Pathol. 34: 859-865.
Solorzano, R. F., J. E. Thigpen, D. M. Bedell and W. L. Schwartz. 1966. The diagnosis of hog cholera by a fluorescent antibody test. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 149: 31-34.
Solorzano, R. F. and J. M. Thigpen. 1969. Reservoirs of hog cholera. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 154: 906-909.
Summerfield, A., F. McNeilly, I. Walker, G. Allan, S. M. Knoetig, and K. C. McCullough. 2001. Depletion of CD4+ and CD8high+ t-cell before the onset of vireamia during classical swine fever. Vet. Immuno. Immuhopathol. 78: 3-19.
Summerfield, A., K. Zingle, S. Inumaru, and K. C. McCullough. 2001. Induction of apoptosis in bone marrow neutrophil-lineage cells by classical swine fever virus. J. Gen. Virol. 82: 1309-1381.
Summerfield, A., S. M. Knoetig, R. Tschudin, and K. C. McCullough. 2000. Pathogenesis of granulocytopenia and bone marrow atrophy during classical swine fever involves apoptosis and necrosis of uninfected cells. Viology. 272: 50-60.
Susa, M., M. Koenig, A. Saalmuller, M. J. Reddehase, and H. J. Thiel. 1992. Pathogenesis of classicla swine fever: B-lymphocyte deficiency caused by hog cholera virus. J. Virol. 66: 1171-1175.
Taylor, C. R., and J. Burns. 1974. The demonstration of plasma cells and other immunoglobulin-containing cells in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues using peroxidase-labelled antibody. J Clin. Path. 27: 14-20.
Terpstra, C. 1991. Hog cholera: an update of present knowledge. Br. Vet. J. 147: 397-406.
Terpstra, C., and G. Weensvoort. 1988. Natural infections of pigs with bovine viral diarrhea virus associated with signs resembling swine fever. Res. Vet. Sci. 45: 137-142.
Terpstra, C., M. Bloemraad, and A. L. J. Gielkens. 1984. The neutralizing peroxidase-linked assay for detection of antibody against swine fever virus. Vet. Microbiol. 9: 113-120.
Thiel, H. J., R. Stark, E. Weiland, T. Rumenapf, and G. Meyers. 1991. Hog cholera virus: molecular composition of virions from a pestivirus. J. Virol. 65: 4705-4712.
Thür, B., and M. A. Hormann. 1998. Comparative detection of classical swine fever virus in striated muscle from experimentally infected pigs by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, cell culture isolation and immunohistochemistry. J. Virol. Methods. 74: 47-56.
Tsai, S. S., T. C. Chan, R. S. Chen, and G. N. Chang. 1989. A new skin lesion found in weaned pigs with natural infection of pseudorabies virus. Taiwan. Vet. Med. & Anim. Husb. 53: 25-35.
Van Oirschot, J T. 1979. Experimental production of congenital persistent swine fever infections. Ⅱ. Effect on functions of the immune system. Vet. Microbiol. 4: 133-147.
Van Oirschot, J. T. 1999. Hog cholera. In Disease of Swine, 8th ed., A. D. Leman, B. E. Straw, W. L. Mengeling, S. D. Allaire, and D. T. Taylor (eds.), Iowa state University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 159-172.
Van Oirschot, J. T., D. de Jong, and N. D. H. J. Huffels. 1983. Effect of infections with swine fever virus on immune functions. Ⅱ. Lymphocytes response to mitogens and enumeration of lymphocyte subpopulations. Vet. Microbiol. 8: 81-95.
Van noorden, S. 1990. Principles of immunostaining. In Histochemistry in pathology, 2nd ed., M. I. Filipe, B. D. Lake, Churchill livingstone, London, USA, pp. 31-47.
Waldvogel, A. S., F. Ehrensperger, O. C. Straub and A. Pospischil. 1995. An immunohistochemical study of the distribution of border disease virus in persistently infected sheep. J. Comp. Path. 113: 191-200.
Weiss, E., A. Teredesat, R. Hoffmann, and G. Hoffmann-Fezer. 1973. Volume districbution and ultrastructure of platelets in acute hog cholera. Thrombos. Diathes. Haemorrh. (Stuttg.). 30: 371-380.
Wengler, G., and E. Wengler. 1993. The NS3 nonstructural proteins of Flaviviruses contains an RNA triphosphatase activity. Virology. 265-273.
Wensvoort, G., M. Bloemrraad, and C. Rerpstra. 1988. An enzyme immunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies and detecting specifically antibodies to classical swine fever virus. Vet. Microbiol. 17: 129-140.
Wood, G. S., and R. Warnke. 1981. Suppression of endogenous avidin-binding activity in tissues and its relevance to biotin-avidin detection systems. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 29: 1196-1204.
Wünschmann, A., S. Alldinger, E. Kremmer, and W. Baumgärtner. 1999. Identification of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets and B cells in the brain of dogs with spontaneous acute, subacute-, and chronic-demyelinating distemper encephalitis. Vet. Immuno. Immunopathol. 67: 101-116.
Yu, M., L. F. Wang, B. J. Shiell, C. J. Morrissy, and H. A. Westbury. 1996. Fine mapping of a C-terminal linear epitope highly conserved among the major envelope glycoprotein E2 (gp51 to pg54) of different pestivirus. Virology. 222: 289-292.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔