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研究生:林家慶
研究生(外文):Jia-Chin Lin
論文名稱:應用福衛二號時間序列影像監測曾文水庫集水區崩塌地之時空變化
論文名稱(外文):Applications of FORMOSAT-2 time series imagery on monitoring the spatial and temporal variations of landslide in the catchments of Tseng-Wen reservoir
指導教授:劉正千劉正千引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cheng-Chien Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:地球科學系碩博士班
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:83
中文關鍵詞:崩塌地福衛二號空間自相關分類
外文關鍵詞:ClassificationSpatial AutocorrelationFORMOSAT-2Landslide
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:17
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  • 下載下載:88
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集水區的治理及保育為水庫經營之重要課題,曾文水庫集水區地形陡峭、河川湍急,上游的集水區地質脆弱,經雨水沖刷易使大量泥沙堆積於河道上,加上人為濫墾、濫伐及超限利用的後果,加劇土石災害的發生規模頻率,嚴重汙染水庫水源,然而受限於人力及經費等因素,實難有效掌握廣大集水區內土地利用變化之情況。本研究旨在建立一套崩塌地監測機制,以快速、有效地掌握土地利用現況及環境變遷之資訊,作為集水區治理及研擬防災應變措施之依據,達到永續利用之最終目標。
遙測具有涵蓋大範圍、提供長時間紀錄之特性,適合應用於即時與全面之監測工作,近年利用高解析度衛星影像判釋土地利用變遷已為遙測技術發展的重點之一。藉由我國自主控制的福爾摩沙衛星二號(以下簡稱福衛二號),具備低成本、高時間、高空間解析度的特性,能迅速掌握地表的變遷情形。本研究對曾文水庫集水區2月至隔年1月共計十四幅不同時期福衛二號影像(取像間格平均為一到二週)進行處理與分析;使用已發展之「福衛二號影像自動處理系統」,對福衛二號影像之特性進行錯位修正、正射校正、大氣校正、彩色融合及多期影像精準對位之工作。
研究運用多期福衛二號影像進行土地覆蓋判釋,搭配相關的圖層與光譜訊息,萃取雲霧、陰影、水體、河道、建物、道路與農田等遮罩;應用區域空間統計(Local spatial statistic)提升遙測影像分類的精準度,以自相關指數Getis Gi來增強地物間的空間特性;同時計算植生指數(NDVI)之Getis空間自相關,再由新的空間資訊進行非監督式分類,增強崩塌地與植被的空間訊息,最後展示崩塌地分類結果,並逐一討論各環境因素對水庫集水區崩塌地之影響,確立各種自然事件與崩塌地分布的關係。
分析結果顯示,四月地震所引發之崩塌多位於坡頂,但由於其土壤與岩層多已鬆動並出現裂隙,導致之後的降雨事件中(五月),坡頂的崩塌仍持續發生;也因為該降雨事件已帶走大部分的鬆散土體,使得該區域內的岩盤逐漸趨於穩定,造成在隨後的豪大雨事件,產生的崩塌地與雨量間並非呈現完全的正相關,意味著該時期兩者間的相關性並不高,研究發現該現象極可能是由於降雨期間(六、七月)已無足夠鬆散土體所致。研究成果指出,崩塌地的發生並非單一因素所造成(雨量、地震、地形與地質),且各因子間的交互作用影響崩塌之程度頗大。
Monitoring the spatial and temporal variations of landslide in the catchments of reservoir is a crucial and urgent task to be addressed in Taiwan area. The lofty mountains, broken terrain and frequent earthquakes, together with the heavy rainfall during the raining and typhoon season, makes Taiwan a region that has one of the highest erosion rates in the world. As a result, landslides are frequently found in the catchments of reservoir. Since the slump material might be flushed into the reservoir after a heavy storm, any landslide in the catchment area is basically a potential threat to the water quality and the lifespan of a reservoir.
This research employs fourteen pairs of panchromatic and multispectral images of the study area taken by FORMOSAT-2 from February to December 2006. These images were processed by F2 AIPS, including band-to-band coregistration, spectral preserved pan-sharpening, automatic orthorectification, multi-temporal imagery matching and radiometric normalization. A new module of change detection was developed to classify the landslide areas by considering the spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics of landslide. The landslide areas are further classified as the newly-developed, recovering, expanding and fully-recovered categories. The total area for each category in the entire catchment area was plotted against the time and various severe events, such as the earthquake, typhoon and heavy storm. The result indicates that the newly-developed landslide is closely related to the geological event, such as the earthquake. Once the slump material is generated, a comparatively low amount of rainfall will trigger the flushing of slump material. By contrast, once the slump material is all gone, there would be no significant change of landslide areas, even under the severe weather events of typhoon or storm. This suggests that the most critical timing for protecting the reservoir is right after the earthquake event to next rain. If the slump material is not managed or removed during this crucial period of time, they will all go to the reservoir eventually.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vi
表目錄 viii
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 4
第2章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 誘發崩塌之因素 5
2.2 曾文水庫集水區的調查 5
2.3 崩塌地判釋 6
2.4 衛星影像處理與分析 8
2.5 總結 15
第3章 研究架構 16
第4章 研究材料 18
4.1 地區概述 19
4.2 事件統計 23
4.3 衛星影像 26
第5章 研究方法 32
5.1 影像前處理 32
5.1.1 錯位修正 33
5.1.2 正射糾正 34
5.1.3 雲霧、水體濾除 35
5.1.4 大氣校正 39
5.2 崩塌地分析 40
5.2.1 建立遮罩 42
5.2.2 空間統計 48
5.2.3 植生指數 51
5.2.4 小結 53
第6章 研究成果 55
6.1 精度檢核 55
6.2 判釋成果 61
6.3 成果統計 63
第7章 討論與建議 66
7.1 討論 66
7.2 建議 69
參考文獻 70
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附錄 B 大氣校正後之研究影像一覽 76
附錄 C 各月判釋結果 78
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