(54.226.30.186) 您好!臺灣時間:2019/06/27 18:43
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
本論文永久網址: 
line
研究生:鄭任鈞
研究生(外文):Cheng RenChung
論文名稱:金蛛屬隱帶功能與演化之探討
論文名稱(外文):The functions and evolution of the web decorations built by Argiope spiders
指導教授:卓逸民卓逸民引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tso IMin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:生命科學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:隱帶金蛛屬獵物吸引
外文關鍵詞:decorationArgiopeprey attraction
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:2259
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
捕食者會釋放出不正確的訊號去誤導其獵物做出不合適的決定。例如螢火蟲的幼蟲會產生生物螢光去吸引其獵物,或流星鎚蜘蛛會利用蛾的費落蒙去吸引雄蛾。而在一些結圓網性的蜘蛛,會在其網上建構明顯的構造稱之為隱帶,去誤導其獵物或捕食者。過去的研究提出許多關於隱帶功能的假說,大概可分為與視覺有關及無關兩大類型,而近來的研究大多支持隱帶具有視覺上的功能。其中與視覺有關的假說包括:吸引獵物、防禦捕食者與減少網子被破壞;但只有吸引獵物的假說有較多得實驗支持。本研究首先探討蜘蛛體色與隱帶對於其獵物攔截率的影響,以及隱帶的存在是否會減少蜘蛛被捕食的風險。從野外操控實驗所獲得之結果支持隱帶具有吸引獵物的功能,但同時間卻也產生吸引較多捕食者的代價。此外,不同種類的金蛛具有十字型或直線型兩種形式的隱帶;十字型隱帶只見於金蛛屬,但是直線型隱帶可見於不同的類群中。因此本研究另一目的為探討金蛛屬十字型的隱帶是否由直線型的隱帶演化而來。我選取粒腺體中的COI與COII基因部分序列與當作基因標記建構親緣關係樹,並且以此為依據重建祖先型特徵。結果顯示直線型為祖徵而十字型的隱帶至少演化兩次。但為何金蛛會有不同型式的隱帶?由過去文獻中發現,隱帶形狀之演化可能與飛行性昆蟲之形狀視覺有關。前人研究指出,蜜蜂有三種方向感覺細胞,可以讓蜜蜂分辨出不同角度的圖樣。我在野外比較具不同型式隱帶之網之昆蟲攔截率。結果發現兩種網之的獵物組成並無差異,但十字型隱帶比直線型隱帶可以吸引更多的獵物。然而,十字形隱帶較好的覓食效率來自於較多的隱帶數目或其排列的形狀仍需要更進一步的研究。
Many predators convey inaccuracy signals to mislead the prey to make unfavorable decision. For example, the larvae of the New Zealand glowworm produce bioluminescence to attract prey, and the bolas spider deceit male moths by emitting sex pheromones of female moths. Some orb-weaving spiders build conspicuous structures called decorations on their webs to mislead their prey or predator. There are several hypotheses about the functions of decorations. They can be classified into vision related and non-vision related functions, and the former receives more supports. The vision-related functions include attracting prey, defense against or decreasing web damage. Among them prey attraction function had received much support but empirical evidence of predator-defense function was controversial. In this study I first investigated the effects of spider coloration and decoration on insect interception rates of webs, and whether presence of decorations may decrease predation risk of spiders. The results of field manipulative studies showed that decorations function to attract prey, but at the cost of increasing visibility of spiders to predators. Most genera of orb-weaving spiders have linear form decorations, but the cruciate form can only be found in the genus Argiope. In the second part of my study I tested whether cruciate decorations were derived from linear form by a molecular phylogenetic approach. I used two molecular makers (mitochondrial COI and COII partial sequences) to construct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Argiope and to reconstruct ancestral character states on the tree. Tree topology showed that the linear form was the ancestral state in Argiope and the cruciate form evolved at least twice. I then compared the prey interception performance of webs with cruciate or linear decorations to assess the driving force for such evolutionary pattern. Result of field manipulative study showed that the former intercepted significantly more prey than the latter. Higher attractiveness of cruciate decorations may be related with the form vision of flying insects. In honey bees, there are three types of orientation-sensitivity cells which allow them to distinguish different orientation patterns. However, whether the better foraging performance of cruciate form decorations results from higher number or arrangement pattern of silk bands awaits further study.
Contents

Abstract (in Chinese) ……………………………………………….…………......1
Abstract …………………………………………………………….……………..2
Introduction ………………………………………………………………………4
Materials and Methods ……………………………………………...……………14
The study site and the spider ………………………………………………..14
Ontogenetic variations of A. aemula decoration types ………...……………15
Field manipulative studies on function of decorations …………...…………15
Calculation of color contrasts ………………………………………….……18
The evolution of decorations of Argiope …………………………………....19
Comparing insect attractiveness of linear and cruciate form decorations …..21
Result ……………………………………………………………………………23
Ontogenetic variations of A. aemula decoration types ……………...………23
Field manipulative studies on function of decorations ……………………23
Calculation of color contrasts ………………………………………...……..26
The evolution of decorations of Argiope …………………………………....26
Comparing insect attractiveness of linear and cruciate form decorations …..28
Discussion ……………………………………………………………………..…29
References ………………………………………………………………………..41
Table …………………………………………………………………….………..51
Figures ……………………………………………………………………………58
Biesmeijer, J. C., Giurfa, M., Koedam, D., Potts, S. G., Joel, D. M. and Dafni, A. 2005. Convergent evolution: floral guides, stingless bee nest entrances, and insectivorous pitchers. Naturwissenschaften. 92: 444-450.
Blackledge, T. A. and Wenzel, J. W. 1999. Do stabilimenta in orb webs attract prey or defend spiders? Behav. Ecol. 10:372-376.
Blackledge, T. A. and Wenzel, J. W. 2001. Silk mediated defense by an orb web spider against predatory mud-dauber wasps. Behaviour 138: 155-171.
Broadley, R. A. and Stringer, I. A. N. 2001. Prey attraction by larvae of the New Zealand glowworm, Arachnocampa luminosa (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Invertebr. Biol. 120: 170-177.
Bruce, M. J., Heiling, A. M. and Herberstein, M. E. 2004. Web decorations and foraging success in ’Araneus’ eburnus (Araneae: Araneidae). Ann. Zool. Fennici. 41: 563-575.
Bruce, M. J., Heiling, A. M. and Herberstein, M. E. 2005. Spider signals: are web decorations visible to birds and bees? Biol. Lett. 1: 299-302.
Bruce, M. J., Herberstein, M. E. and Elgar, M. A. 2001. Signaling conflict between predator and pre attraction. J. Evol. Biol. 14: 786-794.
Bruce. M. J. 2006. Silk decorations: controversy and consensus. J. Zool. 269: 89-97.
Bruun, A. C. 1993. Pollination biology of the sea pea, Lathyrus japonicus: Floral characters and activity and flight patterns of bumblebees. Flora. 188: 227-237.
Chittka, L. 1996. Optimal sets of color receptors and color opponent systems for coding of natural objects on insect vision. J. Theor. Biol. 181: 179-196.
Craig, C. L. 1991. Physical constraints on group foraging and social evolution: observations on web-spinning spiders. Funct. Ecol. 5: 659-654.
Craig, C. L. 1994a. Predator foraging behavior in response to perception and learning by its prey: interactions between orb-spinning spiders and stingless bees. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 35: 45-52.
Craig, C. L. 1994b. Limits to learning: effects of predator pattern and colour on perception and avoidance-learning by prey. Anim. Behev. 47: 1087-1099.
Craig, C. L. and Bernard, G. D. 1990. Insect attraction to ultraviolet-reflecting spider webs and web decorations. Ecology 71: 616-623.
Cunningham, C. W., Omland, K. E. and Oakley, T. H. 1998. Reconstructing ancestral character states: a critical reappraisal. TREE. 13: 361-366.
Eisner, T. and Nowicki, S. 1983. Spider web protection through visual advertisement: role of the stabilimentum. Science. 219: 185-187.
Elgar, M. A. and Jebb, M. 1998. Nest provisioning in the mud-dauber wasp Sceliphron laetum (F. Simth): Body mass and taxa specific prey selection. Behaviour. 136: 147-159.
Elgar, M. A., Allan, R. A. and Evans, T. A. 1996. Foraging strategies in orb-spinning spiders: ambient light and silk decorations in Argiope aetherea Walckenaer (Araneae: Araneoidea). Aust. J. Ecol. 21: 464-467.
Foelix, R. F. 1996. Biology of Spiders. New York: Oxford Thieme.
Hall, T.A. 1999. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucl. Acids. Symp. Ser. 41:95-98.
Hauber, M. E. 1998. Web decorations and alternative foraging tactics of the spider Argiope appensa. Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 10: 47-54.
Hauber, M. E. 2002. Conspicuous colouration attracts prey to stationary predator. Ecol. Entomol. 27: 686-691.
Haynes, K. F., Yeargan, K. V. and Gemeno, C. Detection of prey by a spider that aggressively mimics pheromone blends. J. Insect Behav. 14: 535-544.
Heiling, A. M., Herberstein, M. E. and Chittka, L. 2003. Pollinator attraction: Crab-spiders manipulatate flower signals. Nature, 421: 433.
Herberstein, M. E. 2000. Foraging behaviour in orb-web spider (Araneidae): do web decorations increase prey capture success in Argiope keyserlingi Karsch 1878? Aust. J. Zool. 48: 217-223.
Herberstein, M. E. and Fleisch, A. F. 2003. Effect of abiotic factors on the foraging strategy of the orb-web spider Argiope keyserlingi (Araneae: Araneidae). Aust. Ecol. 28: 622-628.
Herberstein, M. E., Craig, C. L., Coddington, J. A. and Elgar, M. A. 2000. The functional significance of silk decorations of orb-web spiders: a critical review of the empirical evidence. Biol. Rev. 75: 649-669.
Higgins, L. E. and Buskirk, R. E. 1992. A trap-building predator exhibits different tactics for different aspects of foraging behaviour. Anim. Behav. 44: 485–499.
Hoese, F. J., Law. E. A. J., Rao, D. and Herberstein, M. E. 2006. Distinctive yellow bands on a sit-and-wait predator: prey attractant or camouflage? Behaviour. 143: 763-781.
Horton, C. C. 1980. A defensive function for the stabilimentum of two orb-weaving spiders (Araneae: Araneidae). Psyche 87: 13-20.
Humphreys, W. F. 1992. Stabilimenta as parasols: shade construction by Neogea sp. (Araneae: Araneidae, Argiopinae) and its thermal behaviour. Bull. Br. Arachnol. Soc. 9: 47-52.
Kerr, A. M. 1993. Low frequency of stabilimenta in orb webs of Argiope appensa (Araneae: Araneidae) from Guam: an indirect effect of an introduced avian predator. Pac. Sci. 47: 328-337.
Krebs, J. R. and N. B. Davies. 1997. Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach. 4th edition. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Li, D and Lee, W. S. 2004. Predator-induced plasticity in web building behaviour. Anim. Behav. 67: 309-318.
Li, D., Lim, M. L. M., Seah, W. K. and Tay, S. L. 2004. Prey attraction as a possible function of discoid stabilimenta of juvenile orb-spinning spiders. Anim. Behav. 68: 629-635.
Lubin, Y. D. 1975. Stabilimenta and barrier webs in the orb webs of Argiope argentata (Araneae: Araneidae) on Daphne and Santa Cruz Islands. Galapagos. J. Arachnol. 2: 119-126.
Maddison, D. R. and Maddison, W. P. 2003. MacClade, release version 4.06. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinaure Associates.
McReynolds, C. N. and Polis, G. A. 1987. Ecomorphological factors influencing prey use by two sympatric species of orb-web spiders, Argiope aurantia and Argiope trifasciata (Araneidae). J. Arahnol. 15: 371-383.
Murakami, Y. 1983. Factors determining the prey size of the orb-web spider, Argiope amoena (L. Koch) (Argiopidae). Oecologia 57: 72-77.
Naka, K. I. and Rushton, W. A. H. 1966. S-potentials form colour units in the retina of fish (Cyprinidae). J. Physiol. 185: 536-555.
Neet, C. R. 1990. Function and structural variability of the stabilimenta of Cyclosa insulana (Costa) (Araneae, Araneidae). Bull. Br. Arachnol. Soc. 8:161-164.
Nentwing, W. 1985. Prey analysis of four species of tropical orb-weaving spiders (Araneae: Araneidae) and a comparison with araneids of the temperate zone. Oceologia 66: 580-594.
Nentwing, W. and Rogg, H. 1988. The cross stabilimentum of Argiope argentata – non-functional or a non-specific stress reaction? Zoo. Anz. 221: 246-266.
Nyffeler, M. and Breene, R. G. 1991. Impact of predation upon honey bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae), by orb-weaving spiders (Araneae, Araneidae and Tetragnathidae) in grassland ecosystems. J. Appl. Ent. 111: 179-189.
Onland, K. E. 1997. Examining two standard assumptions of ancestral reconstructions: repeated loss of dichromatism in dabbling ducks (Anatini). Evolution 51: 1636-1646.
Oxford, G. S. and Gillespie, R. G. 1998. Evolution and ecology of spider coloration. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 28: 337-364.
Platnick, N. I. 2006. The World Spider Catalog, Version 6.5 (online catalog). Available on http://research.amnh.org/entomology/.
Posada, D., Crandall, K.A. 1998. MODELTEST: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics, 14, 817-818.
Prokopy, R. J. and Owens, E. D. 1983. Visual detection of plants by herbivorous insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 28: 337-364.
Robinson, M. H. and Robinson, B. 1970. The stabilimentum of the orb web spider, Argiope argentata: an improbable defense against predators. Can. Ent. 102: 641-655.
Rodríguez, I. and Gumbert, A. 2004. Symmetry is in the eye of the ‘beeholder’: innate preference for bilateral symmetry in flower-naïve bumblebees. Naturwissenschaften. 91: 374-377.
Ronquist, F. and Huelsenbeck, J. P. 2001. MrBayes 3.0b4. Unpublished Computer Program.
Ruxton, G. D., Sherratt, T. N and Speed, M. P. 2004. Avioding attack: the evolutionary ecology of crypsis, warning signals, and mimicry. Oxford.
Sasaki, T. and Iwahashi, O. 1995. Sexual cannibalism in an orb-weaving spider Argiope aemula. Anim. Behav. 49: 1119-1121.
Scharff, N. 1997. A phylogenetic analysis of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae (Arachnida, Araneae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 120: 355-434.
Schoener, T. W. and Spiller, D. A. 1992. Stabilimenta characteristics of the spider Argiope argentata on small islands: support of the predator-defense hypothesis. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 31: 309-318.
Seah, W. K. and Li, D. 2001. Stabilimenta attract unwelcome predators to orb webs. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. 268: 1553-1558.
Su, Y. C., Chang, Y. H., Lee, S. C. and Tso, I. M. 2007. Phylogeography of the giant wood spider (Nephila pilipes, Araneae) from Asian-Australian regions. J. Biogeogr. 34: 177-191.
Srinivasan, M. V., Zhang, S. W. and Rolfe, B. 1993. Is pattern vision in insects mediated by ‘cortical’ processing? Nature 362: 539-540.
Srinivasan, M. V., Zhang, S. W. and Witney, K. 1994. Visual discrimination of pattern orientation by honeybees: performance and implications for ‘cortical’ processing. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 343: 199-210.
Swofford, K. and Nei, M. 1993. PAUP*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods). Version 4. Sunderland, Massachusets: Sinauer Associates.
Théry, M. and Casas, J. 2002. Predator and prey views of spider camouflage. Nature. 415: 133.
Tso, I. M. 1996. Stabilimentum of the garden spider Argiope trifasciata: a possible prey attractant. Anim. Behav. 52: 183-191.
Tso, I. M. 1998a. Isolated spider web stabilimentum attracts insect. Behaviour 135: 311-319.
Tso, I. M. 1998b. Stabilimentum-decorated webs spun by Cyclosa conica (Araneae, Araneidae) trapped more insects than undecorated webs. J. Arachnol. 26: 101-105.
Tso, I. M., Lin, C. W. and Yang, E. C. 2004. Colourful orb-weaving spiders and web decorations through a bee’s eyes. J. Exp. Biol. 207: 2631-2637.
Tso, I. M., Tai, P. L., Ku, T. H., Kuo, C. H. and Yang, E. C. 2002. Colour-associated foraging success and population genetic structure in a sit-and-wait predator Nephila maculate (Araneae: Tragnathide). Anim. Behav. 63: 175-182.
Tso, I. M., Liao, C. P., Huang, R. P. and Yang, E. C. 2006. Function of being colorful in web spiders: attracting prey or camouflaging oneself? Behav. Ecol. 17: 606-613.
Václav, R. and Prokop, P. 2006. Does the appearance of orbweaving spiders attract prey? Ann. Zool. Fenn. 43: 65-71.
Watanabe, T. 1999. Prey attraction as a possible function of the silk decoration of the uloborid spider Octonoba sybotides. Behav. Ecol. 10: 607-611.
Watanabe, T. 2000. Web tuning of an orb-web spider, Octonoba sybotides, regulates prey-catching behavour. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 267: 565-569.
Yang, E. C. and Maddess, T. 1997. Orientation-sensitive neurons in the brain of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). J. Insect Physiol. 43: 329-336.
Yin, C. G., Wang, J. F., Zhu, M. S., Xie, L. P., Peng, X. J. and Bao, Y. H. 1997. Fauna Sinica (Arachnida, Araneae: Araneidae). Science Press. Beihing, China. (in Chinese).
Zschokke, S. 2002. Ultraviolet reflectance of spiders and their webs. J.Arachnol. 30, 246-254.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔