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研究生:陳韻如
研究生(外文):Chen, Yun-Ju
論文名稱:超文本資訊架構與閱聽人溝通脈絡、時間序列對於手持小螢幕瀏覽之影響
論文名稱(外文):The effects of information structures, communication contexts, and time orientations on user browsing performance and attitude in a handheld small screen display
指導教授:饒培倫饒培倫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:傳播所
學門:傳播學門
學類:一般大眾傳播學類
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:資訊架構高/低脈絡文化單工/多工時間序列手持小螢幕瀏覽心智負荷文化差異介面設計PDA
外文關鍵詞:cultural differenceshigh/low context culturehandheld deviceinterface designinformation structurespolychronic/monochronic time orientationsmall screen display
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本研究,從文化差異的層面出發,關注使用者差異對於手持介面使用的瀏覽表現與瀏覽行為與態度,結合人機互動的理論與實驗操作,以驗證高/低脈絡與多工/單工是否會影響及如何影響使用者的資訊處理效能,並搭配不同設計的廣度/深度的資訊架構呈現方式,以探討介面設計與文化特質之間的互動關係。
依研究假設發展,自變項分別為:資訊架構、溝通脈絡、時間序列。依變項則為,總步數、表現時間、錯誤率、迷失程度、心智負荷、使用態度、整體評價。依研究目的,採2*2*2的三因子實驗設計,受測者進行指定資訊尋找瀏覽任務,觀察資訊架構、溝通脈絡、時間序列三者交互作用後,對於依變項產生的影響。
實驗共完成89個參與者。研究結果發現,廣度資訊架構,在表現時間以及總步數的瀏覽表現較佳,同時也不容易讓使用者感到迷失。高脈絡的人於瀏覽時容易感到迷失,尤其深感主觀迷失與記憶迷失,使用態度也比較不佳。多工的人的心智負荷則比較輕,對於資訊架構的感知也比較強。結果顯示,閱聽人的溝通脈絡與時間序列並不會其影響瀏覽表現,即總步數、表現時間以及錯誤率,但會影響瀏覽的行為態度,如心智負荷、迷失感受以及使用態度。
建議,手持設備應儘量減少深度資訊架構的設計,而以廣度資訊架構為優先設計考量。針對問題較嚴重的族群,本研究建議,針對高脈絡文化的介面設計,必須提供更完整、清楚的資訊設計,用強烈的訊息引導設計,來幫助減低高脈絡文化的瀏覽迷失感。高脈絡/多工使用者偏好方面,以廣度資訊架構為優先考量。對於單一時序/低脈絡的人,其介面設計,以簡潔明快為要,避免在單一介面呈現上同時出現過多的訊息,以減輕其心智負荷,介面以深度資訊架構為優先考量。
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of various factors on user performance and attitude for a handheld small screen display. The factors studied were the arrangement of web link hierarchies, cultural communication differences, and time orientation. User performance is measured by the total number of linking steps, the total amount of time and number of errors taken till task completion. User attitude is defined as mental workload, disorientation, satisfaction, and preference.
An experiment was conducted with 89 Taiwanese participants. Participants were asked to search the hypertext for answers to ten questions using different information architectures in a handheld device. Most of the participants were University of National Chiao Tung students. This study was a 2x2x2 factorial with three variables: breadth/depth menu structure, high/low context communication, polychronic/monochronic time orientation.
The result showed that the number of linking steps and task completion time increased as the depth of the web site increases. The result also indicated that high-context communication people tend to have a lower satisfaction level, and be more disorientated, especially in terms of subject and memory disorientation, than the low-context communication people. Also, polychronic people had a lighter mental workload than monochronic people.
These results suggest that menu breadth is more appropriate for new handheld devices. We also give some suggestions for interfaces aimed at the groups with lower performances. High-context people should be given clearer information clues in order to reduce disorientation, and they prefer menu breadth over depth. As for monochronic people, a simple interface should be used to reduce their mental workload, and monochronic people prefer menu depth.
目 錄
中文摘要 ……………………………………………………………………………………...i
英文摘要 ……………………………………………………………………………………..ii
誌謝 ……………………………………………………………………………………….. iv
目錄 …………………………………………………………………………………………. v
表目錄 ……………………………………………………………………………………..viii
圖目錄 ………………………………………………………………………………………x
第一章 緒論 ……………….…………………………………….………………………..1
1.1 研究動機 ………………………………………………………………..………..1
1.2 研究目的 …………..……………………………………………………………..4
第二章 文獻探討 ………………………………………………………..………………….6
2.1 文化與介面 ………………………………………………………..……………...6
2.1.1 文化差異與資訊處理 ………………………………………………………5
2.1.2 什麼是文化? …………………………………………………………….…7
2.2 溝通脈絡 …………………………………………………………………….…...8
2.2.1 高脈絡文化/低脈絡文化定義 …………………….…………………….…...9
2.2.2 溝通脈絡的實證研究 .……………………………………………...……...10
2.2.3 溝通脈絡與資訊處理 .…………………………………………………..…12
2.3 時間序列 ………………………………………………………………………..14
2.3.1 多工/單工定義 …………………………………………………………...…14
2.3.2 線性活動vs.多工活動 ………………………………….…………………..16
2.3.3 資料導向v.s.交談傾聽導向文化 ………………………………………….17
2.3.4 單一時序/低脈絡 vs. 多工時序/高脈絡 .………..………………………..17
2.3.5 小結:溝通的適切 ………………………………………………………….19
2.4 超文本的問題 ……………………………………………………………………20
2.4.1 認知超載 ……………………………………………………………………21
2.4.2 迷失 ………………………………………………………………………..21
2.4.3 迷失的定義 ………………………………………………………………..22
2.4.4 關於迷失的實證研究 ……………………………………………………...23
2.5 資訊架構 .……………………………………………………………………….24
2.5.1 深度與廣度 ………………………………………………………………….25
2.5.2 實證研究:網路連結的深與廣 ……………………………………………26
2.5.3 超文本資訊架構:階層式與網路式 ………………………………………..28
2.5.4 小結 ………………………………………………………………………….30
2.6 行動上網的相關研究 ……………………………………………………………32
2.6.1 螢幕大小的瀏覽影響 ……………………………………………………...32
2.6.2 使用者互動 ………………………………………………………………..33
2.7 研究架構與研究假設 ……………………………………………………………37
2.7.1 研究架構 ………………………………………………………………..37
2.7.2 研究假設 ………………………………………………………………..38
第三章 研究方法 .……………………………………………………………………….44
3.1 實驗準備 .……………………………………………………………………….44
3.1.1 實驗網站製作 ……………………………………………………………...44
3.1.2 問卷準備 ……………………………………………………………………47
3.2 實驗施測 .……………………………………………………………………….47
3.2.1 任務 ……………………………………………………………………….47
3.2.2 參與者 ……………………………………………………………………...48
3.2.3 依變項 ……………………………………………………………………...48
3.2.4 自變項 ……………………………………………………………………...51
3.2.5 實驗設備與環境 ……………………………………………………………52
3.2.6 實驗設計 ……………………………………………………………………54
3.2.7 實驗流程 ……………………………………………………………………55
第四章 研究結果與討論 ………………………………………………………………….56
4.1 研究樣本特徵描述 ……………………………………………………………...54
4.2 信度測量與因素分析 ……………………………………………………………58
4.3 常態性檢定與變異數同質性檢定 ..…………………………………………….64
4.4 假設檢驗:變異數分析 ………………………………………………………….66
4.4.1 假設一檢驗 ………………………………………………………………….67
4.4.2 假設一檢驗 ………………………………………………………………….69
4.4.3 假設三檢驗 ………………………………………………………………….72
4.4.4 假設四檢驗 ………………………………………………………………….74
4.4.5 小結 ………………………………………………………………………….83
4.5 迴歸分析 ………………………………………………………………………..84
4.5.1 依變項:心智負荷 ………………………………………………………….84
4.5.2 依變項:總步數 ……………………………………………………………86
4.5.3 依變項:表現時間 ………………………………………………………….87
4.5.4 依變項:錯誤率 ……………………………………………………………88
4.5.5 依變項:迷失程度 ………………………………………………………….89
4.5.6 依變項:迷失因素一 ………………………………………………………..91
4.5.7 依變項:迷失因素二 ………………………………………………………..92
4.5.8 依變項:迷失因素三 ………………………………………………………..93
4.5.9 依變項:使用態度因素一 ………………………………………………….94
4.5.10 依變項:使用態度因素二 ………………………………………………..95
4.5.11 依變項:使用態度因素三 ………………………………………………..97
4.6 研究討論 ……………………………………………………………………….98
4.6.1 假設一討論:關於資訊架構的討論 …………………………………….98
4.6.2 假設二討論:關於溝通脈絡的討論 .……………………………………100
4.6.3 假設三討論:關於時間序列的討論 .……………………………………101
4.6.4 假設四討論:關於交互作用的討論 .……………………………………101
4.6.5 迴歸分析的討論 .……………………………………102
第五章 結論與建議 …………………………………………………………………….102
5.1 研究結論 …………………………………………………………….111
5.2 具體建議 …………………………………………………………….105
5.3 研究貢獻 …………………………………………………………….112
5.4 研究限制與後續研究建議 …………………………………………………….113
參考文獻 …………………………………………………………………………………..115
附錄 ………………………………………………………………………………………...124
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