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研究生:陳丕崇
研究生(外文):Pei-Chung Chen
論文名稱:數位影像浮水印技術之研究
論文名稱(外文):On the Design of Watermarking Techniques for Copyright Protection of Digital Image
指導教授:王立洋
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:60
中文關鍵詞:浮水印
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摘要
隨著網際網路的快速發展,大量的數位資訊散佈在網路上,任何人都可以不經由原創者的授權,就輕易的取得所需的資訊,這種情形嚴重的侵犯到原創者的智慧財產權。由於數位浮水印的技術可以用在相當廣泛的地方,而且具有高度的可靠性,因此,吸引了越來越多的專家學者的注意與研究。
在本論文中,提出了三種不同領域的數位影像浮水印的演算法,分別是空間域(Spatial domain)數位影像浮水印、以離散餘弦轉換(DCT)為基礎的頻率域(Frequency domain)數位影像浮水印與以離散小波轉換(DWT)為基礎的頻率域數位影像浮水印演算法。不同於以往所提出的數位影像浮水印技術,本論文所提出的浮水印技術並不直接將浮水印嵌入於原始影像中,而是將浮水印與從影像中取出的特徵值進行混合運算來產生一個秘密金匙(Secret key),這個秘密金匙將被合法取得的使用者所持有,可供日後進行所有權的驗證。另外,配合一個公正的第三方認證機構(Trustful Third Party)進行浮水印的時間標記(Time-Stamping),提供正確的浮水印產生時間,當同一張影像出現多重浮水印而產生所有權爭議的時候,公正的第三方機構將可以提供浮水印產生時間的先後順序,做為所有權認證的依據。本論文所提出的演算法具有兩個主要的優點:1) 由於浮水印並非直接嵌入於影像中,所以在經過浮水印保護過後,原始影像並不會產生失真。2) 因為不會影響到原影像,所以我們可以取得足夠的影像特徵值,以利於抵抗不同的攻擊。換言之,在經過影像攻擊過後,影像特徵值仍然能夠存在於影像中,並能夠有效的被取出來進行浮水印的還原與所有權的驗證工作。
經由實驗的結果證明,所提出的浮水印演算法能夠有效的在經過攻擊後,包括JPEG壓縮、模糊化濾波器、影像切割、雜訊干擾與影像縮小等,仍然能利用私密鍵進行浮水印的還原與驗證,有效的達到保護影像智慧財產權之效。

The need of copyright protection and authentication for digital images is increasing rapidly, especially when more and more people access digital images from Internet without licensing. Among all the research approaches that try to resolve this problem, digital watermarking is no doubt the most attractive one. Digital image watermarking is a technique used to hide additional information into an image and extract it for copyright identification latter.
In this thesis, three watermarking algorithms for copyright protection and authentication of digital image are proposed. One is a spatial domain watermarking algorithm, and the other two are a DCT-based watermarking algorithm and a wavelet-based watermarking algorithm. Different from the general watermarking approaches, in the proposed algorithms the watermark is not embedded into the original image but rather, combining with the image features to generate a secret key. The secret key is kept by the rightful user. In the first algorithm, we use a chaotic permutation before feature selection, so as to improve the robustness of the algorithm. The protection scheme also needs a digital time-stamping strategy plus a trustful third-party, which is used to attest if a watermark is bound with the digital image.
The advantage of the proposed algorithms is that the original image will not be modified, therefore the robustness and invisibility is no longer a tradeoff like that in traditional approach. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

CONTENTS
ABSTRACT vi
CONTENTS vii
List of Tables x
List of Figures xi
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Digital Watermarking Technique 2
1.2.1 The Principle of Digital Watermarking Technique 2
1.2.2 The Classifications of Digital Watermarking Technique 3
1.2.2.1 Robust and Fragile Watermarking Technique 3
1.2.2.2 Spatial and Frequency Domain Watermarking Technique 4
1.2.2.3 Visible and Invisible Watermarking Technique 4
1.2.3 The Requirements of Digital Watermarking Technique 7
1.2.3.1 Robustness 7
1.2.3.2 Imperceptibility (or Unobtrusiveness) 7
1.2.3.3 Unambiguousness 7
1.2.3.4 Existence of the original image 8
1.2.3.5 Complexity 8
1.2.4 General Benchmarks 8
1.2.4.1 Stirmark 8
1.2.4.2 Optimark 9
1.2.4.3 Checkmark 9
1.2.4.4 Unzign 9
1.3 Related Techniques 10
1.3.1 The Chaotic System 10
1.3.2 Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) 11
1.3.3 Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) 12
1.3.4 Digital Time Stamping 14
1.4 Review of Digital Watermarking Technique 15
1.4.1 Spatial Domain Watermarking Techniques 15
1.4.2 Frequency Domain Watermarking Techniques 18
1.5 Watermark Binding Scheme 21
1.6 Thesis Organization 22
Chapter 2 A SPATIAL DOMAIN IMAGE WATERMARKING ALGORITHM 23
2.1 Introduction 23
2.2 The Watermarking Strategy 23
2.2.1 Watermark Binding Process 24
2.2.2 Watermark Recovering Process 25
2.2.3 Watermark Detection Process 26
2.3 Experimental Results 27
Chapter 3 A DCT BASED IMAGE WATERMARKING ALGORITHM 33
3.1 Introduction 33
3.2 The Watermarking Strategy 33
3.2.1 Watermark Binding Process 34
3.2.2 Watermark Recovering Process 36
3.2.3 Watermark Detection Process 36
3.3 Experimental Results 37
Chapter 4 A WAVELET BASED IMAGE WATERMARKING ALGORITHM 42
4.1 Introduction 42
4.2 The Watermarking Strategy 42
4.2.1 Watermark Binding Process 43
4.2.2 Watermark Recovering Process 45
4.2.3 Watermark Detection Process 46
4.3 Experimental Results 46
Chapter 5 CONCLUSION 55
REFERENCES 56

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