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研究生:吳彩平
研究生(外文):Tsai-Ping Wu
論文名稱:以固態發酵製備樟芝米及其品質與抗氧化性質
論文名稱(外文):Preparation of Taiwanofungus camphoratus fermented rice using solid state fermentation and its quality and antioxidant properties
指導教授:毛正倫毛正倫引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品暨應用生物科技學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:157
中文關鍵詞:樟芝固態發酵呈味品質抗氧化性質機能性成分
外文關鍵詞:Taiwanofungus camphoratussolid state fermentationtaste qualityantioxidant propertiesfunctional components
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:34
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
樟芝(Taiwanofungus camphoratus Wu et al.) 為一種珍稀的食藥用菇,含有許多生理活性物質,包括:多醣體、三萜類、過氧歧化酶、腺苷及麥角固醇。在藥理活性研究中發現樟芝具有抗發炎、抗氧化、抗癌、抗腫瘤及保肝作用。近年來國內因稻米生產過剩,而導致農民生計受到影響。故本研究以胚芽米為固態發酵樟芝米之基質,並針對樟芝米一般成份、營養、物理性質、呈味、生理活性物質及抗氧化活性進行評估。
以加水量50% 之胚芽米為基礎培養基,在不同發酵條件下生長所得之樟芝米,經分析後發現樟芝米 (T. camphoratus fermented rice; Chang-Chih rice) 較適合的生長條件分別為:溫度 (25°C)、初始 pH 值 (5.0)、氮源 (1% 黃豆粉)、碳源 (1% 蔗糖)、無機鹽類 (0.05% 磷酸氫二鉀)、水分含量 (50%)、菌種型態 (液態菌酛)、菌種均質時間 (0 sec)、菌種培養時間 (8 days) 和菌酛接種比例 (10%)。而以25°C下進行培養可使樟芝菌絲體生長達最高量 (123.09 mg/g)。
樟芝米和胚芽米在一般組成上並無太大差異。在營養方面,樟芝菌絲體之必需脂肪酸含量 (62.68%) 較樟芝米 (33.79%) 及胚芽米 (31.67%) 更高。而吸水性和白色度 (whiteness index) 之物性方面,樟芝米和菌絲體皆在數值上較胚芽米低。在呈味成分含量 (以等價鮮味值表示) 方面,依其含量多寡依序為菌絲體 (6.72) > 樟芝米 (0.09) > 胚芽米 (0.05 g /100 g)。在生物活性物質方面,粗三萜含量以菌絲體 (24.12) 高於樟芝米 (9.19 mg/g);而腺苷和麥角固醇含量亦是以菌絲體 (2.16 和 135.84 mg/g) 高於樟芝米 (0.18 和 7.92 mg/g)。
在樟芝米、胚芽米及菌絲體之熱水萃取物方面,整體來說,以樟芝米具有較好之抗氧化力活性。在清除 DPPH 自由基上,20 mg/mL 之樟芝米、胚芽米及菌絲體的能力分別為 99.45, 84.22 和 41.81%。
樟芝米、胚芽米及菌絲體之乙醇萃取物在 20 mg/mL 時,抗氧化力分別為 100、100 和 96.47%。在還原力上,樟芝米、胚芽米及菌絲體之乙醇萃取物在濃度為 20 mg/mL 時,分別為 1.41、0.56 和 0.98。在清除 DPPH 自由基能力上,於濃度10 mg/mL時,依序為菌絲體 (95.67) > 樟芝米 (94.86) > 胚芽米 (93.94) 。在螯合亞鐵離子能力上,在萃取物濃度 20 mg/ml 時,樟芝米、胚芽米及菌絲體分別為 74.64、89.86 和 44.8%。
由此結果可知,胚芽米經過固態發酵為樟芝米後,可提高樟芝米之營養、呈味和生理活性物質之含量及抗氧化性質。因此,利用本研究之結果即可開發出具營養、機能及保健性之稻米產品,並提高稻米產品之消費,而有助於改善國內稻米生產過剩之問題。
Taiwanofungus camphoratus Wu et al. (Chang-chih or Niu-chang-ku) is a precious edible and medicinal mushroom due to the fact that it contains many physiologically active materials, including polysaccharides, triterpenoids, superoxide dismutase, adenosine and ergosterol. In addition, the medicinal effects such as immunoregulatory, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-tumor and hepatoprotective had been found. Recently, the overproduction of rice greatly influences farmer''s life. The objectives of this study were to prepare Chang-Chih rice using embryo rice as a base, to analyze its proximate composition, nutritional, taste and physiologically active components and antioxidant properties.
The Chang-Chih rice was obtained from the solid state fermentation of cooked rice with 50% moisture content as the base under various conditions. The optimal growth conditions sought were: temperature (25 °C), initial pH value (5.0), nitrogen source (1% soybean meal), carbon source (1% sucose), mineral (0.05% K2HPO4), grain meal (1% pearled barley), water supplementation (50%), inoculum type (liquid), homogenization time of inoculum (0 sec), incubation time of inoculum (8 days) and inoculation rate (10%). Temperature at 25 °C could get the highest yield (123.09 mg/g).
Generally, the proximate compositions of Chang-Chih rice and rice differed slightly. With regard to nutritional components, content of essential fatty acids of mycelia (62.68%) was higher than this of Chang-Chih rice (33.79%) and embryo rice (31.67%). With regard to the physical properties of water absorption and whiteness index, Chang-Chuh rice and mycelia showed lower values than embryo rice. With regard to contents of taste component as expressed as equivalent umami concentration, mycelia (6.72) were higher than those of Chang-Chih rice (0.09) and embryo rice (0.05 g MSG/100 g).
With regard to physiologically active components, the content of crud triterpenoids, adenosine and ergosterol of mycelia (24.12, 2.16 and 135.84 mg/g) was higher than those of Chang-Chih rice (9.19, 0.18 and 7.92 mg/g). With regard to antioxidant properties of hot water extracts, embryo rice exhibited better antioxidant activity. At 20 mg/ml, scavenging abilities of embryo rice, Chang-Chih rice and mycelia on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 99.45, 84.22 and 41.81%, respectively.
For Chang-Chih rice, embryo rice and mycelia, at 20 mg/ml, antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts were 100, 100 and 96.47% whereas at 20 mg/ml reducing powers were 1.41, 0.56 and 0.98, respectively. At 10 mg/ml, scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals were in the order of mycelia (95.67) > Chang-Chih rice (94.86) > embryo rice (93.94%). Ethanolic extracts from Chang-Chih rice, embryo rice and mycelia chelated ferrous ions by 74.64, 89.86 and 44.80% at 20 mg/ml, respectively. Based on the results obtained, the Chan-Chih rice prepared from the solid state fermentation of embryo rice contained higher contents of nutritional and physiologically active components and better antioxidant properties.
Accordingly, the application of the information obtained herein can develop a new rice product with high nutritional, high functional and health, and increase the consumption of the rice product and thereby, reducing the stress raised from the overproduction of rice.
目 錄
表次 viii
圖次 x
前言 1
文獻整理 3
一、樟芝之介紹 3
二、固態發酵之介紹 14
三、菇類的呈味特性 18
四、抗氧化性質 26
材料與方法 35
一、實驗材料 35
1. 樟芝 35
2. 試藥 35
3. 培養基 36
二、實驗方法 36
(一) 樣品製備 36
1. 菌種活化 36
2. 樟芝米之製備 37
3. 菌絲體之培養 37
4. 樟芝米與樟芝菌絲體粉末 37
(二) 固態發酵 37
1. 生長條件之探討 37
2. 菌絲體含量之測定 38
3. pH值測定 39
(三) 一般組成分析 39
1. 水分之測定 39
2. 還原醣之測定 39
3. 粗蛋白之測定 39
4. 粗纖維之測定 40
5. 粗脂質之測定 40
6. 灰分之測定 41
(四) 營養組成分析 41
1. 脂肪酸組成 41
(五) 物理性質分析 42
1. 掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察 42
2. 色澤分析 42
3. 溶解、膨潤力及吸水指標測定 42
(六) 生理活性物質 43
1. 腺苷 43
2. 粗三萜類 43
3. 麥角固醇 44
4. 多醣體 44
(七) 呈味物質分析 46
1. 可溶性糖與糖醇之測定 46
2. 游離胺基酸之測定 47
3. 核苷酸之測定 49
(八) 抗氧化性質分析 50
1. 樣品製備 50
2. 抗氧化力分析 50
3. 還原力分析 51
4. 清除1,1-二苯基-2-苦味肼基團自由基之能力 51
5. 清除羥自由基 52
6. 螯合亞鐵離子能力分析 52
(九) 抗氧化物質分析 53
1. 抗壞血酸含量測定分析 53
2. β-胡蘿蔔素測定 53
3. 生育酚測定 53
4. 總酚類含量測定 54
(十) 統計分析 54
結果與討論 55
一、生長條件之探討 55
二、一般成分分析 75
三、樟芝米品質之評估 80
1. 營養組成 80
2. 物理性質 82
3. 生理活性物質 88
4. 呈味物質 95
四、樟芝米、胚芽米和樟芝菌絲體之抗氧化性質 104
(一) 熱水和乙醇萃取物之萃取率 104
(二) 熱水萃取物之抗氧化性質 104
1. 抗氧化力 104
2. 還原力 106
3. 清除1,1-二苯基-2-苦味肼基團自由基之能力 109
4. 清除羥自由基之能力 115
5. 螯合亞鐵離子之能力 115
(三) 乙醇萃取物之抗氧化性質 120
1. 抗氧化力 120
2. 還原力 120
3. 清除1,1-二苯基-2-苦味肼基團自由基之能力 123
4. 螯合亞鐵離子之能力 128
五、樟芝米、胚芽米和樟芝菌絲體熱水和乙醇萃取物抗氧化性質之
EC50 128
(一) 樟芝米、胚芽米及樟芝菌絲體之熱水萃取物EC50 128
(二) 樟芝米、胚芽米及樟芝菌絲體之乙醇萃取物EC50 133
六、樟芝米、胚芽米和樟芝菌絲體熱水和乙醇萃取物之抗氧化成分
分析 135
結論 141
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