(3.227.2.246) 您好!臺灣時間:2020/01/19 09:32
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
本論文永久網址: 
line
研究生:高麗雯
研究生(外文):Kao, Li-Wen
論文名稱:大學生的感恩心與知覺支持之相關研究
指導教授:修慧蘭修慧蘭引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:感恩心知覺支持大學生
外文關鍵詞:gratitudeperceived supportcollege student
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:60
  • 點閱點閱:560
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
社會支持是個人調節壓力的重要資源,過去研究顯示知覺支持高的人對支持行為記憶較好、較正向地詮釋社會訊息。本研究假設感恩心應是影響知覺支持的因素,感恩心的認知風格使人注意、憶念得自他人的照顧與關愛,提高對知覺支持的滿意;感恩的人單純地對人親善、回報他人,建立較多社會資源,因而支持人數較多。本研究共進行二部分研究:

研究一編制感恩心量表,探索感恩心的因素、內涵與類型。以118位大學生為預試樣本、341位大學生為正式樣本。結果顯示感恩心的因素包括「對人事物的感恩感受與認知習慣」、「對人感恩與報恩」、「感恩負向人事」。第一、二因素共同隱涵「不把一切視為理所當然」的核心信念、追本溯源的歸因能力,以及經常注意、記憶益處或給予者的認知習慣。第二因素涉及同理他人內心情感的能力;也包含報恩,個人感到被照顧、關愛而有感恩情緒,進而促發個人希望回報對方。第三因素注意到自己的成長來自於負面狀況提供了機會,雖然給予者無正向意圖。三個因素共同的認知風格是辨認出人事物對自己的正向經驗和結果有貢獻,將益處被評估為正向且將益處歸因於他者,而產生感恩的愉悅情緒。且所有受試者在上述三個因素分數上,可分成七種類型。

研究二探討不同背景變項大學生在感恩心分數上的差異,及感恩心和知覺支持的關係,以341位大學生為問卷施測正式樣本。結果顯示只有感恩心、對人感恩與報恩、對人事物的感恩感受與認知風格對支持人數、支持滿意度有預測力。感恩心高的人在注意、歸因、同理、記憶上的認知風格使他容易辨認出別人對自己正向結果的貢獻與善意,知覺支持滿意度較高,也建立較多社會資源而支持人數較多。

研究結果顯示:協助大學生培養感恩心,應可擴大知覺支持,使之回復到應有的份量,進而緩衝壓力,也促使學生有回報他人的向社會行為,增加社會資源。根據感恩心因素、內涵,本研究針對大學生個人、諮商人員、父母提出培養感恩心的數點建議。
Social support is one of the important resources for individuals to moderate stress. Past researches showed that people who perceive more support recall other’s supportive behaviors better and interpreter social information more positive. This research hypothesized that gratitude influences perceived support. The grateful cognitive style makes people attend to the kindness of others and remember it well. Grateful persons are kind toward others, and are good to others for appreciation. Thus, they build more social resources, and have more available supporters.

Study 1 created Gratitude Inventory, and explored the factors, implication, and styles of gratitude. 341 college students completed the Gratitude Inventory. The major findings were summarized as follows : First, the factor of gratitude includes : 1. The grateful feeling and cognitive habits toward people, events and things. 2. Gratitude and return kindness toward people. 3. Gratitude toward negative events and people. Second, there are seven kinds of gratitude styles.

Study 2 investigated the relationship between gratitude and perceived support. 341college students completed the Gratitude Inventory, Social Support Questionnaire and Social Desirability Inventory. The result showed that grateful feeling and cognitive habits toward people, events and things and Gratitude and return kindness toward people are effective predictors to the numbers of available supporter and the satisfaction of perceived support.

These findings showed that, helping college students developing gratitude will enlarge their perceived support, thus buffer the effect of stress. It will also make students behave more prosocially, thus build more social resources. According to the conclusions of the main findings, several suggestions are provided for college students, parents, counselors in the Universities, and future research.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 5
第三節 名詞解釋 6
第二章 文獻探討 7
第一節 感恩的內涵與相關研究 7
第二節 本土文化下的感恩心 16
第三節 知覺支持的內涵與相關研究 25
第四節 感恩心與知覺支持的關係 32
第三章 先行研究-訪談大學生的感恩經驗 37
第一節 研究目的 37
第二節 研究方法 37
第二節 研究結果 38
第四節 討論 43
第四章 研究一 感恩心量表編制 44
第一節 研究目的 44
第二節 研究方法 48
第三節 研究結果 55
第四節 討論 61
第五章 研究二 感恩心與知覺支持的關係 68
第一節 研究目的與假設 68
第二節 研究方法 69
第三節 研究結果 74
第四節 討論 84
第六章 綜合討論與建議 88
第一節 主要結果與討論 88
第二節 實務上的建議 90
第三節 研究限制與未來研究方向 96
參考文獻 97
中文部分 97
西文部份 98
附錄 105
附錄一 訪談大學生對感謝、感激、感恩的看法 105
附錄二 感恩經驗摘述 107
附錄三 表達感恩的經驗 108
附錄四 被感謝、感激、感恩的經驗 109
附錄五 感恩心預試量表 110
附錄六 大學生社會支持與個人特質問卷 112
一、中文部分
丹尼爾.高曼 (2003)。破壞性情緒管理。台北市:時報文化。
吳明隆(2000)。SPSS統計應用實務。台北市:松崗。
亞當斯(1999)。時時心感恩。台北市:張老師文化。
林清玄(1993)。三心 自由心•柔軟心•感恩心。台北市:皇冠。
邱文彬、林美珍(1999)。大學生邁向成熟的同儕人際關係:容忍性、同理心發展之性別與年齡差異的探討。教育與心理研究,22(上),161-192頁。
唐君毅(1991)。說中國人文中的報恩精神。唐君毅先生全集,3,87-97頁。
張治遙(1988)。大學生內外控信念、社會支持與學習倦怠的相關研究。國立彰化師範大學輔導研究所碩士論文。
陳彰儀、李明霓、顏志龍(2004)。網路應徵者填寫測驗的作假意圖:測驗類型與情境因素的影響。中華心理學刊,46(4),349-359頁。
曾文星(1991)。文化與心理治療。北京:北京醫科大學出版社。
萊恩(2000 )。感恩的心。台北市:種籽文化。
盧國慶(1999)。開啟美德世界的寶藏。台北市:揚智文化。

二、西文部份
Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Barrera, M., Jr., Sandler, I. N. & Ramsey, T. B. (1981). Preliminary development of a scale of social support: Studies on college students. American Journal of Community Psychology, 9, 435-447.
Bartholomew, K. (1990). Avoidance of Intimacy: An attachment perspective. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 147-178.
Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 226-244.
Bartholomew, K., Cobb, R. J., & Poole, J. A.(1997). Adult attachment patterns and social support process. In G. R. Pierce, B. Lakey, I. G. Sarason & B. R. Sarason (Eds.) Sourcebook of Social support and Personality. (pp.359-379). New York: Plenum Press..
Barusch, A. S. (1997). Self-concepts of low-income older women: Not old or poor, but fortunate and blessed. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 44, 269-282.
Baumeister, R. F., & Ilko, S. A. (1995). Shallow gratitude: Public and private acknowledgement of external help in accounts of success. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 16, 191-209.
Baumgartner-Tramer, F.(1938). “Gratefullness” in children and young people. Journal of Gereral Psychology, 53, 53-66.
Becker, J. A. & Smenner, P. C. (1986). The spontaneous use of thank you by preschoolers as a function of sex, socioeconomic status, and listener status. Language in Society, 15, 537-546.
Berger, F. (1975). Gratitude. Ethics, 85, 298-309.
Bergler, E. (1945). Psychopathology of ingratitude. Diseases of the Nervous System, 6, 226-229.
Bergler, E. (1945). Psychopathology of ingratitude. Diseases of the Nervous System, 6, 226-229.
Blain, M. D., Thompson, J. M., & Whiffen, V. E. (1993). Attachment and perceived social support in late Adolescence: The interaction between working models of self and others. Journal of Adolescent Research, 8, 226-241.
Bonnie & de Waal (2004). Primate Social Reciprocity and the Origin of Gratitude. In R. A. Emmons, & M. E. McCullough (Eds.) The psychology of gratitude (pp. 167-192). New York: Oxford University Press.
Bowlby, J.(1973). Attachment and loss. Vol. 2. Sepsration, anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books.
Bowlby, J.(1979). The making and breaking of affectional bonds. London: Tavistock..
Bryant, F. B. (1989). A four-factor model of perceived control: Avoiding, coping, obtaining, and savoring. Journal of Personality, 57, 773-797.
Caplan, G. (1974). Social systems and community mental health. New York: Behavioral Publications.
Cassel, J.(1976). The contribution of social environment to host resistance. American Journal of Epidemiology, 104, 107-123.
Cobb, S. (1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 38, 300-314.
Coffman, S. (1996). Parents’ struggles to rebuild family life after Hurricane Andrew. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 17, 353-367.
Collins, N. L. (1996). Working models of attachment: Implications for exploration, emotion, and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 810-832.
Collins, N. L., & Feeney B. C. (2000) A safe haven: An attachment theory perspective on support seeking and caregiving in intimate relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 1053-1073.
Collins, N. L., & Read, S. J. (1990). Adult Attachment, working models, and relationship quatlty in dating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 644-663.
Corney, M. R. (1988). Treatment of early narcissistic disturbance. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 5(2), 159-171.
Corney, M. R. (1988). Treatment of early narcissistic disturbance. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 5(2), 159-171.
de Waal, F. B. M., & Berger, M. L. (2000). Payment for labour in monkeys. Nature, 404, 563.
Dean, A. & Lin, N. (1977). The stress-buffering role of social support: Problems and Prospects for systematic investigation. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 165, 403-417.
Drew, J. B., Lakey, B., & Sirl, K. (1995). Clinical depression and cognitive processes in perceived support. Paper presented at the annual meetings of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Washington, DC.
Dunkel-Schetter, C., & Bennett, T. L. (1990). Differentiating the cognitive and behavioral aspects of social support. In B. R. Sarason, I. G. Sarason , & G. R. Pierce (Eds.) Social Support: An Interactional View (pp.267-296).New York: Wiley.
Emmons, R. A., & Crumpler, C. A. (2000). Gratitude as a human strength: Appraising the evidence. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19, 56-69.
Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 377-389.
Emmons, R. A., & Shelton, C. S. (2002). Gratitude and the science of positive psychology. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (459-471). New York: Oxford University Press.
Emmons, R. A., McCullough, M. E., & Tsang, J. A. (2003). The assessment of gratitude. In S. J. Lopez, & C. R. Snyder (Eds.) Positive psychology assessment: A handbook of models and measures. (pp.327-341). Washington.
Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: Norton.
Farwell, L., & Wohlwend-Lloyd, R. (1998). Narcissistic processes: Optimistic expectations, favorable self-evaluations, and self-enhancing attributions. Journal of Personality, 66, 65-83.
Florian, V., Mikulincer, M., & Bucholtz, I. (1995) Effect of adult attachment style on the perception and search for social support. The Journal of Psychology, 129(6), 665-676.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). Gratitude, like other positive emotions, broadens and builds. In R. A. Emmons, & M. E. McCullough (Eds.) The psychology of gratitude (pp. 145-166). New York: Oxford University Press.
Fritzgerald, P. (1998). Gratitude and justice. Ethics, 109, 119-153.
Galli, G.(2003). Field-structures of social virtues: Phenomenology and dynamics of gratitude and wonder. Gestalt-Theory, 25 (3), 158-164.
Galli, G.(2003). Field-structures of social virtues: Phenomenology and dynamics of gratitude and wonder. Gestalt-Theory, 25 (3), 158-164.
Gallup, G. H., Jr. (1998, May). Thankfulness: America's saving grace. Paper presented at the National Day of Prayer Breakfast, Thanks-Giving Square, Dallas, TX.
Garcia Preto, N. (1988). Transformations of the family system in adolescence. In B. Carter & M. McGoldrick (Eds) The changing family life cycle: A framework for family therapy (pp. 255-284). New York: Gardner.
Goldsmith, D. J., & Fitch, K. (1997). The normative context of advice as social support. Human Communication research, 23, 454-476.
Graham, S. (1988). Children’s developing understanding of the motivational role of affect: An attributional analysis. Cognitive Development, 3, 71-88.
Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.
Heller, K. (1979). The effects of social support: Prevention and treatment implications. In A. P. Goldstein & F. H. Kanfer (Eds.), Maximizing treatment gains: Transfer enhancement in psychotherapy. New York: Academic Press.
Heller, K., Price, R. H., & Hogg, J. R.(1990). The role of social support in community and clinical interventions. In B. R. Sarason, I. G. Sarason , & G. R. Pierce (Eds.) Social support: An interactional view (pp.482-507).New York: Wiley.
Howe, M. L., & Courage, M. L. (1997). The emergence and early development of autobiographical memory. Psychological Review, 104, 499-523.
Izard, C. E. (1977). Human emotions. New York: Plenum.
Janoff-Bulman, R., & Berger, A. R. (2000). The other side of trauma: Towards a psychology of appreciation. In J. H. Harvey & E. D. Miller (Eds.) Loss and trauma: General and close relationship perspectives (29-44). Philadelphia, PA: Brunner-Routledge.
Kagan, J. (1994). Galen’s prophecy. New York: Basic Books.
Klein, M. (1957). Envy and gratitude: A study of unconscious sources. London : Routledge, 2001, c1957.
Kobak, B. R., & Sceery, A. (1988). Attachment in late adolescence: Working models, affect regulation, and representations of self and others. Child Development, 59. 135-146.
Lakey, B., & Cassady, P. B. (1990).Cognitive processes in perceived social support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 337-343.
Lakey, B., & Lutz, C. J. (1996). Social support and preventive and therapeutic interventions. In G. R. Pierce, B. R. Sarason & I. G. Sarason (Eds.) The handbook of social support and the family. (pp.435-464). New York: Plenum.
Lakey, B., McCabe, K. M., Fiscaro, S. & Drew, J. B. (1996) Environmental and personal determinants of support perceptions: Three generalizability studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1270-1280.
Lakey, B., Moineau, S., & Drew, J. B.(1992). Perceived social support and individual differences in the interpretation and recall of supportive behavior. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 11, 336-348.
Langston, C. A. (1994). Capitalizing on and coping with daily-life events: Expressive responses to positive events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1112-1125.
Lazarus, R. S., & Lazarus, B. N. (1994). Passion and reason: Making sense of our emotions. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lewis, M. (1990). Self-knowledge and social development in early life. In L. Pervin (Ed.) Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 277-300). New york: Guilford Press.
Masingale, A. M., Schoolnover, S., Karft, S., Burton, R., Waring, S., Fouad, B., Tracy, J., Pillips, S., Kolts, R. L., & Watkins, P. (2001, December). Gratitude and post-traumatic symptomatology in a college sample. Paper submitted for presentation at the convention of the International Society for Traumatic Dtress Studies, New Orleans.
McAdams, D. P., & Bauer, J. J. (2004). Gratitude in modern life: Its manifestation and development. In R. A. Emmons, & M. E. McCullough (Eds.) The psychology of gratitude (pp. 81-99). New York: Oxford University Press.
Mccormack, E. K. (1997). Moving from anger to gratitude: The formative power of an empathic encounter. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. 58(3-A), 1128.
Mccormack, E. K. (1997). Moving from anger to gratitude: The formative power of an empathic encounter. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. 58(3-A), 1128.
McCraty, R., Atkison, M., Tiller, W. A., Rein, G., & Watkins, A. D. (1995). The effects of emotions on short-term power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability. American Journal of Cardiology, 76, 1089-1093.
McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 112-127.
McCullough, M. E., Kilpatrick, S. D., Emmons, R. A., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Is gratitude a moral affect? Psychological Bulletin, 127, 249-266.
McGovern, L. P., Ditzian, J. L., & Taylor, S. P. (1975). The effect of positive reinforcement on helping with cost. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 5, 421-423.
McWilliams, N., & Lependorf, S. (1990). Narcissistic pathology of everyday life: The denial of remorse and gratitude. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 26, 430-451.
Ortony, A., Clore, G. L., & Collins, A. (1988). The cognitive structure of emotions. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Overwalle, F. V., Mervielde, I., & de Schuyter, J.(1995). Structural modeling of the relationships between attributional dimensions, emotion, and performance of college freshmen. Cognition and Emotion, 9, 59-85.
Pearlin, L. T., Lieberman, M. A., Menaghan, E. G. & Mullan, J. T. (1981). The stress process. Journal of Health and Social behavior, 22, 337-356.
Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. (2003). Character strengths before and after September 11. Psychological Science, 14, 381-384.
Pierce, G. R., Sarason, B. R., Sarason, I. G., Joseph, H. J., & Herderson, C. A.(1996). Conceptualizing and assessing social support in the context of the family. In G. R. Pierce, B. R. Sarason & I. G. Sarason (Eds.) The handbook of social support and the family. (pp.3-23). New York: Plenum.
Pierce, G. R., Sarason, I. G., & Sarason, B. R.(1991). General and relationship-based perceptions of social support: Are two constructs better than one? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 1028-1039.
Pilisuk, M. & Parks, S. H. (1986). The healing web: Social networks and human survival. Hanover, NH: University of Press of New England.
Procidano, M. E., & Heller, K. (1983). Measures of perceived social support from friends and family: Three validation studies. American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 1-23.
Reibstein, J. (1997). Rethinking marital love: Defining and strengthening key factors in successful partnerships. Sexual and Marital Therapy, 12, 237-247.
Rosenberg, E. L. (1998). Levels of analysis and the organization of affect. Review of General Psychology, 2, 247-270.
Sarason, B. R., Pierce, G. R., & Sarason, I. G. (1990).Social support: The sense of acceptance and the role of relationships. In B. R. Sarason, I. G. Sarason , & G. R. Pierce (Eds.) Social support: An interactional view (pp.97-128).New York: Wiley.
Sarason, B. R., Pierce, G. R., Shearin, E. N., Sarason, I. G., Waltz, J. A., & Poppe, L. (1991) Perceived social support and working models of self and actual others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 273-287.
Sarason, B. R., Sarason, I. G., & Pierce, G. R. (1990b).Traditional views of social support and their impact on assessment. In B. R. Sarason, I. G. Sarason , & G. R. Pierce (Eds.) Social support: An interactional view (pp.9-25).New York: Wiley.
Sarason, B. R., Sarason, I.G., Hacker, T. A., & Basham, R. B. (1985) Concomitant of social support: Social skills, physical attractiveness, and gender. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 469-480.
Sarason, B. R., Shearin, E. N., Pierce, G. R., & Sarason, I. G., (1987) Interrelations of social support measures: Theoretical and practical implications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 813-832.
Sarason, I. G., Levine, H. M., Basham, R. B., & Sarason, B. R. (1983). Assessing social support: The Social support Questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 127-130.
Sarason, I. G., Sarason, B. R., Shearin, E. N. (1986). Social support as an individual difference variable: its stablility, origins, and relational aspects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 845-855.
Saucier, G., & Goldberg, L. R., (1998). What is beyond the Big Five? Journal of Personality, 66, 495-523.
Schulenberg, S. E.(2001). Saying "thank you": On the role of gratitude in logotherapy. International-Forum-for-Logotherapy, 24(1), 20-24.
Schulenberg, S. E.(2001). Saying "thank you": On the role of gratitude in logotherapy. International-Forum-for-Logotherapy, 24(1), 20-24.
Schweitzer, A. (1969). Reverence of Life. New York: Harper & Row.
Seligman. (2002). Positive psychology, positive prevention, positive therapy. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.) Handbook of Positive Psychology (pp. 3-9).New York: Oxford University Press.
Simmel, G. (1950). The sociology of Georg Simmel. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Smith, A. (1976). The theory of moral sentiments (6th ed.). Oxford: Classroom Press. (Original published 1790)
Sommers, S., & Kosmitzki, C. (1988). Emotion and social context: An American-German comparison. British Journal of Social Psychology, 27, 35-49.
Spinoza, B. (1981). Ethics (G. Eliot, Trans.). Salzburg, Austria: University of Salzburg. (Original published 1677)
Steindl, R. D. (1967). A Deep Bow. Main Currents in Modern Thought, 23(5), 128-132.
Tesser, A., Gatewood, R., & Driver, M. (1968). Some determinants of gratitude. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9, 233-236.
Tomasello, M. (2000). Culture and cognitive development: Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 37-40.
Trivers, R. L. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology, 46, 35-57.
Vaux, A. (1990).An ecological approach to understanding and facilitating social support. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 507-518.
Watkins, P. C. (2004). Gratitude and subjective well-being. In R. A. Emmons, & M. E. McCullough (Eds.) The psychology of gratitude (pp. 167-192). New York: Oxford University Press.
Watkins, P. C., Grimm, D. L., & Hailu, L. (1998, June). Counting your blessings: Grateful individuals recall more positive memories. Presented at the 11th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society, Denver, CO.
Watkins, P. C., Woodward, K., Stone, T., & Kolts, R. L. (2003). Gratitude and happiness: development of a measure of gratitude, and relationships with subjective well-being. Social Behavior and Personality, 31, 431-452.
Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92, 548-573.
Wellman, H. (1990). The child’s theory of mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔