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研究生:張家豪
研究生(外文):Chia-hao Chang
論文名稱:漢語中無空位之關係子句結構
論文名稱(外文):Gapless Relative Clause Constructions in Mandarin Chinese
指導教授:張寧張寧引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ning Zhang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:語言所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:124
中文關鍵詞:關係子句無空位
外文關鍵詞:gaplessrelative clauserelatorlinker
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The nature of Chinese gapless relative clauses (RCs) is studied through a comparison with Korean gapless RCs, pertaining to a series of syntactic mechanisms. A descriptive analysis of resumptive pro-word, causativization, pseudo-cleft sentences and coordination of head nouns are utilized to firstly detect the existence of a gap.
I argue, based on the differences observed between gappy RCs and gapless RCs that a formal syntactic structure of gapless RCs should be given in order to account for the differences. Den Dikken's (2006) analyses of RELATOR, LINKER, Predicate Inversion and two syntactic configurations: predicate-specifier structure and predicate-complement structure contribute to the advent of my syntactic structure for gapless RCs in Chinese. I also argue that with the realization of RELATOR as de in both gappy RCs and gapless RCs, we come to realize the similarity of them in nature as one kind of relative clause, though further movement and the reflex of de in gappy RC are conducive to its surface word order and grammaticality. Covert wh-word, definiteness effects and evaluative adverbs are made used of on the issue of whether gapless RCs should claim the name of relative clause.
Empirical cross-language gapless RCs are brought in for discussion, at a more descriptive level. Evidence from Korean, Japanese, Swiss German, English and Modern Greek are suggestive of the fact that there is no boundary between languages on the issue of gapless RCs.
Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 What Gapless Is? 1
1.2 Issue Concerned 2
1.3 Claims Made 4
1.4 Layout of this Thesis 5

Chapter 2 Literature Review 7
2.1 Chinese de as relative pronoun 7
2.1.1 Simpson's Analysis of de in Mandarin Chinese 7
2.2 Retrospections on Chinese Gapless RCs 12
2.2.1 Ning's (1993) 12
2.2.2 Law's (2001): Asymmetry of Two Types of Null Operator 16
2.2.2.1 Declarative, Questions and Relative Clauses 16
2.2.3 Yiu et al (1997) Asymmetry of Extractability 20
2.2.3.1 Asymmetry between Primary and Secondary Adjuncts 21
2.2.4 Aoun and Li (2003) 23
2.2.4.1 Relation between Head Noun and Relative Clause 23
2.2.5 Tsai's (1997) 25
2.2.5.1 Event Pro in Sloppy Relatives 26
2.2.5.2 Compositionality and Syntactic Adjacency 28
2.3 Den Dikken's theory 30
2.3.1 Functional Elements 31
2.3.1.1 RELATOR 31
2.3.1.2 LINKER 33
2.3.2 Predicate Inversion 34

Chapter 3 My Analysis: Gapless Relative Clause Construction 37
3.1 Korean Gapless RCs vs. Chinese Gapless RCs 38
3.1.1 Syntactic Mechanisms, with Respect to Semantic Characteristics 38
3.1.1.1 Resumptive Pro-Word: Gapless RC vs. Adjunct gap RC 40
3.1.1.2 Causativization: Gapless RC vs. Adjunct gap RC 41
3.1.1.3 Pseudo-Cleft Sentence: Adjunct gap RC vs. Gapless RC 43
3.1.1.4 Coordination of Head Nouns 45
3.1.2 Chinese Gapless Relative Clauses--Semantic Characteristic 47
3.1.2.1 Cause-Effect Relationship 48
3.1.2.2 Cross-Linguistic Evidence—English 50
3.1.3 Conclusion 51
3.2 Mandarin Chinese Gapless Topicalization Construction 52
3.2.1 Gapless Topicalization Construction 53
3.2.1.1 Resumptive pro-word: Gapless RC vs. Gapless TC 54
3.2.1.2 Causativization: Gapless RC vs. Gapless TC 55
3.2.1.3 Pseudo-cleft sentences: Gapless RC vs. Gapless TC 56
3.3 Some Syntactic Behaviors of Chinese Gapless RCs 57
3.3.1 Chinese Gapless RCs: On Covert Wh-Word Movement 58
3.3.1.1 Some Retrospections of Wh-Word Movement 58
3.3.1.2 Covert Wh-Word Movement 62
3.3.1.3 Conclusion 66
3.3.2 Chinese Gapless RCs: Indefiniteness 67
3.3.2.1 Some Retrospections of Definiteness Effects in Chinese 67
3.3.2.2 Definiteness Effects in Chinese 69
3.3.3 Evaluative Adverbs 71
3.4 My Analysis 74
3.4.1 A Prelude: Den Dikken's Proposals for Chinese 74
3.4.2 My Analysis: Relator Phrases for Two Constructions 76
3.4.2.1 Freezing Effect for Gapless RCs 78
3.4.3 My Analysis-Continuation 80
3.4.3.1 No Gaps-No Predicate Inversion 82
3.4.4 Conclusion 83

Chapter 4 Gapless RCs: NO Gaps among Languages 85
4.1 Korean Gapless RCs 85
4.2 Japanese Gapless RCs 89
4.3 Swiss German Gapless RCs 91
4.4 English Gapless RCs 92
4.5 Modern Greek Gapless RCs 94
4.6 Comparison between English vs. Modern Green and English vs. Chinese 96
4.6.1 English Gapless RCs vs. Modern Greek Gapless RCs 96
4.6.1.1 Which as a Connector in English Gapless RCs 97
4.6.1.1.1 Connective function-evidence from continuative ARCs 98
4.6.1.1.2 Prosodic Evidence for the Connector 99
4.6.1.2 Pu as a Connector in Modern Greek Gapless RCs 100
4.6.1.2.1 Asymmetry between Relativizer and Connector 100
4.6.1.3 Conclusion 102
4.6.2 English Gapless RCs vs. Chinese Gapless RCs 103
4.6.2.1 Connector as Universal? 104
4.6.2.2 Conclusion 108

Chapter 5 Conclusion 110
5.1 Summary of the Thesis 110
5.2 Remaining Issues 111

References 112
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