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研究生:張彥駿
研究生(外文):Yen-chun Chang
論文名稱:臭氧對國小學童尖峰吐氣流量率之短期效應
論文名稱(外文):The Short-Term Effect of Ozone on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate of Children in Primary School
指導教授:陳保中陳保中引用關係鄭尊仁鄭尊仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Pau-chung ChenTsun-jen Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:職業醫學與工業衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:41
中文關鍵詞:臭氧氣懸微粒尖峰吐氣流量率國小學童時間系列追蹤研究
外文關鍵詞:ozoneparticulatespeak expiratory flow rateschool childrentime-series panel study
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過去流行病學研究指出臭氧、氣懸微粒與學童呼吸道相關的症狀跟疾病有關,但細粒徑氣懸微粒(PM2.5)和極細粒徑氣懸微粒(PM1)對學童肺功能的效應仍然不明。本研究使用時間系列追蹤研究設計,於2000年秋季九天及2001年春季十三天進行,共有52名古亭國小學童參予,研究期間每天於早上學童到校後以及放學回家前各作五次尖峰吐氣流量率之測量,記錄每天活動及呼吸道症狀。並以古亭國小裡環保署空氣品質自動監測站、高流量三道採樣器(trichotomous sampler)數據作為暴露評估之依據,探討臭氧、以及氣懸微粒PM1/PM2.5 /PM10濃度對國小學童肺功能之影響。
研究期間的臭氧平均白天八小時濃度為22.6 ppb(最大值為75.3 ppb),氣懸微粒PM10、PM2.5與PM1平均白天八小時濃度分別為58.6、33.9與18.2 μg/m3。我們發現前一天的臭氧平均及尖峰濃度會對學童當天早上與下午的尖峰吐氣流量率造成下降的影響,臭氧濃度每上升1ppb,學童的尖峰吐氣流量率分別下降0.12與0.36公升/分鐘;當天臭氧的平均及尖峰濃度會對學童當天下午的尖峰吐氣流量率造成下降的影響,臭氧濃度每上升1ppb,學童的尖峰吐氣流量率下降0.28公升/分鐘。但我們並未發現氣懸微粒PM1/PM2.5/PM10及二氧化氮與學童尖峰吐氣流量率之間的相關性。
本研究地點位於台北市都會區,主要的空氣污染源來自於交通,但相對於台灣地區其他環保署固定式監測站所測得的數據,研究期間此測站的空氣污染濃度並不高,在此臭氧濃度之下,我們仍可以發現到臭氧與國小學童的尖峰吐氣流量率有顯著負相關,因此台灣目前的平均臭氧濃度仍然會對國小學童的肺功能造成影響,空氣污染對肺功能相關易感受族群的健康效應也值得關心。
Many epidemiological studies have reported ozone and particulate matter are responsible for increased respiratory symptoms and diseases in schoolchildren. But the effects of fine particle (PM2.5) and ultra-fine particle (PM1) are still unclear. Therefore, this study assessed the contributions of particulate matter (PM1/PM2.5/PM10), and ozone concentrations to peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in 52 schoolchildren for 22 days during two periods in 2000 and 2001. We measured peak flow in the morning on children’s arrival at school and in the evening before departing from school. The Air pollutant concentrations were obtained from the Taiwan EPA fixed-site air monitoring station located on campus and the trichotomous sampler.
Mean daytime (8am-4pm) ozone concentration was 29.3 ppb (maximum=75.3 ppb), and mean daytime particulate level was 58.6 μg/m3 (maximum 162.4 μg/m3) for PM10, 33.9 μg/m3 (maximum 68.93 μg/m3) for PM2.5, and 18.2 μg/m3 (maximum 38.7 μg/m3) for PM1. We found a significant negative association between morning PEFR and pre-day mean daytime ozone concentrations (b coefficient= -0.12; p=0.04), and afternoon PEFR and same-day (b coefficient= -0.28; p=0.01) and pre-day mean daytime ozone concentrations (b coefficient= -0.36; p=0.02), after adjusted gender, height, temperature, relative humidity, daily symptoms, history diseases, household smoking, pets, incense burning, season, and co-pollutants. But we were not able to demonstrate any association between daily PEFR and mean daytime PM2.5/PM10 and mean daily PM1.
The study location is located in the center of Taipei city, and the main sources of air pollution were from traffic. The ozone levels of this fixed-site air monitoring station were low comparing other sites in Taipei and Taiwan during the study periods. Despite the concentration of daytime ambient ozone were not high, we found significant negative associations between PEFR and mean daytime ozone concentration. Therefore, we suggest that current levels of ambient ozone in Taipei may have an adverse health effect on lung function of schoolchildren.
Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract ii
Contents iv
List of Tables v
List of Figures vi
1. Introduction 1
2. Materials and Methods 7
2.1. Study Population 7
2.2. Air Pollutant Data 8
2.3. Statistical Methods 8
3. Results 10
3.1. Basic information of the subjects 10
3.2. Air Quality 10
3.3. Single and multi-pollutant models 10
3.4. Effects of mean and maximum daytime ozone on PEFR 11
4. Discussion 24
References 27
Appendix A. 31
Appendix B. 38
Appendix C 39
Appendix D. 41
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