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研究生:張雅音
研究生(外文):Ya-yin Chang
論文名稱:鄒語語法結構與主語問題探究
論文名稱(外文):Subjecthood in Tsou Grammar
指導教授:梅廣梅廣引用關係蔡維天蔡維天引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuang MeiWei-tien Dylan Tsai
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:307
中文關鍵詞:主語鄒語南島語CP語序論元結構邊緣結構語用句法
外文關鍵詞:CPSubjectA'-movementpragmatic syntaxTsouAustronesian languagesverb initial word orderperipheral structure
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本論文探究一個核心問題:為什麼鄒語和其他世界上的語言如此的不同?本論文寫作的宗旨即是從理論句法的角度來回答這個問題,並嘗試找出鄒語語法的運作機制與其核心句法,來解釋鄒語中成系列的特殊語法現象。
第二章開始回顧一些在文獻上廣為句法學家所討論的南島語獨特性之句法議題,這些南島語的獨特性跟主語行為有關,包括:(1) 主語普遍出現在句首(SVO語序),但南島語的主語卻出現在語法結構的右緣(VOS或VSO語序);(2) 形成被動式主語僅有一種構成,亦即賓語論元擔任被動式主語,但南島語卻允許句中任何名詞組成份擔任「被動式主語」;(3) 主語的特性在南島語分屬兩個不同的語法成分:語法上的主語(grammatical subject)與主事者論元(ACTOR phrase);(4) 南島語的主語有具有主題的屬性;(5) 理論上,賓語的A'-移位(A'-movement)比主語容易,但南島語只允許主語的A'-移位,賓語的A'-移位反而不合語法。而文獻上,針對這些南島語主語的獨特性所討論的議題可以歸納為四個:(1) 語法上的主語和動詞構詞上的語法對應關係為何?(2) 究竟主語的語法角色為何?(3) 理論上要如何解釋主語出現在語法結構的右緣?(4) 如何解釋主語的A'-移位?
為了解決這些議題,並提出鄒語的核心語法來解釋其特殊性,第三章先從鄒語基本的論元結構著手,提出主語和動詞構詞上的對應關係是焦點對應(voice agreement)的看法。第四章從鄒語邊緣結構(peripheral structure)的研究,回答其他三個問題,論證鄒語中的主語是非論元(A'-element)成分,主張出現結構右緣的主語(VOS語序)實際上是移位的結果。而主語的A'-移位僅是表象,許多語法證據顯示鄒語其實是個道地的在位語言(wh-in-situ language)。
綜觀這些鄒語的特色,本論文認為可以用「CP-顯著句法(CP-prominent syntax)」來解釋。也就是說,相對於英語的「IP-顯著性」,「CP-顯著性」深植在鄒語的核心句法中,因此許多鄒語的句法行為都與CP的屬性息息相關,而不是IP,所以造成鄒語成系列的特殊的語法現象。

This dissertation begins with a question: why does Tsou look so "exotic"? This question is followed up in Chapter 2 with an overview of some formal issues, specifically those that are generally identified as the hallmarks of the Austronesian linguistics. Those "exotic" Austronesian characteristics are: (i) the grammatical "subject" at the right-periphery, (ii) many possible "passive subjects", (iii) the split subjecthood, (iv) the topic-like "subject," and (v) the "subject-sensitive" A'-extraction. Essentially, there are four main questions involved in the debate in the literature: [1] What is the grammatical relation between the grammatical subject, and the verbal morphology? [2] What is the role of the "subject"? [3] How to account for the grammatical "subject" at the right edge? [4] How to account for the A'-extraction object-"subject" asymmetry?
Built on the fundamental argument structure in Tsou, Chapter 3 provides an answer for question [1]. It is the agreement of VOICE feature and the assigned EPP-feature that associates the relation between the "subject" and the verbal morphology. In response to questions [2]-[4], Chapter 4 explores the architecture of the peripheral structures and argues that "subject" is an A'-element, or adjunct, and the right peripheral "subject" on the surface are actually derived from the leftward movement of "subject" and proposition, an effect of "generalized pied-piping". Since the role of the "subject" is a perspective-taker, the proposition evaluated by the pivot ("subject") is thus pied-piped unto the perspective-taker's domain. Moreover, Tsou is proven to be a truly wh-in-situ language, no A'-extraction occurs at all.
These properties that give Tsou the distinctive character can be converged into one essential way, the CP-prominent syntax, which demands the pragmatic properties be formally represented in the core syntax. In other words, the macro-parametric CP-prominence is so deeply embedded in the Tsou grammar that it permeates the architecture of the syntactic structure in Tsou. It is the CP-prominent variation that that makes Tsou so radically different from the better-known IP-prominent languages such as English. Accordingly, the mystery of the "exotic" Tsou language is unraveled.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chinese Abstract .......................................................................................................... i
English Abstract ........................................................................................................... ii
Acknowledgement ....................................................................................................... iii
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Why is Tsou so "Exotic"? 1
1.2 The Geographical and Genetic Background of Tsou 2
1.2.1 The Genetic Classification of Tsou 2
1.2.2 The Language Geography of Tsou 4
1.3 Tsou Essentials 6
1.3.1 The Phonemes and Orthography 6
1.3.2 Voice and the "Subject" 8
1.3.3 Temporal Expressions in Modal System 9
1.3.3.1 Modality 12
1.3.3.2 Aspect 15
1.3.3.3 Voice 17
1.3.4 Speaker-Orientation and Syntactic Representation 17
1.3.4.1 EGOP and e-feature 18
1.4.4.2 Locational Stance/Perspective and LP 18
1.4 Theoretical Orientation 23
1.4.1 Theory Basics: Features, Merge, Agree and Attract/Move 23
1.4.2 Arguments and Pure Merge 24
1.4.3 Weakly Tensed Language and EPP-feature Checking 25
1.4.4 Derivation by PHASE 26
1.4.4.1 PHASES: Chomsky (2001) 26
1.4.4.2 VOICEP and EGOP as PHASES 27
1.4.5 How does it Work? 27
1.4.5.1 Pure Merge 27
1.4.5.2 Agree and Move/Attract at VOICEP PHASE 28
1.4.5.2.1 Agree with [AV/NAV] 28
1.4.5.2.2 Attraction by EPP-feature 29
1.4.5.3 Agree and Move/Attract at EGOP PHASE 31
1.4.5.3.1 Attraction by EPP-feature 31
1.4.5.3.2 Agree with the e-feature 31
1.5 Organization of the Dissertation 32
Chapter 2: An Overview of Some Formal Issues in Austronesian Syntax 34
2.1 Introduction 34
2.2 Some "Exotic" Austronesian Properties 35
2.2.1 "Subject" at the Right Periphery 35
2.2.2 Split Subjecthood 36
2.2.3 Many Possible "Passive Subjects" 40
2.2.4 Topic-like "subject" 42
2.2.5 "Subject-sensitive" A'-extraction 44
2.3 Some Formal Austronesian Issues and the Literature 45
2.3.1 What is the Grammatical Relation between the Verbal Morphology and the Pivot ? 46
2.3.1.1 A-feature-driven Movement 46
2.3.1.2 A'- features-driven movement 52
2.3.2 What is the Role of the "Subject"? 52
2.3.2.1 The "subject" as an A-element: a Nominative Subject or an Absolutive Object 53
2.3.2.2 The "subject" as an A'-element: as an Adjunct-like Element or a Topic-like Element 53
2.3.3 How to Account for the Right Peripheral "Subject" and Word Order Issue? 53
2.3.3.1 Base-generated Word order: Subject-lowering Approach 54
2.3.3.2 Derived Word Order: Verb-raising Approach 54
2.3.3.3 Derived Word order: VP Raising Approach 55
2.3.4 How to Account for the "subject"-sensitive A'-extraction? 57
2.3.4.1 Wh-/OP-movement-based Approach 57
2.3.4.2 Phase-based approach 58
2.4 Revisiting the Austronesian Properties and Issues in Tsou 59
2.4.1 AV-NAV Alternation ¹ ACTIVE-PASSIVE Alternation: Non-demoted ACTOR in NAV Construction 61
2.4.1.1 NAV ACTOR as Reflexive Binder 63
2.4.1.2 NAV ACTOR as Controller 64
2.4.1.3 NAV ACTOR as the Addressee in Imperatives 65
2.4.2 "Subject" Makers ¹ Nominative Case Markers 67
2.4.3.1 Abandoning "nominative case markers" 68
2.4.3.1.1 Nominative case does not mark topic 68
2.4.3.1.2 Nominative case should not be assigned twice 69
2.4.3.1.3 Nominative case does not affect pragmatic information 70
2.4.3.2 As a Locational Determiner 70
2.4.3.3 Locational Determiners and Syntax-Semantic Mapping 71
2.5 The Proposal 72
Chapter 3: Architecture of the Argument Structure in Tsou 76
3.1 Introduction 76
3.1.1 Paradoxes 76
3.1.1.1 Indistinctness between External Arguments and Internal Arguments 76
3.1.1.2 Indistinctness between Arguments and Adjuncts 79
3.1.1.3 Non-demoted agent/actor in "passives" 80
3.1.2 Toward a Syntactic Approach to Tsou Verbal Morphology 83
3.1.3 An Overview 88
3.2 AV and NAV Symmetries and Asymmetries 89
3.2.1 AV-NAV Symmetries 89
3.2.2 AV-NAV Asymmetries 90
3.3 Syntactic Representations of the Argument Structures 94
3.3.1 Categories and Projections 95
3.3.2 Adjectives or Quantity Predicates 99
3.3.3 Intransitive Clauses 104
3.3.4 Transitive Clauses 107
3.3.5 Applicatives 111
3.3.5.1 High applicatives in Tsou: applied benefactives or instrumentals 116
3.3.5.2 Low applicatives in Tsou: applied recipients, goals or locatives 120
3.3.6 Causative Constructions 125
3.3.6.1 Bieventive Analysis 129
3.4 Pivotal VOICE and "Subject"-Shift 133
3.4.1 "Subject" and "Object" Reconsidered 133
3.4.2 Pivotal VOICE and "Subject"-shift 137
3.4.3 Agree and Attract/Move 138
3.5 Tsou as a "Neo-Davidsonian" Language 142
3.5.1 "Classical" vs. "Neo-" Davidsonianism 143
3.5.1.1 Classical Davidsonian semantics 143
3.5.1.2 Neo-Davidsonian semantics 145
3.5.2 Mapping event structure to syntax 146
3.5.3 Introducing Arguments 150
3.5.4 Association of Adverbial Event Predicates 154
3.5.5 Grammaticalization of Conjunctive ho 157
CHAPTER 6: ARCHITECTURE OF THE PERIPHERAL STRUCTURES IN TSOU 163
4.1 Introduction 163
4.1.1 Puzzles of Split Peripheral Extractions in Tsou 163
4.1.1.1 "Subject" at the Right Periphery 163
4.1.1.2 Wh-extractions at the Left Periphery 169
4.1.2 An Overview 174
4.2 Toward a Leftward Movement Analysis 175
4.2.1 Theoretical Background 175
4.2.1.1 Linear Correspondence Axiom (LCA) 175
4.2.1.2 Correlation between Argument Shift and XP Remnant Movement 176
4.2.1.2.1 Leftward movement of objects: OS and Scrambling 176
4.2.1.2.2 Interplay with leftward remnant movement 179
4.2.2 The Proposal 181
4.2.3 "Subject" Movement in Tsou » Germanic OS or Scrambling 183
4.2.3.1 The Nature of Tsou "Subject" Movement 183
4.2.3.1.1 As an A'-movement 184
4.2.3.1.2 Icelandic = Tagalog 185
4.2.3.1.3 "subject" movement in Tsou » Icelandic OS 189
4.2.3.2 "subject" Movement as an Overt A'-movement 192
4.2.3.2.1 Constituency Test: apparent movement of "subject"/pivot 192
4.2.3.2.2 Morphological evidence of "subject" movement 194
4.2.3.3 Derivational "subject" Movement 198
4.2.3.3.1 Derivation by PHASE 198
4.2.3.3.2 Extended projections in Tsou 201
4.2.3.3.3 Move for EPP-feature and peripheral feature [e] 203
4.2.4 Predicate Fronting as MOD-ASPP Remnant Movement 205
4.2.4.1 Mod-AspP Remnant as a Constituent for Movement 205
4.2.4.1.1 Neither Verb raising nor VP raising 205
4.2.4.1.2 MOD-ASPP remnant as a constituent 207
4.2.4.2 MOD-ASPP Remnant Fronting 208
4.2.4.2.1 "subject" shift and M-AP remnant movement 208
4.2.4.2.2 Pied-piping of M-AP remnant 209
4.2.4.3 An Alternative Analysis of MOD-ASPP REMINANT MOVEMENT 210
4.2.4.4 Typological Implications 215
4.3 Left Peripheral Wh-dependencies 216
4.3.1 No Extraction of Wh-Questions 217
4.3.1.1 Wh-fronting Interrogatives = Cleft Equationals 217
4.3.1.2 Wh-in-situ 221
4.3.1.3 Problems of Previous Analyses 224
4.3.1.3.1 Unselective binding approach: Chang (1998) 224
4.3.1.3.2 Unsolved problems: why are not all wh-phrases in-situ in Tsou? 226
4.3.2 Spell-Out Focus-in-situ 228
4.3.2.1 Theories of Prosodic Stress 228
4.3.2.2 Focus Stress in Tsou 231
4.3.2.3 Licensing wh-in-situ in Tsou 234
4.3.2.4 Typological Summary 237
4.3.3 Peripheral Topic and Focus 238
4.3.3.1 No Extraction 239
4.3.3.2 Generalized Control 241
4.3.3.3 Resumptive Pronoun 244
4.3.3.4 Topic-/Focus-in-situ 245
4.3.3.5 pro-drop 246
4.3.4 Typological Implications 247
4.4 Peripheral Structure of Nominals 249
4.4.1 Locational Stance/Perspective 250
4.4.1.1 Locational Determiners 250
4.4.1.2 Locational Personal Pronouns 252
4.4.1.3 Demonstratives 252
4.4.2 Extended Nominal Projection 253
4.4.2.1 DP Hypothesis 253
4.4.2.2 Locational Projection (LP) 254
4.5 Mapping between Syntax and Semantics 257
4.5.1 Theories of Mapping between Syntax and Semantics 258
4.5.1.1 Mapping Hypotheses 258
4.5.1.2 Extended Mapping Hypotheses 259
4.5.2 Interpretation of Nominals with Locational Determiners 261
4.5.2.1 Interpretation of Nominals inside of Mapping Domain 261
4.5.2.2 Interpretation of Nominals outside of Mapping Domain 264
4.5.2.2.1 Interpretation of nominals with strong locational determiners 264
4.5.2.2.2 Interpretation of nominals with weak locational determiners 266
Chapter 5: Concluding Remarks 268
5.1 Tsou is no longer "Exotic" 268
5.2 CP Prominent Syntax 269
5.2.1 SPLIT CP 269
5.2.2 EPP-in-CP 271
5.2.3 Syntactic Operations Driven by Pragmatic/Peripheral Features 271
5.2.4 Sentential Operator 272
5.2.5 Symmetrical Extended Nominal Projection 273
5.3 Parametric Variations 273
5.3.1 Parametric EPP-feature 273
5.3.2 Parametric projections of EGOP and LP 274
5.4 Typological Implications 275
List of the Literature on Tsou 277
References 287

LIST OF THE LITERATURE ON TSOU
(based on Li's 1991 bibliographical list)
[IN JAPANESE]
小島由道 1915.《番族慣習調查報告書》,第四卷曹族,臨時台灣舊慣調查會,台北。
Sayama, Y. 佐山融吉 1915.《番族調查報告書‧曹族》,臨時台灣舊慣調查會,台北。
Asai, Erin. 淺井惠倫 1931. "Survey report on Bunun and Tsou," The Japanese Journal of Ethnology Vol. 1, Osaka.
Ogawa, Naoyoshi and Asai, Erin 小川尚義和淺井惠倫 1935.《原語台灣高砂族傳說集》[The Myths and Traditions of the Formosan Native Tribes.] Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Taihoku Imperial University.
Asai, Erin. 淺井惠倫 1954. "Survey report on Bunun and Tsou," The Japanese Journal of Ethnology Vol. 18:1.2, Osaka.
[IN RUSSIAN]
Nevskij, N. A. 聶甫斯基 1935. Materialy po Govoram Jazyka Cou [Dialect material of the Tsou language]. Moskva: Trudy Instituta Vostokovedenija 11, pp. 136.
Nevskij, N. A. 聶甫斯基 1981. Materialy po Govoram Jazyka Cou. Slovar' Dialekta Severnych Cou [Dictionary of northern Tsou dialect]. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo.
[IN GERMANY]
Szakos, József (1994) Die Sprache der Cou: Untersuchungen zur Synchronie einer austronesischen Sprache auf Taiwan. Doctoral Dissertation. Bonn: universität Bonn.
[IN FRENCH]
Zeitoun, Elizabeth (1996) oblemes de linguistique dans les langues aborigenes de Taiwan [Issues on Formosan linguistics]. Ph. D. dissertation, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Paris.
[IN CHINESE]
何大安 (Ho, Dah-an) 1976.〈鄒語音韻〉《中研院史語所集刊》147.2: 245-174.
李壬癸 (Li, Paul Jen-kuei) 1992.《台灣南島語言的語音符號系統》[The phonological system of the Formosan languages],教育部。
土田茲 (Tsuchida, Shigeru) 1993.〈鄒語動詞的詞頭分類〉《台灣南島語言研究論文日文中譯彙編》。黃秀敏譯,李壬癸編審,國立台灣史前博物館籌備處,一九九三年六月。pp. 452-487。
張雅音 (Chang, Ya-Yin Melody) 1997.〈鄒語主題句初探〉《台灣語言發展學術研討會論文集初編》,新竹:國立新竹師院,pp. 321-34。
張雅音 (Chang, Ya-Yin Melody) (1998)〈鄒語的疑問詞移位現象〉,台灣語言及其教學國際研討會,新竹:國立新竹師範學院。
張雅音 (Chang, Ya-Yin Melody) (2001)〈鄒語重疊形式研究〉,全國語言學論文研討會,新竹:國立清華大學。
蔡維天 (Tsai, Wei-tien Dylan) 1998.〈台灣南島語疑問詞的無定用法-噶瑪蘭語、鄒語及賽德克的比較研究〉,《清華學報》新二十七卷第四期,新竹,pp. 381-422。
翁翠霞 (Wong, Cui-xia) 2000.《鄒語和邵語的時、態、貌系統之比較與研究》,嘉義:國立中正大學。
-TRANSLATIONS
白嗣宏、李福清、浦忠成(譯) 1993.《台灣鄒族語典》,聶甫斯基 (Nevskij, N. A.) (原著),台原出版社,台北。
中央研究院民族所 (譯) 2001.《番族慣習調查報告書》,第四卷曹族,小島由道 (原著),中研院民族所,台北。
-TEXTBOOKS/ LEFERENCE GRAMMARS
達邦國小 1996.《嘉義縣阿里山鄉鄒族母語教材》,嘉義縣政府教育局。
達邦國小 1996.《嘉義縣阿里山鄉鄒語簡易字典》,嘉義縣政府教育局。
鄒語工作室 1998.《鄒語初級教材》,文鶴出版社,台北。
齊莉莎 2000.《鄒語參考語法》,台北:遠流出版社。
[IN ENGLISH]
Chen, You-mehim (2000) Negation in Thao and Tsou, M.A. thesis, Chiayi: National Chung Cheng University.
Chang, Henry Yung-li (1999) Quantification in Tsou and its implications, Paper presented at National Taiwan University and the Eighth International Conference on Chinese Linguistics (ICCL-8) at the University of Melbourne.
Chang, Henry Yung-li (2001a) "Quantification and distributivity in Tsou," in Proceedings of the Symposium on Selected NSC Projects in General Linguistics from 1998-2000, Taipei: National Taiwan University.
Chang, Henry Yung-li (2001b) "On the referential properties of noun phrases in Tsou," paper presented in International Symposium on Austronesian Cultures, Academia Sinica, Taipei.
Chang, Melody Ya-yin (1997) "Preliminary study of wh-questions in Tsou," Proceedings of NcEALL 1997, Taipei: National Taiwan Normal University, pp. 101-112.
Chang, Melody Ya-yin (1998a) "Clefts or Pseudo-clefts: A case study of Tsou," Proceedings of NcEALL 1998, Taipei: National Taiwan Normal University, pp. 65-78.
Chang, Melody Ya-yin (1998b) "Topic constructions in Tsou," paper presented at the 7th Annual Meeting of the International Association of Chinese Linguistics/ 10th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics, (IACL-7/ NACCL-10), CA: Stanford University, June 26-29, 1998.
Chang, Melody Ya-yin (1998c) Wh-Constructions and the Problem of Wh-Movement in Tsou, MA thesis, National Tsing-hua University, Hsin-chu.
Chang, Melody Ya-yin (2000) "On Wh-questions in Tsou: fronted or remain in-situ," Language & Linguistics, 1.2, Academia Sinica, Taipei.
Chang, Melody Yayin (2002) "Nominalization in Tsou," Language and Linguistics 3.2, Academia Sinica, Taipei.
Chuo, Fred P.-L. (1998) "A comparative study of interrogatives in Tsou and Yami," Fu-Jen Studies, 31: 1-18, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei.
Dyen, Isidore (1963) "The position of the Malayo-Polynesian languages of Formosa," Asian Perspectives, Vol. 7.1-2: 261-271, University press of Hawai'i, Honolulu.
Dyen, Isidore (1971) "The Austronesian languages of Formosa," in Thomas Sebeok, ed. Current Trends in Linguistics 8: 168-199. The Hague: Mouton.
Ferrell, Raleigh (1972) "Verb systems in Formosan Languages," in Jacqueline M. D. Thomas and Lucien Bernot, eds. Languages et Techniques, Nature et Societe, Tome I: Approche Linguistique, Klincksiek, Paris.
Hsin, Tien-hsin (2000) "Consonant clusters in Tsou and their theoretical implications," Proceedings of the 18th west conference on formal linguistics, Cascadilla Press.
Huang, Huei-ju (2003) Tense, aspect, and reality in Tsou and Saisiyat, MA thesis, National Taiwan University, Taipei.
Hunag Lillian et al. (1998) "A typological overview of nominal case marking systems of some Formosan languages," in Selected Papers from the Second International Symposium on Languages in Taiwan.
Huang Lillian M., E. Zeitoun, M. Yeh, J. Wu, A. Chang (1999) "Interrogative constructions in some Formosan languages," Chinese language and linguistics V: Interactions in language, Vol. 2, Academia Sinica, Taipei.
Huang, Shuan-fan (2002) "The pragmatics of focus in Tsou and Seediq," Language and Linguistics, 3-4: 665-94. Academia Sinica, Taipei.
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