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研究生:李定諺
研究生(外文):Ding-Yan Li
論文名稱:由GPS觀測量測定飛行載具速度及加速度應用於空載重力測量
論文名稱(外文):Determination of aircraft velocity and acceleration with GPS for airborne gravimetry
指導教授:楊名楊名引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:測量及空間資訊學系碩博士班
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:飛行載具速度及加速度空載重力測量全球定位系統
外文關鍵詞:GPSaircraft velocity and accelerationairborne gravimetry
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  雖然空載重力測量技術已被認為是全面可行之技術,但來自於GPS所產生之誤差限制了空載重力測量之精度及其可應用之範圍。由GPS決定飛機之位置軌跡,藉由數值微分得到其速度、加速度,因此,其精度必須加以探討,否則重力儀即使非常準確,也無法獲得精確之重力值成果。

  本文單純由GPS之角度出發,利用空載重力測量中航帶時段重疊區之設計,探討由GPS所獲得飛機動態位置、速度及加速度之內在精度。飛機動態位置是利用Bernese 5.0 GPS解算軟體所計算得到,由台灣地區空載重力測量工作之GPS資料計算成果顯示,其整體內在平面定位精度約為22 cm,高程為30 cm左右。飛機速度及加速度則是以低階Taylor級數近似微分器獲得,由於獲得之訊號含有高頻部分,因此必須使用低通濾波器來降低雜訊,如高斯濾波,經過90秒濾波後,飛機u方向加速度平均內在精度可達1 mgal內,且比較不同微分器所得之u方向加速度,發現不同微分器在經過濾波處理後對成果之影響甚小,關鍵在於濾波處理。
  Although airborne gravimetry is now considered a fully operational technique, errors due to GPS continue to limit both its accuracy and the range of applications in which it can be used. The aircraft positions are determined by GPS, its velocities and accelerations are obtained by numerical differentiations of its trajectories. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss the precisions of the aircraft positions, velocities, and accelerations, otherwise, we can’t obtain accurate gravity results even if the accuracy of gravimetry is high.

  This study simply puts emphasis on GPS, and analyzes the internal accuracy of the kinematic aircraft positions, velocities and accelerations in airborne gravimetry using the time overlap of the airborne gravimetry flight strips. The kinematic aircraft positions are computed using Bernese 5.0 GPS software, test results show that the overall internal horizontal positioning accuracy is within 22 cm, and within 30 cm for the height component. Low-order Taylor series approximations are used for performing numerical differentiations to obtain the aircraft velocities and accelerations, it is necessary to apply a low-pass filter, such as Gaussian filter, in order to reduce the noise due to higher frequency signals. After 90 seconds filtering, test results show that the mean internal accuracy of the upward aircraft accelerations is within 1 mgal, and comparisons between the aircraft upward accelerations derived from different differentiators show that differentiators have few influence on the results after filtering, the key is the process of filtering.
摘要……………………………………………………………………..Ⅰ
英文摘要………………………………………………………………..Ⅱ
誌謝……………………………………………………………………..Ⅲ
目錄……………………………………………………………………..Ⅳ
表目錄…………………………………………………………………..Ⅶ
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………..Ⅸ

第一章 緒論………………………………………………………1
§ 1-1 前言………………………………………………………….1
§ 1-2 研究動機與目的…………………………………………….2
§ 1-3 文獻回顧…………………………………………………….2
§ 1-4 研究方法…………………………………………………….4

第二章 GPS動態定位…………………………………………………5
§ 2-1 GPS定位原理…………………………….…….…….……...5
§ 2-2 GPS相對定位…………………………………..……………5
§ 2-3 雙頻載波相位觀測量線性組合………………………….…7
§ 2-4 GPS動態定位………………………………………………..8
§ 2-4-1單一參考站即時動態定位………………………..……8
§ 2-4-2單一參考站即時動態定位…………………..……..…..9
§ 2-4-3後處理動態定位…………………………………..…..10

第三章 空載重力測量系………………………………………..16
§ 3-1 空載重力測量基本原理及儀器設備……………………...16
§ 3-2 GPS動態定位系統…………………………………………21
§ 3-2-1 GPS動態定位軟體…………………………………….21
§ 3-2-2 多主站動態定位……………………………………..26
§ 3-3 重力值約化系統…………………………………………...27
§ 3-3-1 載體速度、加速度之獲得……………………………28
§ 3-3-1-1 數值微分……….…………………………………28
§ 3-3-1-2 坐標轉換……….…………………………………33
§ 3-3-1-3 濾波處理……….…………………………………34

第四章 實驗與成果析……………………………………………..35
§ 4-1 實驗資料…………………………………………………...35
§ 4-2 應用靜態資料模擬動態計算成果精度分析……………...37
§ 4-2-1 動態定位成果精度分析………………………………37
§ 4-2-2 速度、加速度成果精度分析…………………………40
§ 4-3 動態資料計算成果精度分析……………………………...22
§ 4-3-1 飛機動態定位成果精度分析…………………………42
§ 4-3-2 飛機速度、加速度成果精度分析……………………49

第五章 結論與議…………………………………………………..55

附錄A…………………………………………………………………..57
附錄B…………………………………………………………………..61
參考文獻………………………………………………………………..65
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