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研究生:陳俊杰
研究生(外文):Chun-Hsien Chen
論文名稱:我國製造業生產力分析之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Productivity Analysis of Taiwanese Manufacturing Industries
指導教授:孫遜孫遜引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shinn Sun
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國防管理學院
系所名稱:後勤管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:行銷與流通學類
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:資料包絡分析績效評估生產力麥氏指標
外文關鍵詞:Data Envelopment AnalysisPerformance MeasurementProductivityMalmquist Index
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本研究目的在於應用資料包絡分析法(Data Envelopment Analysis , DEA)來分析我國製造業十五類產業共120家企業89年及90年前三季之生產力及其變動趨勢。本研究選定4個投入項(固定資產、營業總成本、營業費用及員工數);及1個產出項(營業收入)。本研究針對管理者無法控制的變項(如營業收入),首先採用非控制變數模式進行分析;其次利用交叉效率模式計算各產業內最佳相對營運效率企業;接著考量投入項權數限制,使用確定區域模式分析各產業之生產力;再應用對比模式與麥氏指標比較生產力變動趨勢;迴歸分析則用以探討企業內生變數對生產力的影響。研究發現:(1) 240個樣本企業在產出不可控制模式下,有8個樣本企業具技術效率。在確定區域模式下,有2個樣本企業具技術效率;(2)各產業自行評比結果,共有37家樣本企業達固定規模報酬,133家樣本企業為遞增規模報酬,70家樣本企業為遞減規模報酬;(3)經交叉效率分析後,發現運輸工業生產力最佳;(4)無效率企業在投入項需作改善;(5)DEA較FDH具效率區別能力;(6)當投入項或產出項增加時,會降低效率區隔效力;(7) 89年度生產力略優於90年度;(8)內生變數對生產力具中度影響力。
The purpose of this paper is to examine the productivity and productivity growth of a sample of 120 firms from 15 manufacturing industries in Taiwan over 2000-2001, using data envelopment analysis (DEA). Four inputs (capital, operating costs, selling, administrative expenditures, and labor force) and one output (sale revenue) were used for productivity measure of these firms. To sharpen our analyses, we used various DEA models and regression analysis. The non-controlled (NCN) model is used to deal with the uncontrollable output that is sale revenue; the assurance region (AR) model is employed to take into account of imposing weight restrictions on the inputs and output variables; cross efficiency measure is utilized to identify the best productive firm; the bilateral model is used to compare the productivity of these firms in 2000 to those in 2001; Mamquist index is employed to examine the productivity growth of these firms; finally, regression analysis is used to investigate the impacts of business characteristics on the productivity. The results of this study show that (1) among 240 sample firms, 8 achieved overall efficiency under the NCN model, 2 were rated overall efficiency under the AR model; (2) according to individual industry, 37 sample firms experienced constant returns to scale, 133 sample firms experienced increasing returns ot scale and 70 smaple firms experienced decreasing returns to scale under the AR model; (3) transportation industry was rated the best performing industry under cross efficiency measure; (4) these firms that did not perform well should reduce their used inputs for making productivity improvement; (5) compared with the efficiency scores under Free Disposal Hull (FDH), DEA is more powerful than FDH in discriminating efficient firms; (6) as the number of inputs or outputs are increased in the models, the discriminating power of efficient decision making units is reduced; (7) the productivity of these firms in 2000 was performed well than that in 2001; and (8) business characteristics have a moderate impact on firm productivity.
目 錄
頁次
中文摘要…………………………………………………………….. Ⅰ
英文摘要…………………………………………………………….. Ⅱ
誌謝………………………………………………………………….. Ⅲ
目錄………………………………………………………………….. Ⅳ
表目錄……………………………………………………………….. Ⅶ
圖目錄……………………………………………………………….. Ⅸ
縮寫摘要表………………………………………………………… Ⅹ
第一章緒論………………………………………………………….. 1
1.1研究動機與目的……………………………………………… 1
1.2研究問題……………………………………………………… 2
1.3研究方法與步驟……………………………………………… 4
1.4研究範圍與限制……………………………………………… 7
1.5研究內容……………………………………………………… 8
第二章文獻探討……………….. ………………………………… 10
2.1非DEA評估生產力文獻…………………………………… 10
2.1.1文獻評述………………………………………………… 10
2.1.2評估法評述……………………………………………… 14
2.2 DEA評估生產力文獻……………………………………… 20
2.2.1 DEA文獻評述………………………………………… 20
2.2.2 DEA適用性…………………………………………… 26
2.3 DEA理論探討……………………………………………… 29
2.3.1 CCR Model……………………………………………… 29
2.3.2 BCC Model………………………………... …………… 33
2.3.3 Non-Condtrolled Model……………………………... … 34
2.3.4 Cross Efficiency Model…………………………………... 36
2.3.5 Assurance Region Model………………………………… 38
2.3.6 FDH……………………………………………………… 39
2.3.7 Bilateral Model………………………………………… 40
2.3.8 Malmquist Index…………………………………………. 40
第三章研究方法…………………………………………………….. 43
3.1 DEA應用流程……………………………………………… 43
3.2研究設計……………………………………………………… 44
3.2.1生產力觀念模式………………………………………… 44
3.2.2研究對象與資料蒐集………………..…………….….. 47
3.2.3投入/產出項選擇…….. ……………..…………..……… 50
3.2.4分析模式………..……………….……. ………………… 54
第四章實證分析…………………………………………………….. 56
4.1效率分析……………………………………….. …………… 56
4.2差額變數分析………………………………………………… 68
4.3目標改善分析………………………………………………… 70
4.4參考群體分析…………….………………….. ….………… 73
4.5敏感度分析…………………………………………………… 75
4.6生產力變動分析……………………………………………… 79
4.7迴歸分析……………………………………………………… 85
第五章結論與建議………………………………………………… 87
5.1結論…………………………………………………………… 87
5.2建議…………………………………………………………… 92
參考文獻…………………………………………………………….. 94
一、中文文獻……………………………………………….. 94
二、英文文獻……………………………………………….. 95
作者簡介………………………………………………………….…. 102
授權書…………………………………………………………….…. 103
表 目 錄
頁次
表2.1非應用DEA進行生產力評估文獻摘要表………………… 12
表2.2非DEA方法評述表………………………………………… 19
表2.3應用DEA評估生產力文獻摘要表………………………… 22
表2.4 DEA方法優點與限制說明表……………………………….. 27
表3.1變數敘述統計表……………………………………………… 48
表3.2變數相關係數表……………………………………….…….. 49
表3.3投入/產出變數定義表…………………………………… 52
表3.4投入/產出項敘述統計表……………………………………... 53
表3.5投入/產出項相關係數表…………………………………… 53
表4.1 NCN效率統計表…………………………………………... 57
表4.2 CEM效率值表……………………………………………... 58
表4.3生產效率檢定表……………………………………………… 62
表4.4 AR模式權數設定表………………………………………… 63
表4.5 AR效率企業家數統計表…………………………………… 64
表4.6 AR效率變異表……………………………………………… 65
表4.7 FDH效率企業家數統計表………………………………… 67
表4.8 AR模式差額變數分析表…………………………………… 69
表4.9最適目標與潛在改進率表…………………………………. .. 72
表4.10 AR模式參考群體表…………………………………. ... ... 74
表4.11投入/產出項目組合表…………………………………. ... .. 76
表4.12總體效率敏感度分析表………………………………….…. 76
表4.13技術效率敏感度分析表………………………………….…. 77
表4.14規模效率敏感度分析表………………………………….…. 77
表4.15生產力變動表……………………………………………… 79
表4.16生產力變動分析表…………. ... …………………………… 81
表4.17迴歸分析表……………………………………………. ... ... 86
圖 目 錄
頁次
圖1.1研究步驟圖……………………………………………….…... 6
圖2.1效率衡量概念圖…………...……………………….………... 31
圖2.2等效率線性折線圖……………………………………….….. 32
圖2.3交叉效率矩陣圖…………...…………………………….….. 38
圖3.1本研究之DEA應用流程圖………………………………… 43
圖3.2生產力觀念模式圖……………………………….. ... ... ... ... . 44
圖3.3投入/產出變數影響關係圖…………………………….. ... ... 46
圖4.1交叉效率平均值分佈圖………………………………….….. 60
圖4.2總體技術效率變動趨勢圖……………………………….….. 83
圖4.3技術效率變動趨勢圖…………………………………….….. 83
圖4.4純技術效率變動趨勢圖…………………………….….. ... ... 84
圖4.5規模效率變動趨勢圖……………………………………….. 84
圖4.6生產力變動趨勢圖………………………………………... ... 85
一、中文文獻
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