(54.90.204.233) 您好!臺灣時間:2019/03/26 22:38
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
本論文永久網址: 
line
研究生:劉家豪
研究生(外文):Chia-Hao Liu
論文名稱:工作狂前因變項探討之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Antecedents and Consequences of Workaholism
指導教授:董玉娟董玉娟引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄應用科技大學
系所名稱:人力資源發展系碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:121
中文關鍵詞:工作狂情感特質完美主義工作需求工作不安全感組織文化工作績效
外文關鍵詞:workaholismaffect traitperfectionismjob demandsjob insecurityorganization culturejob performance
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:5
  • 點閱點閱:638
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
在典型21世紀的工作者生涯中,工作狂已經變為一種普遍的名詞,且已經廣泛地被大眾所注意,工作狂一詞大都只是一般人對於沈溺於工作投入以及投入額外工作活動之人的習慣性稱呼。在工作狂方面的研究是有限的,尤其是在工作狂形成的原因方面。
本篇研究最主要探討工作狂傾向的形成因素及對個人績效所造成的影響。本研究採問卷調查法,以銀行壽險及高科技產業工作者為對象,透過有效問卷275份來驗證各研究構念的影響關係。研究結果顯示在個人情感特質、完美主義、工作需求、工作不安全感以及組織文化方面的有顯著性的影響,進一步探討工作績效的表現,並且彌補先前工作狂前因探討不足的部份。
In the typical 21st-century career, workaholism has received considerable attention in popular press, most definitions of workaholism convey the notion of singular commitment to work to the detriment of extra work activities. our understanding it based on research evidence is quiet limited especially antecedents of Workaholism.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of Workaholism antecedents. Data was collected from 275 bankers, insurance and high-tech workers
to analyzed to measure the relationship amongst the constructs. The results indicated significant relationship with affect trait, perfectionism, job demands, job insecurity, organization culture. Those reasons will be effected to lead to Workaholism. These findings provided a partial replications of previous conclusions based on antecedents of Workaholism and to study the job performance.
目錄
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
壹、 緒論 1
一、研究背景與動機 1
二、研究目的 2
三、研究流程 3
貳、 文獻探討 4
一、 工作狂定義 5
二、 工作狂類型 6
三、 工作狂前因 16
四、 情感特質 22
五、 完美者義 27
六、 工作需求 32
七、 工作不安全感 35
八、 組織文化 41
九、 工作績效 46
參、 研究方法 52
一、 研究架構 52
二、 研究假設 53
三、 操作定義與衡量 54
四、 資料分析方法 73
肆、 實證分析 85
一、各研究變項相關分析 85
二、各變項迴歸分析 87
三、中介效果探討 92
四、研究驗證結果 104
伍、結論與建議
一、研究結論 105
二、研究建議 108
三、研究限制 110

參考文獻 111
附錄-本研究問卷 121
參考文獻
一、中文部分
Overdoing it : how to shlow down and take care of yourself
Robinson, B.E. (1996). 工作不要狂 / 布萊「羅賓生(Bryan Robinson)著; 莊勝雄譯臺北市 : 希代, 1996[民85]。
丁志達(2003)《績效管理》, 揚智文化。
司徒達賢 (2005),《管理學的新世界》,天下文化。
江婷婷(2003),《研發工程師之金錢倫理觀、工作道德、工作狂、完美主義與工作績效關係之研究》國立中山大學 人力資源管理所。
李誠、黃同圳、防美玉、蔡維奇、林文政、陸洛、劉念琪、鄭晉昌(2000)《人力資源管理的12堂課》,天下文化。
林建煌(2007) 《管理學》,台北: 新陸總經銷。
威爾許,(2006),《別到不景氣在裁員》,聯合報,2006 4月3日,威爾許談致勝專欄。
施振榮 (1996) ,《在造宏碁》,台北,天下文化。
施振榮 (2005),《宏基的世紀變革》,遠見天下出版。
陳彥哲 (1998),《人力資源管理與組織績效之關係---本土及外資企業的比較》,國立中山大學人力資源管理所碩士論文。
黃恆獎、王士茹、李文瑞 (民94) 《管理學》,華泰文化.
黃英忠(2003)《人力資源管理》,二版,台北:三民書局。
黃英忠(2007) 《人力資源管理概論》,麗文文化事業。
董力華 (2003) ,《大學生完美主義傾向及其相關因素研究》國立高雄師範大學 教育學系。
劉明德等譯(1993),《管理學:競爭優勢》(Edmund R. Gray & Larry R. Smeltzer 合著),臺北:桂冠。
盧瑞陽(1998)。組織改變與工作不安全感對組織行為後果之影響。未出版之博士論文,台灣大學商學研究所,台北市。
蘇曉憶 (2005) ,《青少年親子關係.完美主義.自尊與其憂鬱傾向之相關研究》國立高雄師範大學 輔導與諮商研究所。
































二、英文部分
Ashford, S., Lee, C. & Bobko, P. (1989). Content, causes, and consequences of job insecurity: A theory-based measure and substantive test. Academy of Management Journal, 32(4): 803-829.
Aziz S.& Michael J. Z. (2006). A cluster analysis investigation of workaholism as a syndrome. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11(1): 52–62
Becker, T.E., Billings, R.S., Eveleth, D.M. & Gilbert, N.L. (1996). Foci and bases for employee commitment: Implications for job performance. Academy of Management Journal, 39(2): 464-482.
Beckers, Debby G.J. MA; van der Linden, Dimitri PhD; Smulders, Peter G.W. PhD; Kompier, Michiel A.J. PhD; van Veldhoven, Marc J.P.M. PhD; van Yperen, Nico W. PhD. (2004). Working overtime hours: relations with fatigue, work motivation, and the quality of work. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 46(12): 1282-1289.
Blake-Beard, Stacy D. (1999). The costs of living as an outsider within: an analysis of the mentoring relationships and career success of black and white women in the corporate sector.. Journal of Career Development, 26 (1): 21-36.
Boman, W. C. & Motowidlo, S. J. (1993).Task performance and contextual performancd:the meaning for personnel selection. Human relations, 10 (2) : 99-109.
Brief, A. & Nord, W. (1990).Work and meaning: definitions and interpretations. In A. Brief & W. Nord (Eds), The meaning of occupational work. Lexington, MA:Lexington Press.
Brockner, J., Grover, S., Reed, T. F., & Dewitt, R. L. (1992). Layoffs, job insecurity, and survivors work effort: evidence of an inverted-U relationship. Academy of Management Journal, 35: 413-425.
Barrow , J . C & Moore , C . A . (1983). Group interventions with perfectionistic thinking . Personnel and Guidance Journal, 61: 612-615 .
Buelens, M. & Poelmans, S. A. Y. (2004). Enriching the Spence and Robbins, typology of workaholism: demographic, motivational and organizational correlates, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17 (5): 440-58.
Burke, R. J. (1999). Workaholism in organizations: gender differences. Sex Roles, 41 (5): 333-345.
Burke, R. J. (2000). Workaholism and extra-work satisfactions. The international Journal of Organizational Analysis, 7(4): 352-364.
Burke, R. J. (2001).Workaholism in organizations: The role of organizational values. Personnel Review, 30(6): 637-645.
Burke, R. J. & Stig M. (2004). Short communication: workaholism among Norwegian journalists : antecedents and consequences, Stress and Health, 20: 301–308.
Burke, R. J. & Graeme M. (2004). Workaholism among Norwegian journalists : antecedents and consequences, Stress and Health 20: 301–308.
Burke, R. J. Matthiesen, S.B. & Pallesin, S. (2006). Workaholism, organizational life and wellbeing of Norwegian nursing staff’, Career Development International, 11(5): 463-477.
Campbell, J.P. (1990). Modeling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organization psychology, In Dunnette M.D. & L.M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organization Psychology (2nd ed.), Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1, pp.687-732.
Cherrington, D. J. (1980). The work ethic. New York: American Management Association.
Clark, L. A., Livesley, W. J., Schroeder, M. L., & Irish, S. L. (1996). Convergence of two systems for assessing specific traits of personality disorder. Psychological Assessment, 8: 294–303.
Cropanzano R., James K. & Konovsky M. A. (1993) Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14: 595-606.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with
life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49: 71-75.
Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M.(1991). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in
human behavior , In R.M. Steers & L.W. Porter (Eds.), Motivation and
Work Behavior (pp.44-58), New York: McGraw-Hill.
Demerouti, E., Bakker, A.B., De Jonge, J., Janssen, P.P.M., & Schaufeli, W.B.
(2001).Burnout and engagement at work as a function of demands and
control. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 27:
279–286.
Douglas, E.J. & Morris, R.J. The antecedents of workaholism and other
work behaviors. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Annual
Conference, Organizational Behavior track, Atlanta, GA, August 2006.
Deal, T., & Kennedy, A. (1982). Corporate cultures. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Denison, D. R., (1990). Corporate Culture and Organizational
Effectiveness. N. Y.: John Wiley&Sons.
Emmons, R.A., & Diener, E. (1986). A goal-affect analysis of everyday situational
choices. Journal of Research in Personality, 20: 309–326.
Fassel, D. (1990). Working ourselves to death: the high costs of workaholism, the rewards of recovery. San Francisco, CA: Harper Collins.
Feldman, D. C. (2002). Managers’ propensity to work longer hours A multilevel analysis. Human Resource Management Review. 12: 339-357.
Friedman, S.D. & Lobel, S. (2003), The happy workaholic: a role model for employees, Academy of Management Executive. 17: 87-98.
Feldman, D. C.(1995), Managind part-time and temporary employment
relationships. In M. London (Ed.), Employmees, careers and job creation:
Developing growthoriented human resource strategies and programs., San Francisco:Jossey-Bass, pp.121-141.
Feldman, D. C. Thomas W. H. NG, Kelly L. Sorensen (2007). Dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of workaholism: a conceptual integration and extension. J. Organiz. Beha,. 28: 111–136.
Feldman, D. C., & Gainey, T. (1997). Patterns of telecommuting and their consequences. Human Resource Management Review, 7: 369–388.
Fox, M. L., Dwyer, D. J., & Ganster, D. C. 1993. Effects of stressful job demands and control on physiological and attitudinal outcomes in a hospital setting. Academy of Management Journal, 36(2): 289-318.
Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Rev. Gen. Psychol. 2, 300–319. Fredrickson, B. L. 2001 The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions Am. Psychol. 56: 218–226.
Friedman, S.D. & Lobel, S. (2003), The happy workaholic: a role model for employees , Academy of Management Executive. 17: 87-98.
Frost, R. O., & Marten, P. A. (1990). Perfectionism and evaluative threat. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14: 559-572.
Galup, S., Saunders, C., Nelson, R. E. & Cerveny, R. (1997). ‘‘The use of temporary
staff and managers in a local government environment. Communication
Research, 24: 698-730.
Gronlund A. (2007). Empolyee control in the era of flexibility: a stress buffer or a stress amplifier? European Sociteies, 9(3) : 409-428.
Greenhalgh, L., & Rosenblatt, Z. (1984). Job insecurity: toward conceptual clarity.
Academy of Management Beview, 9: 438-448.
Gutteridge, T. G., (1973). Predicting career success of graduate business
school alumni, Academy of Management Journal, 16(1): 129-137.
Hall, D.T. (1976). Careers in Organizations. Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear.
Harpan, I. (1999).The transformation of work values in Israel: Stability and change over time. Monthly Labor Review, 122, 46-50.
Hollander, M. H. (1965). Perfectionism. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 6: 94-103.
Hamachek, D. E. (1978). Psychodynamics of normal and neurotic
perfectionism. Psychology, 15: 27-33.
Harpan, I. (1999).The transformation of work values in Israel: Stability and change over time. Monthly Labor Review, 122: 46-50.
Hartley, J., Jacobson, D., Klandermans, P. G., & Vzn Vuuren, C. V. (1991), Job insecurity:coping wjth jobs at risk, London:Sage.
Hellgren J. & Magnus S., Kerstin I. (1999). A two-dimensional approach to job insecurity: consequences for employee attitudes and well-being. European Journal of Work and OrganizationalPsychology, 8 (2): 179–195.
Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(3): 456-470.
Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. London: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations. Berkshire: McGraw-Hill Book Company Europe.
Itzhak H. & Raphael S. Workaholism (2003). Its definition and nature Human Relations, 56(3): 291-319.
Izraeli, D. women, work family, public policy. (1990). In A. Globerson A. Galin & E. Rozen-shtein (Eds), Human Resource and labor relations in Israel. New borizons. Tel Aviv: Ramot (in Hebrew), 327-343.
Jaskolka, G., Beyer, J.M. & Trice, H.M. (1985). Measuring and predicting managerial success. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 26: 189-205.
Judge, T.A., Cable, D.M., Boudreau, J.W. & Breta, R.D. (1995). An empirical investigation of the predictors of executive career success. Personnel Psychology, 48: 485-519.
Karasek, R. (1979), Job demands, job decision latitude and mental strain, Administrative Science Quarterly, 24: 129-44.
Kanai, A. & Wakabayashi, M. (2001). Workaholism among Japanese blue collar employees, International Journal of Stress Management, 8(2): 129-45.
Kanai, A. & Wakabayashi, M. (2004). Effects of economic environmental changes on job demands and workaholism in Japan, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 27(5): 537-548.
Kanai, A., Wakabayashi, M. & Fling, S. (1996).Workaholism among employees in Japanese corporations: an examination based on the Japanese version of the workaholism scales, Japanese Psychological Research, 38: 192-203.
Kanungo, R.N. Work alienation: An integration approach. New York: Praeger, 1982.
Karen Colapietro Seybold and Paul R. Salomone (1994). Understanding workaholism: a review of causes and counseling approaches. Journal of Counseling and Development, 73(1): 4-9.
Kanungo, R.N. (1982).Work alienation: an integration approach. New York: Praeger.
Killinger, B. (1991). Workaholics: the respectable addicts. New York: Simon & Schuster.
King, J. (2000). White-collar reactions to job insecurity and the role of the psychological contract: implications for human resource management, Human Resource Management, 29(1): 79-82.
Kirchmeyer, C. (1998). Determinants of managerial career success: evidence and explanation of male/femal differences. Journal of Management, 24: 63-692.
Kirchmeyer, C. (2002). Gender differences in managerial careers: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Journal of Business Ethics,37(1): 5-24.
Kuhnert, K. W. & D. R. Palmer (1991). Job security, health and the intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics of work. Group and Organization Studies, 16: 178-192.
Kuntson, B J.., Stevens, P., Patton, M., & Thompson, C (1992). Consumers’ expectations for service quality in economy, Mid-Price and Luxury Hotels. Journal of Hospital and Leisure Marking, 11(2): 27-43.
Klaft, R. P., & Kleiner, B. H. (1988). Understanding workaholics. Business, 33: 37–40.
Lewicki, R. J. (1981). Organizational seduction: building commitment to organizations. Organizational Dynamics, 10: 5–22.
Levanoni, E. & C. A. Sales (1990). Differences in job attitudes between
full-time and part-time canadian employees. Journal of Social
Psychology, 130: 231-237.
Liou, K. T.& Bazemore G. (1994). Professional orientation and job
involvement among detention case workers. Public Administration
Quarterly, 18: 223-236.
Graves, L. M., M. Ruderman & P. J. Ohlott: (2006). Effect of workaholism on managerial performance: help or hindrance, Paper Presented at the Academy of Management, Atlanta, August.
Machlowitz, M.M. (1980), Workaholics: Living with Them, Working with Them,
Addison-Wesley, Reading.
Marlowe, D & Crowne, D. P. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology, Journal of Consulting Psycholog, 24: 349-354.
Mosier, S. K. (1983). Workaholics: an analysis of their stress, success and
priorities Unpublished master’s thesis,University of Texas at Austin.
MOW – International Research Team. The meaning of work: An international view.
London: Academic Press, 1987.
Naughton, T.J. (1987). A conceptual view of workaholism and implications for career counseling and research, Career Development Quarterly, 6 : 180-187.
Newman, K. L., & Nollen, S. D. (1996). Culture and congruence: the fit between
management practices and national culture. Journal of International Business
Studies, 4: 753–779.
Nunnally, J.C.(1978) Psychometric theory (2th). N.Y.: McGraw-Hill.
Oates, W. (1971). Confessions of a workaholic: the facts about work addiction. New
York: World.
Ouchi, W. G. (1981). Theory Z. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
O ’Driscoll, M. P., & Cooper, C. L. (1996). Sources and management of
excessive job stress and burnout., In P. B.Warr(Ed.), Psychology at work:
Hammondsworth, UK:Penguin, pp.188-223.
Pacht, A. R. (1984). Reflection on perfectionism. American Psychologist, 39: 386-390.
Pettigrew, A. M. (1979). On studying organizational cultures. Administrative Science
Quarterly, 24: 570-581.
Piotrowski, C. & Stephen J. V. (2006) .The interface between workaholism and work-family conflict. A review and conceptual framework. Organization Development Journal, 24(4): 84-92.
Porter, G. (1996). Organizational impact of workaholism: suggestions for researching the negative outcomes of excessivework. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1: 70–84.
Porter, G. (2001). Workaholic tendencies and the high potential for stress among co-workers. International Journal of Stress Management, 8: 147–164.
Porter, G. (2004). Work, work ethic, work excess. Journal of Organizational Change
Management; 17: 424-439.
Probst, T.M. (2000). The development and validation of two measures of job security. Paper submitted to SIOP conference.
Probst T M. (2003). Development and validation of the job security index and the job security satisfaction scale: a classical test theory and IRT approach. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76: 451-467.
Probst, T.M. (2000). The Development and Validation of Two Measures of Job Security. Paper submitted to SIOP conference.
Raphael, S. & Dov Z. (2007) Workaholism as discretionary time investment at work: an experience-sampling study, Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57 (1) :109–127.
Rebitzer, J. and Taylor, L. (1995). Do labor markets provide enough short-hours jobs?, an analysis of work hours and work incentives, Economic Inquiry, 33: 257-273.
Richard, D. R. & Slane, S., Punctuality as a personality characteristic: Issues of measurement, Journal of Psychology, 124: 397-402.
Ripinen M. (1997). The relationship between job involvement and well-being. The Jouunal of psychology, 131(1): 81-89.
Robinson, B, E. (1997). Work addiction and the family: conceptual and research
considerations. Early child development and care. 137: 77-92.
Robbins, S. P. (2000). Managing Today. Prentice Hall, Inc.
Robbins, S. P. (2005).The Jouunal of psychology, 131(1): 81-89. organization behavior. 2005 prentice Hall Inc.
Robinson, B.E. (1998). Chained to the desk: a guidebook for workaholics, their partners and children and the clinicians who treat them. New York: NYU Press.
Robinson, B.E. (2000). Workaholism: Bridging the Gap Between Workplace,
Sociocultural, and Family Research. Journal of Employment Counseling;
37(1) : 31-47.
Rohrlich, J.B. (1980). Work and love: The crucial balance. New York: Summit Books.
Russo, J. & Waters, L. (2006), Workaholic worker type differences in work-family conflict: the moderating role of supervisor support and flexible work scheduling, Career Development International, 11(5): 418-439.
Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40: 437–453.
Schaef, A.W., & Fassel, D. (1988). The addictive organization., San Francisco, CA: Harper Row.
Schaufeli, W.B., Taris, T.W. and Bakker, A.B. (2006). Jekkyl or Mr. Hyde; On the differences
Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership, (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Schermerhorn, J. R. (1989).Management for Productivity, 3rd
Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40, 437–453.
Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel psychology, 40(3): 437-453.
Scott, K.S., Moore, K.S. & Miceli, M.P. (1997), An exploration of the meaning and consequences of workaholism, Human Relations, 50(3): 287-314.
Seybold, K.C. & Salomone, P.R. (1994), Understanding workaholism: A view of causes andcounseling approaches, Journal of Counseling and Development, 73: 4-9.
Shahnaz, A. & Michael J. Z. (2006). A cluster analysis investigation of workaholism as a syndrome. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11(1): 52-62
Shafran, R., Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C.G.(2002).Clinical perfectionism:a cognitive- behavioural analysis. Behaviour Research and Therape, 40: 773-791.
Snir, R. & Harpaz, I. (2004). Attitudinal and demographic antecedents of workaholism. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(5): 520-536.
Snir, R. & Zohar I. (2000). Workaholism: work-addiction or workphilia? Paper presented at the international conference on psychology-psychology after the year 2000 university of haifa israel .
Snir, R. & Itzhak H. (2006). The workaholism phenomenon: a cross-national perspective. Career Development International, 11(5): 374-393.
Snir, R. & Harpaz, I. (2007). Workaholism as discretionary time
investment at work: an experience-sampling study. Applied
Psychology: An International Review, 57 (1) :109–127.
Spence, J.T. & Robbins, A.S. (1992), Workaholism: definition, measurement, and preliminary results, Journal of Personality Assessment, 58: 160-78.
Spruell, G. (1987). Work fever. Training and Development Journal, 41: 41–45.
Sverke M., Hellgren J & Isaksson K. (1999). A two-dimensional approach to job insecurity: consequences for employee attitudes and well-being. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(2): 179-195.
Sverke, M., Hellgren, J & Isaksson, K. (2002) . No security: a meta-analysis and review of job insecurity and its consequences. Journal Of Occupational Health Psychology, 7(3): 242-264.
Van Maanen, J., & Barley, S. R. (1984). Occupational communities: culture and control in organizations. In L. L. Cummings, & B. M.Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational Behavior, 6: 287-365. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Vroom, V.H. Industrial social psychology. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds), The handbook of social psychology, 2nd edn, 1962, pp.196-268.
Walker, J.A.& Hollenbeck, J.R., (1992). Organizational behavior. Englewood Cliff, N.J.
Warr, P., Barter, J. & Brownbirdge, G. (1983). on the interdependence of positive and negative affect. Jornal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44: 644-651.
Watson, D., & Tellegen, A. (1985). Toward a consensual structure of mood. Psychological Bulletin, 98: 219-235.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative aVect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54: 1063–1070.
Weiss, H.M., Nicholas, J.P., & Daus, C.S. (1993). Affective aud cognitive influences on job satisfaction. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Francisco, CA.

Worrall, L., & Cooper, C. L.(1998). Quality of working life 1998 survey of managers’ changing experiences. London: Institute of Management.
電子全文 電子全文(網際網路公開日期:20211029)
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔