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研究生:李佳燕
研究生(外文):Celeste Chia-Yen
論文名稱:東南民答那語之依附詞排序
論文名稱(外文):The Ordering of Clitic Pronouns in the Languages ofSoutheast Mindanao
指導教授:任查理任查理引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:143
中文關鍵詞:語意角色依附詞群依附詞制約項目語態系統
外文關鍵詞:caseconstraintscliticclitic clustervoice systemsemantic roles
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本論文是一份探討一群東南民答那語〈Tagakaulo, Kaagan, Mansaka, and Davawenyo〉的依附詞〈clitic〉系統之研究。其主旨主要可以區分為兩大目標:其一為找出依附詞在不同句法結構中所處的位置;其二為找出決定依附詞群〈clitic cluster〉中的制約項目〈constraints〉。

關於依附詞的議題本研究以幾種不同的形式來闡述。首先,第一章定義何謂依附詞。基於第一章對依附詞認知所建構的基礎,第二章呈現出Tagakaulo的語態系統〈voice system〉以及帶有不同語意角色〈semantic roles〉的名詞在句子中所在的位置。其次,討論的重心轉移到具有不同語意角色的名詞在不同句法結構中所分佈的位置。這種呈現方式建立了對菲律賓語語態系統運作的基本了解。之後,在第三章到第七章內容的重心轉移到依附詞在依附詞群內外的分佈位置。基於對名詞和依附詞在句子中的分佈位置有所不同的了解,來加以確認句子的依附詞,再進一步分析依附詞跟依附詞之間的排序。

這些語言在依附詞排序上有一些共通之處。最顯著的地方在於這些依附詞系統中都受音韻的約束。多音節的依附詞必須接在較少音節的依附詞後面。這音韻上對排序的制約在本研究中的四個語言裡佔了三個。其中Tagakaulo則呈現出多重的句法制約,包含需要代名詞依照人稱和格〈case〉來排序的特點。儘管有這些不同點,此四個語言的依附詞系統整體展現出一種音韻與句法制約的整合。
This thesis is a study of the clitic systems of a group of languages spoken in the Southeast of Mindanao—Tagakaulo, Kaagan, Mansaka, and Davawenyo. The main purposes of this study are to find out: (1) the placement of clitics in various syntactic structures; (2) the constraints determining of order inside the clitic cluster.

The issues of clitics are portrayed in a number of ways in this study. To begin, chapter 1 identifies what a clitic is. Based on the understanding of clitics given in that chapter, chapter 2 presents the voice system of Tagakaulo and the distribution of nominal expressions with various semantic roles in a clause. Then, the discussion turns to the distribution of nominal elements in diverse syntactic constructions. This sets up the basic understanding of how the Philippine voice system works. Next, the main concern in chapters 3 through 7 shifts to the placement of clitics outside of as well as inside the clitic cluster. Based on the knowledge that the distribution of DPs and clitics is different, clitic elements can be identified and then can be further analyzed to see their inner order relative to each other.

These languages share some similarities in clitic order. The most striking point is that phonological constraints are found in all of these systems. Clitics with more syllables follow those with fewer syllables. This is the dominant constraint in three of the four languages. In Tagakaulo various syntactic constraints, requiring pronouns to be ordered based on person and case features, is observed. Despite these differences, all four languages exhibit a mixture of syntactic and prosodic constraints in their ordering systems.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chinese Abstract vii

English Abstract ix

Acknowledgements xi

List of Figures and Tables xii

Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Language distribution 1
1.2 Definitions 4
1.3 Literature review 11
1.4 Methodology 12
1.5 Aims and structure of this thesis 16

Chapter 2: The nonclitic morphosyntax of Tagakaulo 17
2.1 The voice system 17
2.2 Basic word order of a clause 22
2.3 Alternative word orders when there are preverbal constituents 24
2.4 Summary 27

Chapter 3: The ordering of clitic pronouns in Tagakaulo 28
3.1 Background issues 28
3.2 The position of the clitic cluster within the clause 31
3.3 The order of clitic pronouns relative to each other within the cluster 44
3.4 The domain of noninitiality 60
3.5 Summary 62

Chapter 4: The ordering of clitic pronouns in Kaagan 63
4.1 Nonclitic morphosyntax 63
4.2 The position of the clitic cluster within the clause 65
4.3 The order of clitic pronouns relative to each other within the cluster 70
4.4 The domain of noninitiality 79
4.5 Summary 81

Chapter 5: The ordering of clitic pronouns in Mansaka 82
5.1 The nonclitic morphosyntax of Mansaka 82
5.2 The position of the clitic cluster within the clause 84
5.3 The order of clitic pronouns relative to each other within the cluster 91
5.4 The domain of noninitiality 98
5.5 Summary 99

Chapter 6: The ordering of clitic pronouns in Davawenyo 100
6.1 Background morphosyntax 100
6.2 The position of the clitic cluster within the clause 101
6.3 The order of clitic pronouns relative to each other within the cluster 106
6.4 The domain of noninitiality 113
6.5 Summary 113

Chapter 7: Patterns across the languages 115
7.1 The minimal/augmented number system 115
7.2 Verb-adjacency and domain 117
7.3 The factors influencing clitic order 120
7.4 Conclusion 123

References 125

Appendices 136
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