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研究生:陳勇邑
研究生(外文):Yung-Yi Chen
論文名稱:一、台北三座都市垃圾焚化廠周邊三十六所國民小學大氣戴奧辛與重金屬調查研究二、都市垃圾焚化爐是否導致學童呼吸道疾病?三座焚化廠周邊地區十二所國小流行病學研究
論文名稱(外文):I.Air Dioxins and Heavy Metals of the 36 Primary Schools Surrounding Three Municipal Waste Incinerators in TaipeiII.Do Municipal Waste Incinerators Induce Adverse Respiratory Effects In School Children?An Epidemiological Study of 12 Primary Schools in t
指導教授:陳保中陳保中引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:職業醫學與工業衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:重金屬焚化爐戴奧辛
外文關鍵詞:dioxinsheavy metalsincinerator
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焚化爐是現代都市處理垃圾的趨勢,但都市垃圾焚化爐產生的污染問題卻也同時影響了週邊居民的健康。本研究嘗試利用現場的採樣分析評估焚化廠的空氣污染物質在週邊地區的分布情形,並探討採樣物質與焚化廠的關聯性。
我們選擇了位於同一都市中的三座都市垃圾焚化爐作為研究標的,並分別針對三座焚化爐進行空氣污染物質的採樣。本研究以距離為依據選取適當之採樣點,我們選取距離焚化廠二公里內的採樣點作為高暴露區採樣點,選擇距離焚化廠三公里以上的採樣點作為低暴露區採樣點。每一座焚化廠分別選取了四個高暴露採樣點及八個低暴露採樣點。
參考過去國際間針對焚化爐的研究,我們選擇了大氣中的氣相及固相戴奧辛以及懸浮微粒中的重金屬作為採樣目標物質,並嘗試以之作為焚化廠的排放指標。其中針對懸浮微粒我們分別採集了PM1、PM2.5與PM10三種粒徑,然後進一步分析其中的重金屬成分。我們在六月及九月分別於三廠進行採樣,包含四個高暴露採樣點及八個低暴露採樣點,進行同步的採樣。採樣及分析則依照台灣行政院環境保護署公告的標準方法進行。但其中低暴露採樣點的懸浮微粒採樣僅選擇八點中的四點進行。
在第一季採樣結果方面,第一廠廠區戴奧辛濃度範圍為0.039~0.085 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3,中位數濃度為0.068 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3,第二廠廠區戴奧辛濃度範圍為0.044~0.060 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3,中位數濃度為0.049 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3,第三廠廠區戴奧辛濃度範圍為0.039~0.254 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3,中位數濃度為0.081 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3。第二季採樣結果方面,第一廠廠區戴奧辛濃度範圍為0.044~0.066 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3,中位數濃度為0.053 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3,第二廠廠區戴奧辛濃度範圍為0.022~0.085 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3,中位數濃度為0.053 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3,第三廠廠區戴奧辛濃度範圍為0.059~0.896 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3,中位數濃度為0.183 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3。根據特徵分析的結果,各採樣點戴奧辛的指紋比對結果與焚化廠的特徵相似。而兩季重金屬的分析結果方面我們分別於分析了PM1、PM2.5與PM10中的鉻、鎘、鉛、銅、鎳和鋅,初步發現PM2.5與PM10中的鉻、PM10中的鎳和PM2.5與PM10中的鋅,隨著與焚化廠距離的增加而濃度下降。我們以第二廠為對照加上月別和距離等三個變項,利用統計方法linear regression model進一步分析採樣結果。我們發現戴奧辛、PM1與PM2.5中的鋅在距離變項上,有顯著相關(p=0.069、0.037、0.067)。此一結果與本研究的假說具有一致性,焚化廠周界的戴奧辛與鋅濃度變化與距離具有相關性。

近年來關於都市垃圾焚化廠對於其周邊地區不良呼吸健康效應的研究並不多,我們嘗試以具有代表性的族群配合環境採樣、肺弁鉥�試及問卷調查,來釐清兩者之間的關聯性。
這是一個橫斷性的研究,我們選擇了位於同一城市的三座都市垃圾焚化爐做為我們的研究標的。我們分別在每一座焚化廠周邊選擇距離焚化廠兩公里內的國小做為我們的暴露族群,並選擇距離焚化廠三公里以上的國小作為對照族群。
我們分別在每一個國小進行兩次的空氣污染物質採樣(六月及九月),依照不同的廠別分別於三廠進行同步採樣。採取目標物種為大氣中的戴奧辛,藉此作為焚化廠的排放指標。
在所有選取的國小(3廠 × 4國小 = 12 所)中,針對所有的年級隨機抽選一個班進行問卷調查。我們使用International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)的標準問卷中文化版本進行氣喘相關症狀的調查,總計完成1927份有效問卷(回收率99.6%)。
另外針對選取的12所國小,分別在三廠的暴露及對照組選取一個學校進行肺弁鉥��?3廠 × 2國小 = 6 所),但由於考量低年級的學童不適合進行此一測試僅針對中高年級於問卷測驗之原班級進行。測試則遵照美國胸腔學未知標準操作程序進行(ATS criteria, 1994),共完成683位學童(回收率98.4%)。
在採樣結果方面,戴奧辛濃度範圍為0.011~0.317 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3;暴露組的平均濃度為0.053 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3;對照組戴奧辛平均濃度為0.030 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3,暴露組高於對照組。在問卷調查結果上,性別、年齡、家中空氣污染源的比較上,暴露組與對照組並無差異。但是在氣喘的盛行率上,暴露組國小平均值為13.9%對照組國小平均值為11.9%,暴露組高於對照組。進一步利用邏輯回歸控制二手菸,家中飼養寵物,家中燒香,使用蚊香,地毯,家中是否有霉斑霉味、父母的教育程度後,兩者的危險勝算比為1.46(odds ratio, OR=1.46 and 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.05,2.03)具有統計學意義。
在肺弁鉥�試結果上,暴露組國小的FEV1/FVC平均值為88%對照組國小FEV1/FVE平均值為89%,暴露組較對照組差。進一步利用邏輯回歸控制二手菸,家中飼養寵物,家中燒香,使用蚊香,地毯,家中是否有霉斑霉味、父母的教育程度後,兩者的危險勝算比為0.78(odds ratio, OR=0.78 and 95% confidence interval, 95%CI: 0.37,1.66),並未達統計學意義。
本研究的結論為焚化廠周邊地區學童氣喘發生率上升與焚化廠可能具有關聯性,但由於本研究為橫斷性研究並不能證明因果關係。
I.
This study aimed to assess the characteristics of municipal waste incinerator’s emission in its vicinity by on site air sampling, and to understand the relationship between the compounds measured and municipal waste incinerator (MWI).
We chose three MWIs in Taipei city, and divided them into three groups. In each one we chose four sites within two kilometers from the MWI as high exposure group. In the meantime, we chose eight sites at a distance from the MWI at least three kilometers as low exposure group. According to results of recent published studies, we chose gaseous and solid dioxins in the air and heavy metals in particular matter (PM) as our targets of air sampling, and used them as the indexes of MWI’s emission. For sampling of PM, we collected PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, and analyzed their heavy metal constituents. All procedures followed the standard method of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. Sampling of PM in low exposure group was done only in four sites for the low exposure group.
In June 2003, the concentrations of dioxin were 0.039~0.085 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3 in site 1, with a median of 0.068 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3. The results of site 2 were 0.044~0.060 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3, with a median of 0.049 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3, and values of dioxin were 0.039~0.254 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3 in site 3, with a median of 0.081 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3.In September 2003, the values of dioxin were 0.044~0.066 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3 in site 1, with a median of 0.053 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3. The concentrations of site 2 were 0.022~0.085 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3, the median was 0.053 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3, and values of dioxin were 0.059~0.896 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3 in site 3, the median was 0.183 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3. According to the results of principal component analysis, the characteristics of dioxins sampling sites were similar to those measured in the MWIS’. We also found that the concentration of chromium in PM2.5 and PM10, concentration of nickel in PM10 and concentration of zinc in PM2.5 and PM10decreased as the distance from the MWI increased. We used linear regression models to analyze the results of sampling, we found that dioxins and zinc in PM1 and PM2.5 were significant associations (p=0.069, 0.037, 0.067) with the distance from the MWIs.
Although the concentrations of air dioxins were lower in Taipei than in previous studies, MWIs were the major source of dioxins for the 36 primary schools surrounding the incinerators. The seasons and distance may be the most important predictors of MWI emissions.
II.
There were studies about MWI’s influences on respiratory health. We tried to clarify the relationship between municipal waste incinerators (MWI) and the adverse respiratory effects.
This was a cross sectional study. We chose three MWIs in similar social economical stat. For each MWI we chose two primary schools within two kilometer from the MWI as the exposure group and two primary schools at least two kilometer from the MWI as reference group. For these 12 schools, we finished twice air sampling of gaseous and solid dioxins in June and September, and used it as the indicators for the emission of MWIs. For each MWI, we chose two schools from exposure/reference group by the results of sampling. We chose two schools with high dioxin concentration as exposure group for questionnaire survey. Two schools with low dioxin concentration were chosen as reference group. We used the written questionnaire from International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) in Chinese version. For each school, we randomly chose a class per grade (1st ~6th). We totally finished 1927 valid questionnaires, (1 class × 6 grades × 4 schools × 3 MWIs) and response rate was 99.6%. After the questionnaire survey, we selected half of them for pulmonary function test. We did the test at the same class, but we only did it at middle and high grades (3rd ~6th). Two technicians used dry-rolling seal system equipment to measure all students under ATS criteria (1994). We finished 683 children and response rate was 98.4%.
The result of sampling on dioxin was consistent with the prediction of distance in each group of the MWI. The values of dioxin were 0.01~0.3171 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3 , mean of all exposure group was 0.053 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3, the mean of all reference group was 0.030 pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3. When comparing two groups’ information from questionnaires, there was no discrepancy on children’s age, gender and potential air pollutants from their own houses. The mean of prevalence of asthma, were 13.9% and 11.9%, for all exposure groups and all reference groups. After controlled gender, grade, mothers education, home smoking, having hairy pet, having poultry, carpet, burning incense at home, using coil incense, molds and its odor, exposure group had higher risk than reference group (odds ratio, OR=1.46 and 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.05,2.03). We found the mean value of all exposure groups was 88%(FEV1/FVC) and all references were 89%(FEV1/FVC). After controlling for gender and grade, exposure group had similar risk with reference group (odds ratio, OR=0.78 and 95% confidence interval, 95%CI: 0.37,1.66)
Emissions from MWIs might have a slightly adverse respiratory effect in children. However, the role of exposure misclassification and chance should be considered.
摘要 i
Abstract iii
Table of contents v
List of tables vi
List of figures vii
Introduction 1
Material and methods 3
Study subjects 3
Sampling targets 3
Timing and frequency 3
Methods of sampling and analysis 4
Dioxins 4
Heavy metals 4
Data analysis 5
Results 6
Discussion 13
Conclusions 17
References 18
摘要 i
Abstract iii
Table of contents v
List of tables vii
List of figures viii
Introduction 1
Material & Methods 5
Study population 5
Exposure assessment 7
Questionnaire 7
Pulmonary function test 8
Statistical analysis 9
Results 11
Discussion 21
Conclusions 25
References 26
Appendix 35
Appendix 1. Raw data of dioxins (pg-TEQ(I-TEF)/m3) 36
Appendix 2. Wind rose of sampling sites 37
Appendix 4. Row data of heavy metals (μg/m3) 39
Appendix 5. International ambient air dioxins 42
Appendix 6. Questionnaire 43
Appendix 7 The ISCST3 model of three sites 47
Appendix 8 Standard operation process of dioxins analysis 50
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1. Abad E., Caixach J., Rivera J. PCDD/PCDF from emission sources and ambient air in northeast Spain. Chemosphere 1997;35(3):453-63.
2. Clarke L.B., Sloss L.L. Trace Elements - Emissions from Coal Combustion and Gasification. IEACRed. London: IEA Coal Research; 1992.
3. Anto JM, Sunyer J. Nitrogen-Dioxide and Allergic-Asthma - Starting to Clarify An Obscure Association. Lancet 1995;345(8947):402-3.
4. Atkinson A, Thompson SJ, Khan AT, Graham TC, Ali S, Shannon C et al. Assessment of a two-generation reproductive and fertility study of mercuric chloride in rats. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2001;39(1):73-84.
5. Bertazzi PA, Bernucci I, Brambilla G, Consonni D, Pesatori AC. The Seveso studies on early and long-term effects of dioxin exposure: a review. Environ.Health Perspect. 1998;106 (Suppl 2):625-33.
6. Calvert GM, Wall DK, Sweeney MH, Fingerhut MA. Evaluation of cardiovascular outcomes among U.S. workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Environ.Health Perspect. 1998;106 (Suppl 2):635-43.
7. Cesaroni G, Farchi S, Davoli M, Forastiere F, Perucci CA. Individual and area-based indicators of socioeconomic status and childhood asthma. European Respiratory Journal 2003;22(4):619-24.
8. Hsieh SF, Yen YY, Lan SJ, Hsieh CC, Lee CH, Ko YC. A cohort study on mortality and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Arch.Environ.Health 1996;51(6):417-24.
9. Lynge E. Cancer incidence in Danish phenoxy herbicide workers, 1947-1993. Environ.Health Perspect. 1998;106 Suppl 2:683-8.
10. Bertazzi PA, Bernucci I, Brambilla G, Consonni D, Pesatori AC. The Seveso studies on early and long-term effects of dioxin exposure: a review. Environ.Health Perspect. 1998;106 (Suppl 2):625-33.
11. Zober A, Messerer P, Ott MG. BASF studies: epidemiological and clinical investigations on dioxin-exposed chemical workers. Teratog.Carcinog.Mutagen. 1997;17(4-5):249-56.
12. Dieter O.R. Heavy Metals in Domestic Refuse and Their Distribution in Incinerator Residues. Waste Management and Research 1989;7:1577-81.
13. Shaham J, Rosenboim J, Ophire D, Mikullsky Y, Jucha E, Ribak J. The correlation between blood and urine level of cadmium and nasal and paranasal sinuses disorders. International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health 1993;65(1(Suppl)):91-3.
14. Dingle AF. Nasal Disease in Chrome Workers. Clinical Otolaryngology 1992;17(4):287-8.
15. Lilis R, Miller A, Lerman Y. Acute mercury poisoning with severe chronic pulmonary manifestations. Chest 1985;88(2):306-9.
16. Clayton GD, Clayton FE. Patty''s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. 2Ced. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1994.
17. Jolliffe I.T. Principal component analysis. Springer-Verlag; 1986.
18. Ameille J, Brechot JM, Brochard P, Capron F, Dore MF. Occupational Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in A Smelter Exposed to Zinc Fumes. Chest 1992;101(3):862-3.
19. Kakareka S., Kukharchyk T. Expert estimates of PCDD/F and PCB emissioms for some european countries. MSC-E Technical Note 2002;2002.
20. Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. The method of air PCDD/Fs sampling. Methods of sampling and analysis 2001;National Institute of Environmental Analysis(NIEA A809.10B).
21. Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. The method of air PCDD/Fs analysis. Methods of sampling and analysis 2001;National Institute of Environmental Analysis(NIEA A810.10B).
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