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研究生:陳嘉豪
研究生(外文):Chen Chia Hou
論文名稱:以物件導向技術建構指管通資情監偵雛型系統
論文名稱(外文):Using an Object-Oriented Model for Constructing C4ISR Prototyping Systems
指導教授:韓孟麒韓孟麒引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國防管理學院
系所名稱:國防資訊研究所
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:指揮管制通訊資訊情報監視及偵察電腦輔助雛型系統雛型系統描述語言物件導向技術即時嵌入式系統
外文關鍵詞:CommandControlCommunicationComputerIntelligenceSurveillanceReconnaissanceComputer- Aided Prototyping SystemPrototyping System Description SystemObject-Oriented TechnologyReal-Time Embedded System
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現代由於科技的進步,造成的影響達於各個層面,戰爭技術進步最明顯的實例是將資訊科技應用於指揮、管制、通訊、資訊、情報、監視及偵察(Command, Control, Communication, Computer, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance,簡稱C4ISR)系統上。然探討目前可參考的各類文獻,似乎僅止於C4ISR系統的介紹、走向、和強調C4ISR系統對整體國防武力的重要性。至於如何提出相關的C4ISR系統需求,如何迅速的確定完整的需求以減少專案開發成本,如何處理龐大的戰場所需傳遞的複雜資料(文字、數字、圖形),如何因應戰場狀況變化快速而修改系統,如何將分散各地不同的作戰資訊系統迅速整合,如何解決C4ISR系統軟體生產力太低的問題,如何增強軟體品質的控制和減少系統後續維護成本,一個初步設計的雛型系統如何轉為可實用的系統,這些都有待研究和解決。
因此尋求一套解決上述問題的方法和設計模式,成為當前建置C4ISR系統的要務。物件導向技術經過多年來專家學者的研究,已確立其以真實世界為背景,物件為核心的技術架構,能與C4ISR系統結構結合,符合使用者的思維理則,提供簡易明白的需求設計方法,適合用於快速而完整的定義使用者需求。
面對C4ISR系統這種對時間要求嚴格且需求會隨環境迅速改變的即時系統,針對以上特性,應採用以快速雛型法為發展方式的自動化生成工具,利用自動化生成工具來產生可供評估、模擬驗證的雛型系統,以獲得功能能符合使用者需求的系統分析,供設計者建置出符合使用者期望的系統,並據以減少後續版本的修改和維護的成本,有鑑於此,當前對C4ISR系統的開發建置,應以先找出一個適用的系統分析、建置步驟,並結合低成本的自動化雛型生成系統為佳。
所以現階段國軍發展C4ISR即時系統,最重要的課題在提出一套整合良好的物件導向技術和自動化生成軟體。
本研究經參研相關文獻,先分析C4ISR即時系統的戰場五大物件,接著擷取軟體工程領域中物件導向技術的統一塑模語言(Unified Modeling Language,簡稱UML)中適用的圖例、圖示和功能展示,用圖形的方式展現C4ISR即時系統的功能和系統架構,再以美國海軍研究院Lqui教授及其研究群所提出之電腦輔助雛型系統(Computer- Aided Prototyping System,簡稱CAPS)做為印證整合物件導向技術和自動化生成軟體在發展C4ISR即時雛型系統的實用性,建立一套「以物件導向技術建構指管通資情監偵雛型系統」整合的發展步驟和規則,以為建置C4ISR即時系統的參考。
最後模擬國軍整體的軍事架構進行實例分析,將物件導向技術和電腦輔助雛型系統(CAPS)結合,運用整合後的方法步驟和建置工具,可以達成簡單學習、容易溝通、彈性修改、快速建置、後續軟體維護成本低的優勢,更重要的是使C4ISR即時雛型系統的發展有一可依循的流程方法,使資訊科技能貫穿到C4ISR即時雛型系統發展的各個階段。更藉由方法的確立,得以加速國軍在軍事資訊科技的大幅提升,增進C4ISR即時系統的推行及實用,進而造成數位化戰場上的競爭優勢,在新世代的戰爭型態中鞏固國家安全。
The improvement in technology has a great influence on many aspects. The most obvious example is that we apply the information technology to command, control, communication, computer, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance system (C4ISR).The study and researches about C4ISR are limited in the scope of the problem about the development and the importance of military force. However, how to determine the requirement quickly to reduce the cost in project development, how to handle the complicated information (ex. Messages, numerals, graphics and so on.)transferred in the battlefield, how to combine the information in different battlefields immediately, how to solve the problem of the lowly productive force in C4ISR software, how to strengthen the control of software quality and decrease the cost when maintaining system, and how to convert a prototyping system to practical system are worth studying and discussing.
Therefore, looking for the method of the above problem of one set of solution with design mode becomes the most important affair of placing the C4ISR system. The Object-Oriented technology which has pssed by many years comes the research of the expert''s scholar, has already established its regarding true world as the background. The object for the core''s technique, can be combinated with C4ISR system,match the idea of the user, and provide the method of simple to understand what he needs to design.
Face C4ISR system this kind of request to times strict and need would with the instant system that the environment quickly change aim at the above characteristic, at the request of adopt regarding method of fast prototype as the produce tool of automation to develop way, make use of automation the produce tool come producing and can provide take the gauge of, imitate the identification''s prototype system, then acquire the function can match the user requirement of system analysis, provide design set up and place out and match the user requirement and expect of system, and according to then reduce the modification of the follow-up edition with the maintenance''s cost, owing to this, the front set up and place to the development of the C4ISR system, should then find out the system of a suitable for use first analysis, set up and place the step, and combinative automation prototype produce system of type of low cost is good.
Therefore, when the army trys to develop the instant system of C4ISR, the most important lesson is to bring up the good article to combinate Object-Oriented technology with automation produce software.
This research analyze the C4ISR Real-Time system the battlefield of the five Object first, and pick Unified Modeling Language, use diagram show and display with function, and use the sketch''s way exhibition C4ISR Real-Time system function with the computer-aided prototyping System that the United States navy institutes for research and Lqui the professor and its research flock brings up system. It is used to corroborate the integration Object-Oriented technology and the automation function of produce software at development C4ISR Real-Time system prototype for establishing a set of the " lead to the technique construction or purchase and point and take care of the C4ISR prototyping system with the Object-Oriented technology." The development of integrations keeps with rule, thinks and sets up the C4ISR Real-Time system for reference.
Finally, by siminulating the military of the army and the analysis of whole structure, which leads to the Object-Oriented technology combinate with computer-aided prototyping system(CAPS) and applty the integration of method to set up the tool, and can cause simple study, easy communication, flexibility modification, quickly set up and place, follow-up software maintenance low advantage of cost, and more importantly, it makes C4ISR Real-Time prototype system be able to develop according to the process method and pierce through C4ISR Real-Time prototype system of each system development stage. Besides, the army can accelerate the military information technology of significantly promotion in this way, and improve the efficience of the C4ISR Real-Time system in modern battlefield to firm national security with digital advantages in the war type of the new generation.
中文摘要…………….……………………………………………...I
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………III
誌謝…………………………………………………………….V
目錄……………………………………………………………VI
圖目錄…………………………………………………………..IX
表目錄………………………………………………...………..XII
1緒論……………………………………………………………….1
1.1研究背景……………………………………………………………..1
1.2研究動機………………………………………..………………..…..2
1.3研究目的…………………………………………………….……….4
1.4研究範圍與限制……………………………………………….…….5
1.5研究方法……………………………………………………………..5
1.6研究步驟與架構……………………………………………………..6
2文獻探討………………………………………………………...8
2.1C4ISR系統特性…………………………………………………..….8
2.1.1C4ISR與軍事系統的關係………………………………..…..8
2.1.2C4ISR與即時系統的關聯…………………………………..10
2.2物件導向技術(Object-Oriented Model,OO)……………………13
2.2.1統一塑模語言(Unified Modeling Language,UML)………14
2.2.2UML模式圖的種類…………………………………………18
2.3電腦輔助雛型系統(Computer-Aided Prototype System, CAPS)...19
2.3.1快速雛型法(Rapid Prototyping)…………………………20
2.3.2電腦輔助自動化工具……………………………………….21
2.3.3雛型系統描述語言語法架構……………………………….24
2.4整合比較……………………………………………………………25
3指管通資情監偵雛型系統分析與技術整合…………………...28
3.1C4ISR系統架構…………………………………………………….31
3.2擷取UML適用的圖示…………………………………………….40
3.3以CAPS發展C4ISR系統…………………………………………45
4物件導向技術整合CAPS工具軟體於C4ISR雛型系統應用....60
4.1C4ISR雛型系統需求……………………………………………….60
4.2C4ISR雛型系統分析.. ……………………………………………..61
4.3C4ISR雛型系統建置…………………………………………….....65
4.4C4ISR雛型系統結論評估……………………………………..…...68
5結論…………………………………………………………….71
5.1研究成果與貢獻…………………………………..………………..71
5.2未來研究方向…………………………………………………..…..73
參考文獻………………………………………………………...74
作者簡介………………………………………………………...79
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