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研究生:李大正
研究生(外文):Ta-cheng Li
論文名稱:台灣地區婦女勞動參與歷程的變遷
論文名稱(外文):Female Labor Participation and its Historical Change in Taiwan
指導教授:楊靜利楊靜利引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-li Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南華大學
系所名稱:教育社會學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:綜合社會及行為科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:50
中文關鍵詞:時期婦女勞動參與率世代
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  隨著社會發展與變遷,台灣地區婦女勞動參與率呈現上升趨勢,代表社會對於女性勞動力的的接納與需求程度已越來越高。雖然婦女勞動參與率持續上升,但並不代表女性在家庭與工作間的衝突就會降低,如果婦女的就業型態與歷程沒有產生變化,代表婦女勞動參與其實沒有多大的變遷。有關影響婦女就業因素的討論,以往研究已有相當豐富且一致的結論,因此本文將著重於種種因素作用之後,婦女勞動參與歷程的變遷。
 
  婦女勞動參與變遷的原因可從供給面與需求面來看,前者如婦女擁有的人力資本與所處的家庭生命週期是影響其勞動供給的主要因素;後者如社會環境能否提供足夠的就業機會以及大眾如何看待婦女就業行為。為了檢視供給面與需求面因素對婦女勞動參與的影響,我們以在學率、平均教育年數、有偶率代表人力資本與家庭生命週期因素,以人均實質所得以及兩性相對工資反映經濟發展與社會的性別角色期望,分析其對於近三十年來(1971-2001)婦女勞動參與率變遷的影響。迴歸分析的結果顯示女性人力資本的提升以及經濟成長有利於婦女勞動參與率上升,家庭照顧負擔則有負向作用;唯相對工資未產生顯著影響效果,可能代表其反映了兩性相對人力資本的變化,而無法反映性別刻板印象之變化。
 
  在婦女勞動參與歷程的變遷方面,我們首先利用1965-2001年「人力資源調查」的年齡別婦女勞動參與率資料,將之轉換為世代別婦女勞動參與率,以描繪出不同出生世代婦女的綜合勞動參與歷程。其次利用1980年、1990年與2000年的「婦女婚育與就業調查」資料,進一步分析婦女勞動參與類型與歷程的變遷。
 
  結果顯示婦女勞動參與類型並沒有太大變化,近二十年來傳統型與中斷型兩者合計約佔了一半左右的比例,持續型則有下降趨勢。最明顯的變化是從未工作者的比例大幅下降。此隱含著家庭仍然是已婚婦女生活的重心;就業在組織家庭前是必要的,一旦成家之後,工作即可以犧牲,至少是短暫的犧牲。就勞動參與歷程的變遷來看,主要的變化在於中斷型就業者離開勞動市場的年齡延後而重返勞動市場的時間提前,顯示婦女中斷就業的期間逐漸縮短。
 
  Although the female labor force participation (FLFP) rate in Taiwan has been increasing for decades, it does not mean that the conflict between family and work felt by women has diminished. For women, especially those married, the pattern of employment is as important as the level of FLFP rate in measuring their accessibility on work. In this thesis, a time series logistic regression model employing macro variables is used to explain age-specific FLFP rate trends for 31 years, from 1971-2001. A family life course based strategy is used to evaluate employment pattern of women aged 40-49 in 1980, 1990, and 2000.
 
  FLFP is determined by supply side and demand side factors. The former includes human capital and family constraint. The later includes economic development and gender role attitudes. For the operational manipulation in the regression model, we used enrollment and years of schooling, proportion of married women, consumer consumption index adjusted GDP per capita, and relative wage to men as indices of human capital, family constraint, economic development, and attitude shift on gender role, respectively. We find that the schooling rates and female marriage rates have negative effects on the female labor force participation rate; educational attainment and RGDP have positive effects. However, the effects of relative wage, which reflect the change of gender role attitudes, are not significant in most equations.
 
  In order to describe the female employment changes, we used a 1965-2001 Manpower Survey to construct the synthetic employment process for different birth cohorts. By comparing data from the 1980 to 2000 Women’s Marriage, Fertility and Employment Survey, we found out that conventional and interrupted employment pattern is the most popular type (about 50%). The most apparent change is the proportion of never-worked type that significantly decreased. As to the interrupted type, the interrupted duration was shorter for the younger cohort. These results indicate that from early times to the present, half of the married women sacrificed work for family.
 
  Results show that female labor force participation and type do not vary greatly. In the past twenty years, conventional and interrupted employment pattern both account for around 50% while continuous type decreased. This means that the family is still very important to a married woman’s life. Seeking employment before getting married is a must and once a family is formed, work can be given up or at least, for a time. From the labor force participation and historical changes, the biggest change is in the interrupted employment pattern workers who have left the labor force market at a much later age while returning to the labor market earlier. Female interrupted employment time is thus gradually shortening.
 
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 iii
章節目錄 v
圖目錄 vi
表目錄 vii
 
第一章 緒論           
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究範圍與方法 3
  
第二章 婦女勞動參與變遷的原因  
第一節 新古典經濟學理論 5
第二節 供給面因素:人力資本與家庭生命週期 6
第三節 需求面因素:經濟發展與性別角色 8
第四節 實證研究回顧 9
  
第三章 光復後的社會變遷與婦女勞動參與
第一節 光復後的社會變遷 13
第二節 社會變遷與婦女勞動參與 19
第三節 小結 24
  
第四章 八零年代以來的婦女勞動參與歷程
第一節 婦女勞動參與歷程:時期別與世代別 26
第二節 婦女勞動參與類型及其變遷 31
第三節 婦女勞動參與歷程的變遷 37
第四節 小結 45
  
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 結論 46
第二節 討論與建議 48
  
附錄 50
  
參考文獻 51
   
一、中文部份

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李誠 (1975),「台灣勞動供給之初步分析」,收錄於李誠 編《台灣人力資源論文集》,頁119-145。台北:聯經出版社。
 
呂玉瑕 (1997),「助力與阻力之間:家庭互動關係與已婚婦女就業」,收錄於張苙雲,呂玉瑕,王甫昌主編《九○年代的臺灣社會》,頁1-39。台北:中研院社會學研究所。
 
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張素梅 (1988),「婦女勞動參與率的研究---聯立模型分析」,《經濟論文叢刊》16(2): 175-196。
 
陳寬政、王德睦與陳文玲 (1986),「台灣地區人口變遷的原因與結果」,《人口學刊》9: 1-25。
 
單驥與陳圳忠 (1990),「台灣地區大小家庭結構對已婚婦女勞動供給的影響」,收錄於《人口變遷與經濟社會發展研討會論文集》,頁255-276。台北:中研院經濟學研究所。
 
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楊靜利 (1996),「婦女勞動參與對生育率的影響」,《台灣社會學刊》19: 35-56。
 
楊靜利與劉一龍 (2002),「台灣的家庭生活歷程」,《台灣社會學刊》27: 77-105。
 
劉鶯釧 (1994),「台灣的婦女勞動供給」。收錄於梁國樹 編《台灣經濟發展論文集》,頁373-401。台北:時報文化。
 
蔡青龍 (1988),「婦女勞動再參與的初步分析」,《經濟論文叢刊》16(2):149-174。
 
蔡青龍與張美陽 (1996),「勞動市場之性別差異---以台灣為例兼與亞太各國比較」,收錄於陳肇男,劉克智,孫得雄,江豐富主編《人口、就業與福利》,頁213-254。台北:中央研究院經濟研究所。
 
薛承泰 (2000),「台灣地區已婚婦女再就業時機的初步分析」,《人口學刊》21: 77-99。
 
薛承泰與簡文吟 (1997),「再就業婦女的職業流動初探」,《人口學刊》18: 67-98。
 
簡文吟 (1997),《台灣地區已婚婦女就業型態之分析:離職與復職的檢視》。台北:台灣大學社會學研究所碩士論文。
 
簡文吟與薛承泰 (1996),「台灣地區已婚婦女就業型態及其影響因素」,《人口學刊》17: 113-134。
 
 
二、英文部份

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Cheng, B. S. (1999) “Cointegration and Causality Between Fertility and Female Labor Participation in Taiwan: A Multivariate Approach,” Atlantic Economic Journal 27(4): 422-434.
 
Cramer, J. C. (1980) “Fertility and Female Employment: Problems of Causal Direction,” American Sociological Review 45(1): 167-190.
 
Desai, S. and L. J. Waite (1991) “Women Employment During Pregnancy and After the First Birth: Occupational Characteristics and Work Commitment,” American Sociological Review 56(4): 551-566.
 
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Drobnic, S., H. P. Blossfeld, and G. Rohwer (1999) “Dynamics of Women’s Employment Patterns over the Family Life Course: A Comparison of the United States and Germany,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 61(1): 133-146.
 
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Yi, C. C. and Chien, W. Y. (2002) “The Linkage Between Work and Family: Female’s Employment Patterns in Three Chinese Societies,” Journal of Comparative Family Studies 33(3): 451-474.
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