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研究生:余彥良
研究生(外文):Yu,En Liang
論文名稱:台灣雇主人口性別組成及其變遷趨勢之分析:1978-2005
論文名稱(外文):Patterns and Changes of Sex Composition of the Employers in Taiwan, 1978-2005
指導教授:陳信木陳信木引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:社會學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:社會學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:雇主性別組成變遷趨勢雙元結構
外文關鍵詞:employersex compositionchangesdual structure
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依據行政院主計處歷年「人力資源」調查所顯示,雇主在台灣就業人口中所佔比例呈現明顯逐年成長的趨勢。的確,在台灣,我們隨處皆可見到大大小小、不同的「老闆」們,對於台灣勞力市場與經濟發展影響重大,但我們對這群人的面貌卻仍然所知有限。此外,隨著女性勞動參與率的成長與教育程度的大幅提升,使女性不再僅侷限於基層勞動力,管理職位、甚至企業領導人都開始看見女性的身影。有鑑於雇主人口的重要性及女性在勞力市場中的角色位置逐漸在改變,本研究主要目的即在探討台灣雇主人口性別組成及其變遷趨勢。

主要資料來源為行政院主計處1978至2005年每年五月之「人力資源」調查,透過近30年時間序列資料的分析,本研究首先企圖勾勒出台灣整體雇主人口性別組成及其變遷面貌,進而在台灣經濟結構轉型的歷史脈絡中,分析不同產業部門中雇主的性別組成,以探討經濟結構變化與雇主人口性別組成之間的關係。此外,由於組織規模之於雇主,代表其經濟資源多寡,對於雇主的經濟成就(economic success)影響深遠,本研究亦進一步分析不同組織規模雇主之性別組成及其變遷趨勢。同時,在性別組成的「數量」變化基礎上,本研究也進一步分析不同性別雇主在年齡、教育組成、產業及組織規模分佈等「性質」上的變化,藉以更深入分析台灣男女兩性雇主變遷的面貌。

研究結果發現台灣雇主人口的性別結構依然是男高女低,男性比例遠高於女性,然而女性雇主的比重有逐漸增加的趨勢。在產業部門的部分,以個人服務業及社會服務業中女性所佔比例較高,此結果顯示服務業部門提供了女性進入成為雇主的產業利基(industrial niche)。在組織規模的部分,一如預期,規模為2至9人的小雇主中女性所佔比例最高。進一步分析不同性別雇主在基本人口組成、產業部門及組織規模的分佈,本研究發現,男女兩性雇主在年齡與教育組成及其變遷趨勢上差異並不大,然而產業組成及組織規模分佈便呈現出明顯的差異。男性雇主主要還是集中在以製造業、營造業為主的轉換性產業,組織規模整體而言也較女性大,而女性雇主則是高度集中於低利潤的個人服務業,組織規模也普遍小於男性。

透過實證資料的分析,本研究發現台灣雇主人口性別組成變遷的背後儼然呈現雙元結構的特質。儘管女性雇主比重的增加顯示女性在勞力市場中的角色位置確實在改變,性別分工的界線開始鬆動。然而,不論由不同產業、組織規模雇主的性別結構變遷,或是不同性別雇主在產業部門與組織規模分佈上的變化,本研究皆發現女性雇主相對於男性雇主,呈現出明顯的「邊陲」、「次要的特質」,換言之,即使在雇主人口中,我們依然可以觀察到明顯的性別階層化現象。因此,即使女性雇主人口的成長是一個不爭的事實,其實質經濟地位的提升卻仍然相當有限,由此觀之,台灣勞力市場的性別平等仍有很長一段路要走。
There has been an increasing number of employers in Taiwan for the past 30 years, who are influential to the labor market and the economy. However, our understanding of this particular group of people is still of scarcity. Moreover, with the growths of female labor force participation and educational attainment, women has no longer been confined to lower level positions and started to become managers, or even business owners. Due to the importance of employers and the fact that women’s positions in the labor market have been changing, this thesis attempts to analyze the patterns and changes of the employer’s sex composition in Taiwan.

Using the “Human Resource Survey” from 1978 to 2005, this thesis intends to depict the picture of the patterns and changes of the employer’s sex composition in Taiwan, and further analyze the employer’s sex composition in different industrial sectors in the context of Taiwan’s economic transformation. Furthermore, due to the importance of firm size to the employer’s economic success, this thesis also analyzes sex composition of different firm size. Meanwhile, on the basis of the quantitative change of the employer’s sex composition, this thesis also analyzes the qualitative change of the male and female employers respectively in terms of age, educational and industrial compositions and the distribution of firm size.

The research result shows that the proportion of male employers is still much higher than that of women, but the percentage of female employers has consistently been increasing. As to sectoral differences, the personal service sector and social service sector has higher proportions of female employers, which indicates that these sectors provide more industrial niches to woman entrepreneurs. The sex composition among employers of different firm size, as has been expected, shows significant differences. Employers of firm size 2 to 9 people has the highest percentage of women. Further analyses of the age, educational and industrial compositions and the distribution of firm size show that while there are only slight differences between male and female employers’ age and educational composition, the industrial and firm-size distributions show significant dissimilarities. The male employers center around the transformative sector while the female ones concentrate in low-profit, personal service sector with smaller firm size.

Through the empirical analyses, the author concludes that a dual structure exists behind the sex composition of the employers in Taiwan. Despite the fact that the proportion of female employers has been increasing, which indicates that the roles and positions of women in the labor market has indeed undergone certain changes, the female employers still come in a “peripheral” and “secondary” position. In other words, we can still observe obvious gender stratification among the employers in Taiwan. Therefore, the gender equality in Taiwan’s labor market still has a long way to go.
致謝
摘要
目次
圖表次
第壹章、前言................................................1
第貳章、文獻探討.............................................8
第參章、研究設計............................................28
第肆章、台灣雇主人口的性別組成及其變遷........................35
第伍章、結論與建議..........................................66
參考書目及附錄
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