(18.206.48.142) 您好!臺灣時間:2019/09/22 05:33
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
本論文永久網址: 
line
研究生:黃品臻
研究生(外文):Pin-Chen Huang
論文名稱:樟芝深層醱酵液化學成分和精油之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Antrodia camphorate Submerged Whole Broth and its Essential Oil
指導教授:邵貽沅邵貽沅引用關係郭悅雄郭悅雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Yuan ShaoYueh-Hsiung Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:實踐大學
系所名稱:食品營養研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:130
中文關鍵詞:樟芝精油
外文關鍵詞:Antrodia camphorateEssential oil
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:1266
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:215
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
樟芝(Antrodia camphorata)為台灣特有之菌種,本研究第一部分主要是分離與鑑定樟芝深層醱酵液之化學成分。第二部份是探討深層醱酵液態培養樟芝萃取之精油成分分析。在第一部分研究先將樟芝深層醱酵液凍乾粉於室溫下以甲醇浸泡三次,每次三天。甲醇萃取物經減壓濃縮後再利用乙酸乙酯與水分配萃取,取乙酸乙酯層濃縮後以重力管柱層析法(Column Chromatography, C. C.)粗分,接續利用矽膠薄層層析(Thin Layer Chromatography, TLC),高效液相層析(High Performance Liquid Chromatography, HPLC)及再結晶等方法,做進一步的分離純化,經光譜鑑定得到15個化合物,其中有1個為新化合物。
這些化合物概分為三類:固醇類(5個)、三萜類(4個)及其他類(6個),分述如下:

ST1:Ergosta-7,9(11),22E-trien-3β-ol
ST2:Ergosterol peroxide
ST3:β-Sitosterol
ST4:Stigmasterol
ST5:3β-5α-dihydroxy-6β-methoxyergosta-7,22(E)-diene
TR1:Dehydrosulphurenic acid
TR2:24-Methylene-lanost-8-en-3β-ol
TR3:Eburicoic acid
TR4:Dehydroeburicoic acid
OT1:(2E,4E)-Hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
OT2:Succinic acid monomethyl ester
OT3:(S)-(+)-pantolactone
OT4:Hydroquinone
OT5*:5-Methoxy-4-methyl-2,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]hept-4-en-3-one
OT6:Dimethyl 2-hydroxysuccinate
* 表示新化合物

第二部份易揮發物質成分分析,分別取第一部分研究中部分管柱層析樣品,以及樟芝菌絲體醱酵液上層浮物乾燥粉末水蒸氣蒸餾精油樣品、樟芝菌絲體醱酵液上層浮物含上清液水蒸氣蒸餾精油樣品、樟芝菌絲體醱酵全液凍乾粉末水蒸氣蒸餾精油樣品、樟芝菌絲體醱酵全液凍乾粉末甲醇萃取殘餘物水蒸氣蒸餾精油樣品,和樟芝深層醱酵培養醱酵槽出氣孔活性碳脫附精油樣品,以氣相層析-質譜儀分析鑑定組成份。
樟芝菌絲體醱酵液上層浮物乾燥粉末精油中以萜類和酯類為主。樟芝菌絲醱酵全液凍乾粉末水蒸氣蒸餾第4~8小時精油樣品WB-A2中萜類化合物含量明顯較和水蒸氣蒸餾第0~4小時精油樣品WB-A1高。樟芝菌絲體發酵液上層浮物全液分別經水蒸氣蒸餾精油樣品組成分以酯類為主。綜合比較後發現,倍半萜類化合物gamma-dodecalacton和delta-cadinene,應該主要存在於樟芝菌絲醱酵液的上清液,且可能部份存在於樟芝菌絲體中。非萜類化合物(9Z,12Z)-ethyl octaeca-9,12-dienoate和ethyl oleate應該主要存在於樟芝菌絲醱酵液的上清液。而倍半萜類化合物nerolidol和化合物farnesyl acetate3主要存在於樟芝菌絲體醱酵液上層浮物中。化合物furfural應該主要存在樟芝菌絲體醱酵液上層浮物中,且可能部份存在於樟芝菌絲體中。
樟芝醱酵培養前期出氣孔活性碳脫附精油成分以酮類為主,醱酵培養後期以萜類和酯類為主,由此推論樟芝菌絲在發酵後期才會大量合成、代謝出醇類及萜類物質,精油的利用價值也相對提高。
由第一部分研究中經管柱層析取得的精油樣品含有許多在其他樣品中所沒有的長鏈酯類、植物類固醇和三萜類,其中樣品EH20-ST1-AF更含有三種植物類固醇beta-sitosterol(ST3)、stigmasterol(ST4)和29-isofucosterol。精油樣品WMD是樟芝菌絲體醱酵全液凍乾粉末經甲醇萃取後之殘餘物經水蒸氣蒸餾取得,主要成分為酯類。
樟芝後期醱酵培養時於出氣孔活性碳脫附而來的精油樣品C-B,其萜類成分種類多含量高香氣重,而這類代謝產物容易在醱酵培養階段隨通氣而飄散,若能收集再進一步研究,或許能開發新的產品。
Abstract

The first part of study was on isolation and identification of the chemical constituents of Antrodia camphorata submerged whole broth. Powder of Antrodia camphorata submerged whole broth was extracted with methanol at room temperature three times (7 days each time). The extract was concentrated in vacuo to yield a residue which was suspended in water, and this phase was partitioned with ethyl acetate five times. The combined ethyl acetate layers afforded a black syrup which was separated by open column chromatography, thin layer chromatography, flash column chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and recrystallization to afford 15 compounds. Among these compounds are classified to 5 sterols, 4 triterpenoids and 6 others.

The 15 compounds are shown as follows:
ST1: Ergosta-7,9(11),22E -trien-3β-ol
ST2: Ergosterol peroxide
ST3:β-Sitosterol
ST4: Stigmasterol
ST5: 3β-5α-dihydroxy-6β-methoxyergosta-7,22(E)-diene
TR1: Dehydrosulphurenic acid
TR2: 24-Methylene-lanost-8-en -3β-ol
TR3: Eburicoic acid
TR4: Dehydroeburicoic acid
OT1: (2E,4E)-Hexa-2,4-dienoic acid
OT2: Succinic acid monomethyl ester
OT3: (S)-(+)-pantolactone
OT4: Hydroquinone
OT5*: 5-Methoxy-4-methyl-2,7-dioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]hept-4-en-3-one
OT6: Dimethyl 2-hydroxysuccinate


* new compound

The second part is analysis the material composition of easy to volatilize. Separately analysing the first part of research samples, and Antrodia camphorata ferment liquid upper strata float thing dry powder distillation essensitial oil sample, Antrodia camphorata ferment liquid upper strata float thing with liquid distillation essensitial oil sample, the Antrodia camphorata the whole broth of freezes the powder distillation essensitial oil sample, Antrodia camphorata the whole broth of freezes the powder methyl alcohol extract residue distillation essensitial oil sample, s Antrodia camphorata ferment liquid trough give vent to take off activated carbon essensitial oil sample with ether, in separately analysis by GC-MS.
Antrodia camphorata ferment liquid upper strata float thing dry powder distillation essensitial oil sample main components are terpenoids and esters. The terpenoids in Antrodia camphorata the whole broth of freezes the powder distillation 4~8 hours essensitial oil sample WB-A2 evident higher than the essensitial oil sample WB-A1. Antrodia camphorata ferment liquid upper strata float thing with liquid distillation essensitial oil samples main components are esters. Synthetically, chemical compounds gamma-dodecalacton and delta-cadinene, should exist in the broth of Antrodia camphorata ferment liquid, and may exist in the Antrodia camphorata mycelium. Chemical compounds of (9Z,12Z) -ethyl octaeca-9,12-dienoate and ethyl oleate should mainly exist in Antrodia camphorata ferment liquid. In addition, the chemical compounds of nerolidol and farnesyl acetate3 are exist in Antrodia camphorata ferment liquid upper strata float thing. Chemical compound furfural should exist in the broth of Antrodia camphorata ferment liquid upper strata float thing, and may exist in the Antrodia camphorata mycelium.
The prophase of train Antrodia camphorata ferment the air vent hole activated carbon with ether take off essensitial oil for the most part of composition is ketone, the train later stage essensitial oil main of compositions are terpenoids and esters. Therefore inference, Antrodia camphorata mycelium in a large to synthesize alcohols and terpenoids at ferment train of later stage. The value of the essensitial oil also improves relatively.
In charge of first part of research essensitial oil sample obtained to analyse contain a lot of long chain ester type, steroids and triterpenoids. The sample EH20-ST1-AF to detect three kinds of steroids contains beta-sitosterol (ST3), stigmasterol (ST4) and 29- isofucosterol. Essensitial oil sample WMD whether Antrodia camphorata the whole broth of freezes the powder methyl alcohol extract residue distillation, the primary compound is the ester.
When the cultivation on later stage of Antrodia camphorata ferment the air vent hole activated carbon with ether take off essensitial oil C-B content high fragrance serious. The metabolism result with fly away during the ferment to train, if can collect and study further, perhaps can develop the new products.
目錄

中文摘要……………………………………………………………………1
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………3
第一部份 樟芝深層發酵液成分之研究
第一章 前言………………………………………………………………...6
第二章 文獻回顧…………………………………………………………...8
第一節 樟芝之生理活性..…………………………………………...8
第二節 樟芝成分分析及結構鑑定之相關研究………..………….13
第三章 結果與討論……………………………………………………….20
第一節 分離程序及結果...…………………………………………20
流程圖一………………………………….…………………………21
第二節 化合物之分析與鑑定...…………………………………....23
第四章 實驗部份……………………………………………………….…80
第一節 實驗儀器及藥品………………………………………..….80
第二節 實驗步驟……………………………………………...……81
第二部份 樟芝深層發酵培養精油成分之研究
第二部份 中文摘要………………………………………….……………87
第一章 前言….……………………………………………………………88
第二章 文獻回顧……………………………………………………….…89
第一節 天然精油萃取…………………………..……………….…89
第二節 精油抗菌機制………………………………..……….……90
第三章 材料與方法……………….………………………………………92
第一節 實驗材料………………………………..………………….92
第二節 實驗方法………………………………..………………….94
流程圖二…………………………..………………………………...96
第四章 結果與討論…………………………………………………..…...97
第五章 参考文獻…..………………………………………………...…..122
参考文獻

高曉薇,台灣靈芝屬新種樟芝之三萜類成份研究,台北醫學院天然物醫學研究所碩士論文,1991

臧穆、蘇慶華,國台灣產靈芝屬新種-樟芝(型態、定名),南植物研究,2(4), 395-6, 1990

陳勁初、林文鑫、陳清農、許勝傑、黃仕政、陳炎鍊,台灣特有真菌-樟芝菌絲體之開發,中華真菌學會會刊,6(1), 7-22, 2001

陳啟楨,樟芝固體栽培之研發策略與生理活性研究,真菌類保健食品開發研討會, 2001

郭育君,樟芝子實體乙酸乙酯層及玫瑰樹鹼對肝癌細胞株HepG2和PLC/PRF/5之活性與其作用機轉之探討,高雄醫學大學天然物藥物研究所碩士論文,2005

劉千瑈,樟芝對樹突狀細胞之免疫調控作用與對巨噬細胞之抗發炎反應,陽明大學熱帶醫學研究所碩士論文,2006

顏世榮,樟芝降三酸甘油脂之功能研究,北醫學大學醫學檢驗生物技術學研究所碩士論文,2006

彭瓊琦,利用細胞株探討樟芝對人類膀胱癌之療效與其作用機轉,北醫學大學醫學研究所博士論文,2006

陳冠州,樟芝、芭樂心葉對人類攝護腺癌細胞株之生長抑制與其機轉探討,台北醫學大學醫學研究所博士論文,2006

蔡雁暉,樟芝深層培養液極其多醣體之抗氧化特性,中興大學食品科學研究所碩士論文,2001

陳怡欣,樟芝發酵過濾液對大白鼠肝臟生理機能之影響,中國醫藥學院營養研究所碩士論文,2002

張中姿,樟芝菌絲體之甲醇萃取部份對人類肝癌細胞株(HepG2)生長抑制作用的機轉探討,台灣大學醫學院生物化學暨分子生物學研究所,2002

嚴貴榮,樟芝對STZ誘發高血糖鼠血糖調節與抗氧化之影響,輔仁大學食品營養學研究所碩士論文,2002

劉翠玲,樟芝對倉鼠體內脂質代謝與抗氧化狀態之影響,輔仁大學食品營養學研究所碩士論文,2002

郭淑卿,樟芝發酵液對大鼠肝纖維化及胃腸功能之改善作用,中國醫藥學院中國藥學研究所碩士論文,2002

李一宏,樟芝菌絲體之培養及其多醣體抗乙型肝炎病毒活性評估,中國醫藥學院中國藥學研究所博士論文,2003

歐貴仁,樟芝的保肝功效與保肝有效成分純化之研究,成功大學藥理學研究所碩士論文,2005

賴鈺菁,芝發酵液之抗發炎及其誘導癌細胞凋亡機制之探討,中國醫藥大學營養研究所碩士論文,2004

蔡佩娟,樟芝抗癌功效評估及其機制之探討,中國醫藥大學醫學研究所碩士論文,2005

葉怡真,樟芝對血管內皮細胞之影響及保護心血管疾病之機制探討,中國醫藥學院營養研究所碩士論文,2002

魏佳瑜,固體栽培樟芝甲醇萃取物抗辯一自由基功效與抗血小板凝集作用探討,台北醫學大學公共衛生學研究所碩士論文,2003

黃鈴娟,樟芝與姬松茸之抗氧化性質及其多醣組成份,中興大學食品科學研究所碩士論文,1999

楊書威,中藥樟菇活性成分之研究,台灣大學藥學研究所碩士論文,1990

程一華,樟芝之成份研究,台灣師範大學化學研究所碩士論文,1994

吳德鵬,樟芝微量成分的研究,台灣師範大學化學研究所碩士論文,1995

黃惟敏,樟芝微量成分的研究(Ⅱ),靜宜大學應用化學系研究所碩士論文,1999

宋祖瑩,樟芝深層培養抗氧化及抗腫瘤特性之研究,中興大學食品科學研究所博士論文,2003

王心怡,樟芝深層發酵液之成分分析,實踐大學食品營養研究所碩士論文,2004

Aiello, A., Ciminiello, P., Fattorusso, E. and Magno, S. (1988) 3β,5α-Dihydroxy-6β-methoxycholest-7-enes from the marine sponge Spongia agaricina. J. Nat. Prod., 51(5), 999-1002.

Beric, T., Nikolic, B., Stanojevic, J., Vukovic, G. B. and Knezevic, V. J. (2008) Protective effect of basil (Ocimum baslicum L.) against oxidative DNA damage and mutagenesis. Food Chem. Toxicol., 46(2), 724-732.

Burt, S. A., Vlielander, R., Haagsman, H. P. and Veldhuizen, E. J. A. (2005) Increase in activity of essential oil components carvacrol and thymol against Escherichia coli O157:H7 by addition of food stabilizers. J. Food Prot., 68, 919-926.

Cai, P., Kaphalia, B. S. and Ansari, G. A. (2005) Methyl palmitate: inhibitor of phagocytosis in primary rat Kuffer cells. Toxicology., 210(2-3), 197-204.

Camarda, L., Dayton, T., Di, S. V., Pitonzo, R. and Schillaci D. (2007) Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of some oleogum resin essential oil from Boswellias spp. (Brseraceae). Ann. Chim., 97(9), 837-844.

Chang, T. T. and Chou, W. N. (1995) Antrodia cinnamomea sp. Nov. on Cinnamomum kanehirai in Taiwan. Mycol. Res., 99, 756-758.

Cherng, I. H., Wu, D. P. and Chiang, H. C. (1996) Triterpenoids from Antrodia cinnamomea. Phytochemistry, 41, 263-267.

Cheng, J. J.,Yang, C. J., Cheng, C. H., Wang, Y. T., Huang, N. K. and Lu, M. K. (2005) Characterization and functional study of Antrodia camphorata lipopolysaccharide. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53, 469-474.

Chen, C. H. and Yang, S. W. (1995) New steroid acids from Antrodia cinnamomea, a fungal parasite of Cinnamomum micranthum. J. Natur. Prod., 58(11), 1655-1661.

Chen, C. J., Tsai, C. C., Chien, C. M., Wu, T. H. and Chen, S. T. (2006) A screening platform for compounds with potential immuno-regulatory activities using human cord blood mononuclear cells. Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen., 9(10), 777-784.

Chiang c. t., Way, T. D., Tsai, S. J. and Lin, J. K. (2007) Diosgenin, a naturally occurring steroid, suppresses fatty acid synthase expression in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells through modulating Akt, mTOR and JNK phosporylation. FEBS Lett., 581(30), 5735-5742.

Dias, K. L., Correia, N. A., Pereira, K. K., Barbosa, F. J. M., Cavalcate K. V., Araujo, I. G., Ailva, D. F., Guefes, D. N., Neto, M. A., Bendhack, L. M. and Medeiros, I. A. (2007) Mechanisms involved in the vasodilator effect induced by diosgenin in rat superior mesenteric artery. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 574(2-3), 172-178.

Gunatilaka, A. A. L., Gopichand, Y., Schmitz, F. J. and Djerassi, C. (1981) Minor and trace sterols in marine invertebrates. 26.1 isolation and structure elucidation of nine new 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols from four marine organisms. J. Org. Chem., 46, 3860-3866.

Gustafson, J. E., Liew, Y. C., Chew, S., Markham, J. L., Bell, H. C., Wyllie, S. G. and Warmington, J. R. (1998) Effects of tea tree oil on Escherichia coli. Letters in Applied Micro., 26, 194-198.

Hsu, Y. L., Kuo, Y. C., Kuo, P. L., Ng, L. T., Kuo, Y. H. and Lin, C. C. (2005) Apoptotic effects of extract from Antrodia camphorate fruiting bodies in human hepatocellullar carcinoma cell lines. Cancer Letters, 221, 77-89.

Hseu, Y. C., Chang, W. C., Hseu, Y. T., Lee, C. Y., Yech, Y. J., Chen, P. C., Chen, J. Y. and Yang, H. L. (2002) Protection of oxidative damage by aqueous extract from Antrodia camphorata mycelia in normal human erythrocytes. Life Sciences, 71, 469-482.

Hsiao, G. H., Shen, M. Y., Lin, K. H., Lan, M. H., Wu, L. Y., Chou, D. S., Lin, C. H., Su, C. H. and Sheu, J. R. (2003) Antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects of Antrodia camphorata extract. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 3302-3308.

Hseu, Y. C., Wu, F. Y., Wu, J. J., Chen, J. Y., Chang, W. H., Lu, F. J., Lai, Y. C. and Yang, H. L. (2005) Anti-inflammatory potential of Antrodia camphorata through inhibition of iNOS, COX-2 and cytokines via the NF-κB pathway. International Immunopharmacology., 5, 1914-1925.

Hseu, Y. C., Chen, S. C., Tsai, P. C., Chen, C. S., Lu, F. J., Chang, N. W. and Yang, H. L. (2007) Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and induction of apoptosis in estrogen-nonresponsive breast cancer cells by Antrodia camphorate. Food and Chem. Toxic., 45, 1107-1115.

Holker, J. S., Powell, A. D. G., Robertson, A., Simes, J. J. H. and Wright, R. S. (1953) The chemistry of fungi. Part XVIII.* the cyclic system of eburicoic acid. J. Chem. Soc., 2414-2422.

Helaleuca, I. M., Alakomi, H. L., Kyosti, L. K., Tiina, M. S., Pol, I., Eddy, J. S., Leon, G. M. and Wright, A. V. (1998) Characterization of the action of selected essential oil components on dram-negative bacteria. J. Agri. Food Chem., 46(9), 3590-3595.

Inouye, S., Takizawa, T. and Yamaguchi, H. (2001) Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their major constituents against respiratory tract pathogens by gas contact. J. Antimic. Chem., 47, 565-573.

Kawagishi, H., Katsumi, R., Sazawa, T., Mizuno, T., Hagiwara, T. and Nakamura, T. (1988) Cytotoxic steroids from the mushroom Agaricus blazei. Phytochemistry, 27(9), 2777-2779.

Knobloch, K., Pauli, A., Lberl, B., Weigand, H. and Weis, N. (1989) Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oil components. J. Essent. Oil Res., 1, 119-128.

Knobloch, K., Weigand, N. and Schwarm, H. M. (1986) Action of terpenoids on energy metabolism. In: Brunke, E.J. (Ed.), Progress in essential oil research: 16th International Symposium on Essential oils. De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 429-445.

Kobori, M., Yoshida, M., Kameyama, O. M. and Shinmoto, H. (2007) Ergosterol peroxide from an edible mushroom suppresses inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 macrophages and growth of HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells. British Journal of Phar., 150, 209-219.

Lee, I. H., Huang, R. L., Chen, C. T., Chen, H. C., Hsu, W. C. and Lu, M. K. (2002) Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides exhibit anti-hepatitis B virus effects. FEMS Micro. Letters, 209, 63-67.

Lindequist, U., Lesnau, A., Teuscher, E. and Pilgrim, H. (1989) Untersuchungen zur antiviralen Wirksamkeit von Ergosterolperoxid. Pharmazie, 44, 579-580.

Lu, Z. M., Tao, W. Y., Zou, X. L., Fu, H. Z. and Ao, Z. H. (2007) Protective effects of mycelia of Antrodia camphorate and Armillariella tabescens in submerged culture against ethanol-induced toxicity in rats. J. Ethnopharmacology, 110, 160-164.

Mann, C. M., Cox, S. D. and Markham, J. L. (2000) The outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCTC 6749 contributes to its tolerance to the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil). Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 30(4), 294-297.

Nakamura, N., Hirakawa, A., Gao, J. J., Kakuda, H., Shiro, M.., Komatsu, Y., Sheu, C. C. and Hattori, M. (2004) Five new maleic an succinic acid derivatives from the mycelium of Antrodia camphorate and their cytotoxic effects on LLC tumor call line. J. Nat. Prod., 67, 46-48.

Niwayama, S. (2000) Highly efficient selective monohydrolysis of symmetric diesters. J. Org. Chem., 65, 5834-5836.

Nikaido, H. (1994), Prevention of drug access to bacterial targets-permeability barriers and active efflux. Science, 264, 382-388.

Paniagua, P. R., Marigal, B. E., Reyes, C. S., Alvarez, G. I., Sanchez, C. L., Prez, G. J., Hernandez, N., Flores, M. G. and Velasco, O. (2008) Cell protection induced by beta-sitosterol: inhibition of genotoxic damage, stimulation of lymphocyte production, and determination of its antioxidant capacity. Arch. Toxicol., 6.

Ramirez, J. A., Bruttomesso, A. C., Michelini, F. M., Acebedo, S. L., Alch, L. E. and Galagovsky, L. R. (2007) Syntheses of immunomodulating androstanes and stigmastanes: comparison of their TNF-alpha inhibitory activity. Bioorg. Med. Chem., 15(24), 7538-7544.

Reger, D. L. and Habib, M. M. (1986) Carbon-13 NMR investigation into the interaction of sodium sorbate and sorbic acid with various micelle forming surfactants. J. Phys. Chem., 84, 77-82.

Ripmeester, J. A. (1980) Application of solid state 13 C NMR to the study of polymorphs, clathrates and complexes. Chem. Physics Letters, 74(3), 536-538.

Sara, M. S., Leticia, Q. C. and Jesus, S. R. (1995) Regioselective reductions of steroidal conjugated dienes by DIBAH. Tetrahydron Letters. 36(46), 8359-8362.

Sarkar, S., Khan, M. F., Kaphalia, B. S. and Ansari, G. A. (2006) Methyl plamitate inhibits lipopolysaccaride-stimulated phagocytic activity of rat peritoneal macrophages. J. Biochem. MOL. Toxicol., 20(6), 302-308.

Song, T. Y. and Yen, G. C. (2002) Antioxidant properties of Antrodia camphorate in submerged culture. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 3322-3327.

Song, T. Y. and Yen, G. C. (2003) Protective effects of fermented filtrate from Antrodia camphorate in submerged culture against CCl4-induced hepatic toxicity in rats. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51, 1571-1577.

Song, T. Y., Hsu, S. L. and Yen, G. C. (2005) Induction of apoptosis in human hepatoma cells by mycelia of Antrodia camphorate in submerged culture. J. Ethnoph., 100, 158-167.

Shinkre, B. A. and Deshmukh, A. R. A. S. (2004) The synthesis of (S)-(+)-pantolactone and its analogues from an ephedrine-derived morphlinone. Tetrahedron Asym., 15, 1081-1084.

Scheffer, J. R., Wong, Y. F., Patil, A. O., Curtin, D. Y. and Paul, I. C. (1985) CPMAS 13C NMR spectra of quinines, hydroquinones, and their complexes. Use of CMR to follow a reaction in the solid state. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 107, 4898-4904.

Smith, P. and Karukstis, K. K. (1982) EPR study of long-range proton couplings in aliphatic acetoxy and alkoxycarbonyl radicals*. J. Mag. Res., 47, 8-18.

Sikkema, J., Bont, J. A. M. and Poolman, B. (1994) Interactions of cyclic hydrocarbons with biological membranes. J. Bio. Chem., 269(11), 8022–8028.
Tai, T., Akahori, A. and Shingu, T. (1993) Triterpenes of Poria cocos. Phytochemistry, 32(5), 1239-1244.

Tsai, Z. T. and Liaw, S. L. (1985) The use and the effect of Ganoderma. San Yun Press: Taichung, Taiwan. p.116.

Tung, Y. T., Chua, M. T., Wang, S. Y. and Chang, S. T. (2007) Anti-inflammation activities of essential oil and its constituents from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum) twigs. Bioresour. Technol., Sep 7.

Wu, S. H., Yu, Z. H., Dai, Y. C., Chen, C. T., Su, C. H., Chen, L. C., Hsu, W. C. and Hwang, G. Y. (2004) Taiwanofungus, a polypore new genus. Fung. Sci., 19, 109-1016.

Wu, X., Yang, J. S., Zhou, L. and Dong, Y. S. (2004) New lanostane-type triterpenes from Fomes officinalis. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 52(11), 1375-1377.

Yang, S. W., Shen, Y. C. and Chen, C. H. (1996) Steroids and triterpenoids of Antrodia cinnamomea-fungus parasitic on Cinnamomum micranthum. Phytochemistry, 41(5), 1389-1392.

Zang, M. and Su, C. H. (1990) Ganoderma comphoratum, a new taxon in genus Ganoderma from Taiwan. China Acta Bot Yunnancia, 12, 395-396.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔