(52.201.27.211) 您好!臺灣時間:2019/03/21 02:06
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
本論文永久網址: 
line
研究生:方柏凱
研究生(外文):Po-Kai Fang
論文名稱:探討低度就業、成就動機與工作投入之關聯性
論文名稱(外文):A Study of the Relationship Among Underemployment, Achievement Motivation and Job Involvement
指導教授:陳儀蓉陳儀蓉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Jung Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄應用科技大學
系所名稱:人力資源發展系碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:低度就業感成就動機個我取向成就動機社會取向成就動機工作投入
外文關鍵詞:underemploymentachievement motivationindividual-oriented achievement motivationsocial-oriented achievement motivationjob involvement
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:5
  • 點閱點閱:832
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
隨著高等教育普及,就業市場產生供過於求現象,導致低度就業問題日趨嚴重。其中以服務業,低度就業現象最為明顯,為本研究所重視。本研究探討低度就業感、成就動機與工作投入三者間的關聯性,以服務業為研究對象,共回收304份有效問卷,經過描述統計、相關分析、層級迴歸分析等統計分析後發現(1)成就動機對工作投入有正向影響,社會取向成就動機對工作投入正向影響較個我取向成就動機來得強烈 (2)控制成就動機變項後,低度就業感對工作投入有負向的影響(3)低度就業感與社會取向成就動機有正向關係,與個我取向成就動機則無顯著相關。本研究提供業者面對員工具有低度就業感問題時,給予招募、訓練、管理上具體方針建議。
As the underemployment become more serious, the subject was discussed by us. The research focuses on the relationship among underemployment, achievement motivation and job involvement. All data was collected and tested by the statistical methods with person’s product-moment correlation analysis, hierarchical regression analysis etc. The conclusions is based with the analysis results.

The results indicate that social-oriented achievement motivation have a positive influence on job involvement more than individual-oriented achievement motivation. After the variable of achievement motivation is controlled, the underemployment has a negative influence on the variable of job involvement. The two variables between the social-oriented achievement motivation and the underemployment were found a positive significant difference that they to be interrelated.
摘要3
Abstract4
目錄表5
表目錄8
圖目錄9
第一章 緒論10
第一節 研究背景與動機10
第二節 研究問題與目的13
第二章 文獻探討14
第一節 工作投入14
一、工作投入的概念 14
二、工作投入理論17
三、工作投入測量22
第二節 低度就業感23
一、低度就業客觀界定23
二、低度就業主觀界定24
三、統整低度就業界定24
四、低度就業相關研究27
五、小結30
第三節 成就動機31
一、成就動機的概念 31
二、需求取向與認知取向成就動機34
三、成就動機理論36
四、小結45
第四節 低度就業感、成就動機與工作投入之相關研究46
一、成就動機與工作投入之相關研究46
二、低度就業感與工作投入之相關研究48
三、低度就業感與成就動機之相關研究51
第五節 研究架構53
第三章 研究方法54
第一節 研究對象及程序54
第二節 變項的衡量與操作性定義56
一、低度就業認知量表56
二、社會取向成就動機量表與個我取向成就動機量表56
三、工作投入量表57
四、人口特徵變項57
第三節 分析工具選擇與資料處理58
一、敘述統計分析58
二、項目分析以及信度分析58
三、因素分析58
四、相關分析59
五、階級迴歸分析59
六、共同方法變異分析60
第四節 項目分析以及信度分析61
一、成就動機之項目與信度分析62
二、工作投入之項目與信度分析64
三、低度就業感之項目與信度分析65
第四章資料分析與研究結果66
第一節 各變項特性分析66
第二節 驗證性因素分析70
一、低度就業感70
二、成就動機72
三、工作投入76
四、區別效度分析78
第三節 相關分析79
一、個人特徵與各變項之間相關分析79
二、各變項之間相關分析80
第四節 層級迴歸分析80
一、「人口特徵」、「成就動機」與「低度就業感」對「工作投入」的影響81
二、共線性問題檢測 81
第五節 假設驗證83
一、假設驗證分析83
二、假設驗證結論摘要84
第五節 共同方法效應的檢驗84
第五章 結論與建議86
第一節 研究結論86
一、成就動機與工作投入間的關係86
二、低度就業感與成就動機間的關係86
三、低度就業感與工作投入之間的關係87
四、小結87
第二節 研究限制與建議88
一、實務意涵與建議 88
二、研究限制與未來研究方向89
三、研究貢獻90
參考文獻91
一、中文部份91
二、英文部分94
一、中文部份
中央通訊社(2008,06/24)高學歷高失業? 勞委會:高學歷人力過多,中央社。
朱瑞玲(1991),面子與成就-社會取向動機之探討。中華心理學刊,第31卷2期,頁23-35。
余安邦、楊國樞 (1987),社會取向成就動機與個我取向成就動機:概念分析與實徵究。中央研究院民族學研究所集刊。第64 期,頁51-98。
余安邦(1990),成就動機的建構效度研究。國立台灣大學心理學研究所博士論文。
余安邦 (1993),社會取向成就動機與個我取向成就動機不同嗎─從動機與行為的關係加以探討。中央研究院民族學研究所集刊。第76 期,頁197-224。
吳明隆、涂金堂(2005),SPSS與統計應用分析。台北市:五南圖書出版份有限公司。
林政耀(2007),工作者低度就業認知與就業機會認知對於離職意圖之影響,國立高雄師範大學人力與知識管理研究所未出版之碩士論文,高雄。
林財丁(2004),管理與商業心理學,台中:滄海書局。
林麗容(1994),國小資賦優異學生之歸因型態與成就動機及學業成就期望關係之研究,國立彰化師範大學特殊教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,彰化。
邱奕光(2002),國民小學啟智班教師成就動機、學校組織氣氛知覺與其工作投入關係之研究。國立高雄師範大學特殊教育學系碩士論文,未出版,高雄。
邱政皓(2000),量化研究與統計分析。台北:五南圖書出版公司。
邱皓政(2006),量化研究與統計分析:SPSS中文視窗版資料分析範例解。台北市:五南圖書出版份有限公司。
徐鶯娟(1994),國民小學教師成就動機、參與決定與其工作投入關係之研究,國立高雄師範大學教育學系未出版碩士論文。
徐瑋伶、鄭伯壎(2003),工作動機研究之回顧與展望,組織行為研究在台灣:三十年的回顧與展望,桂冠圖書公司,頁61-85
張春興 (1989),張氏心理學辭典。台北:東華書局。
張德銳 (1994),國民小學校長行政表現、組織氣氛、組織效能之研究。載於教育行政研究。台北:五南書局。
陳富祥 (1984),個人屬性、工作滿足與工作投入之探討-金融業為例,政治大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
陳順宇(2000),迴歸分析。頁5-1~5-53,台北:華泰書局。
陳淑嬌(1989),國民中學校長領導型式、教師工作投入與組織效能關係之研究,高雄師範大學教育研究所未出版碩士論文
陳舜文(2005),華人的社會目標與成就動機:以台灣大學生為例,國立台灣大學心理學研究所博士論文。
單小琳 (1980),教師成就動機與學生評定教師、學生學業成績的關係。國立政治大學教育研究所碩士論文。
彭台光、高月慈、林鉦棽 (1996),管理研究中的共同方法變異:問題本質、影響、測試和補救。管理學報,第23卷第1期,頁77-98。
黃光國(1988),中國人的權力遊戲。台北:巨流。
黃芳銘(2005),結構方程模式:理論與應用(五版)。台北:五南。
黃英忠、何金銘、陳儀蓉、柯元達 (2003),努力歸因對個我與社會取向成就動機影響工作投入的中介效果--以某外送速食連鎖店為例,人力資源管理學報,第3卷第4期,頁093-108。
楊國樞、鄭伯壎(1987)。傳統價值觀、個人現代性及組織行為:後儒家假說的一項微觀驗證。中央研究院民族學研究所集刊,64期,頁1-49。。
鄒孟庭(1992) 主管領導型態與員工工作投入相關之研究,淡江大學,管理科學研究所,碩士論文。
廖相如(2003),桃竹苗四縣市國民小學教師成就動機、制握信念與工作倦怠關係之研究,國立新竹師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,新竹。
趙品灃(2007),廣播媒體的領導風格、信任、成就動機與工作投入之相關研究,國立中山大學傳播管理研究所碩士論文。
劉兆明(2002),華人領導行為的內隱結構。本土心理學研究,第18期,頁229-265。
劉修靜(1999),國小教師職業性別刻板印象、成就動機與逃避事業成就傾向之相關研究。國立新竹師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,新竹。
潘依琳 (1994),基層護理人員之工作特性、成就動機與工作投入、工作滿足、留職意願關係之研究,國立台灣大學護理研究所未出版碩士論文。
鄭桂芬(1994),員工工作投入態度分析架構的建立與策略設計(上),人事月刊,第19卷,第1期,頁10-14。
鄭伯壎、郭建志(1993),組織價值觀與個人工作效能符合度研究途徑,中央研究院民族學研究所集刊,第75期,頁63-103。
顏敏娟(1996),台灣地區「教育與職業不相稱」階層化變遷之研究,國立中正大學社會福利學系研究所碩士論。
二、英文部分
Alba-Ramirez A.(1992). Mismatch in the Spanish labor market overeducation? Journal of Human Resources.26 pp.259-278.
Allport G.W. (1947). The Psychology of Participation.Psychological Review, 52, pp.117-132.
Allport G.W.(1947), The Psychology of Participation. Psychological Review, 52, pp.117-132.
Arkoff, A. (1968). Adjustment and mental health. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Atkinson, J. W. (1957). Motivational determinants of risk takingbehavior. Psychological Review, 14, pp.575-590.
Atkinson, J. (1978). The mainsprings of achiebement oriented activities. In J. Atkinson & J. Raynor (Eds.). Personality, motivation, and achievement. New York: Halsted.
Autry, C. W. & P. J. Daugherty (2003), “Warehouse Operations Employees: Linking Person-Organization Fit, Job Satisfaction, and Coping Responses.” Journal of logistics, 24, No.1, pp.171-97.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Academy of Marketing Science. Journal. 16(1), pp.74-94.
Blau,G.J.(1985).A Multiple Study Investigation of the Dimentionality of Job Involvement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 27, pp.20-21&34.
Bluestone, B. & Harrison, B. (1982). The deindustrialization of America. New York: Basic Books.
Bolino & Feldman. (2000).The antecedents and consequences of underemployment among expatriates. Journal of Organizational Behavior J. Organiz. Behav. 21, pp.889-911.
Bollen, K. A. (1989), Structural Equations with Latent Variables. New York: Wiley.
Borgen, W. A., Amundson, N. E., & Harder, H. G. (1988). The experience of underemployment. Journal ofEmployment Counseling, 25, pp.149–159.
Brown, G., & Pintaldi, F. (2006). A multidimensional approach in the measurement of underemployment. Statistical Journal of the UN Economic Commission for Europe, 23(1), pp.43-56.
Brown, S. P. (1996). A meta-analysis and review of organizational research on jobinvolvement, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 120, No. 2, pp.235-255.
Burris, B. (1983a). No room at the top: Underemployment and alienation in the corporation. New York: Praeger Press.
Burris, B. H. (1983b). The human effects of underemployment. Social Problems, 31, pp.96–110.
Clogg, C.C. (1979). Measuring underemployment: Demographic indicators for the United States. New York: Academic Press.
Clogg, C.C., Sullivan, T.A. & Mutchler, J.E. (1986). Measuring underemployment and inequality in the work force. Social Indicators Research, 18: pp.375-393.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.
DeVellis, R. F. (2003). Scale development: Theory and Applications (2nd ed.).UK:Sage Publications.
DeWitte, H., & Lagrou, L. (1990). The quality of employment in the career of young psychologists and its impact on their job- and life-satisfaction. Psychologica Belgica, 30, pp.1–22
Dooley, D., & Prause, J. (2004). The social costs of underemployment: Inadequate employment as disguised unemployment. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Dubin,R.(1956),”Industrial Work’s Worlds: A Study of the Central Life Interests of IndustrialWorkers”. Social Problem, 3, pp.131-142.
Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41, pp.1040-1048.
Dweck, C. S., Chiu, C. Y., & Hong, Y. Y. (1995). Implicit theories: Elaboration and extension of the model. Psychological Inquiry, 6 (4),pp. 322-333.
Edwards, J. R. (1991). Person-job fit: A conceptual integration, literature review, and methodological critique.In C. L. Cooper, & I. T. Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology,Vol. 6, pp. 283–357.
Erdogan & Bauer(2007), overqulified employees:too good to hire or too good to be true?
Elder, G., Jr.(1974). Children of the Great Depression: Social change in life experiences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Feldman, D. C. (1996). The nature, antecedents, and consequences of underemployment. Journal of Management,22, pp.385–407.
Feldman, D. C., & Turnley,W. H. (1995). Underemployment among recent business college graduates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16, pp.691–706.
Feldman, D. C., Leana, C. R., & Bolino, M. C. (2002). Underemployment and relative deprivation among reemployed executives. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75, pp. 453–471.
Feldman, D.C. & Doerpinghaus, H.I. (1992). Patterns of part-time employment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 41, pp.282-294.
Feldman, D.C., Doerpinghaus, H.I. & Turnley, W.H. (1994). Managing temporary workers: A permanent HRM challenge. Organizational Dynamics, 23, pp.1-15.
Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Fornell, C. & D. F. Larcker (1981), Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error.Journal of Marketing Research,18(1), pp.39-50.
Friedland, D. S., & Price, R. H. (2003). Underemployment: Consequences for the Health and Well-Being of Workers. Academy Journal of community psychology, 32.
Gay, L. R. (1992). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and application. New York, Macmillan, pp.168-9.
Guieford, J. P. (1965), Fundamental Statistics in Psychology and Education, 4th ed., New York: McGram-Hill.
Hackman J. R., & E. E. Lawler, (1971) ,Employee Reactions to Job Characteristics, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.55, pp259-286.
Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975), Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey, Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, pp.161.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E. & Tatham, R. L. (2006), Multivariate Data Analysis, 6th Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Hauser, P. M. (1974). The measurement of labor utilization. Malayan Economic Review, 19(1), pp.1-15.
Helmreich, R. L., & Spence, J. T. (1978) Achievement motivation and scientific attainment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 4, pp.222-226.
Herzberg,F.(1957).Job attitude:Research and opinion.Pittsburgh,PA:Psychologyal Services of Pittsburgh.
Hirschfeld, Robert R.(2002) Achievement orientation and psychological involvement in job tasks: The interactive effects of work alienation and intrinsic job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. Vol 32(8), Aug 2002, pp. 1663-1681
Hull, C. L. (1943). Principle of behavior: An introduction to behavior theory.New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Jerath, J. M. (1981) The intrinsic and extrinsic components of motivation. Personality Study and Group Behavior, 1(1), pp.74-81.
Johnson, G. J., & Johnson,W. R. (1996). Perceived overqualification and psychological well-being. The Journal of Social Psychology, 136, pp. 435–445.
Johnson, G. J., & Johnson, W. R. (1997). Perceived overqualification, emotional support, and health. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, pp.1906–1918.
Johnson, W. R., Morrow, P. C., & Johnson, G. J. (2002). An evaluation of a perceived overqualification scale across work settings. The Journal of Psychology, 136, pp. 425–441.
Jöreskog, K. G. & D. Sörbom (1989), LISREL 7: A Guide to the Program and Applications (2nd ed.). Chicago: SPSS Inc.
Kalleberg., A. L., & Sørenson, A. B. (1973). The measurement of the effects of overtraining on job attitudes. Sociological Methods and Research, 2, pp.215–238.
Kanugo,R.N.(1982), “Measurement of Job and Work Involvement”.Journal of Applied Psychology,67(3),pp.341-349.
Kanungo, R. N. (1979). The concepts of alienation and involvement revisited Psychological Bulletin, 86(1), pp.119-138.
Khan, L. J., & Morrow, P. C. (1991). Objective and subjective underemployment relationships to job satisfaction.Journal of Business Research, 22, pp. 211–218.
Kline, R. B. (1998), Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling.NewYork: The Guilford Press.
Kristof, A. L. (1996). Person-organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, andimplications. Personnel Psychology, 49, pp.1–49.
Kuhl, J., & Blankenship.V. (1979). The dynamic theory of Achievement motivation: From episodic to dynamic thinking. Psychological Review,16786(2), pp.141-151.
Landis, R. S., D. J. Beal & P. E. Tesluk (2000), A Comparison of Approaches to Forming Composite Measures in Structural Equation Models,Organizational Research Methods, 3, pp.186-207.
Lawler,E.E.& Hall,D.T. (1970).Relationship of Job Characteristics to JobInvolvement Satisfaction and Intrinsic Motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology,54(4), pp.306.
Locke, E. A. (1969), What Is Job Satisfaction? Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4, pp.309-336.
Lodahl, T. M., & Kejner, M. (1965). The definition and measurement of job involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 44, pp.24-33.
MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Fetter, R. (1993). The impact of organizational citizenship behavior on evaluations of salesperson performance.Journal of Marketing, 57, pp.70-80.
MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Paine, J. B. (1999).Do citizenship behaviors matter more for managers than for salespeople.Jacademy of Marketing Science, 27,pp.396-410
Maynardm, Joseph & Maynard(2006),Underemployment, job attitudes, and turnover intentions .Journal of Organizational Behaviour J. Organiz. Behav. 27, pp.509–536
McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J., Clark, R. W. & Lowell, E. L. (1953). The Achievement Motive. New York:Appleton-Century-Crofts.
McClelland, D. C. 1961. The achieving society. Princeton, N. J.: Van Nostrand.
McClelland, D.C. (1985). Exploring Determinants of Success in Corporate Ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 1, pp.87-105.
Mulaik, S. A. (1994), Kant, Wittgenstein, Objectivity, and Structural Equation Modeling.In C. R. Reynolds (ed.), Cognitive Assessment: A Multidisciplinary Perspective ,pp. 209-236
Murray, H. A. (1938). Explorations in persanality. New York: Oxford University.
Neter, J., Wasserman, W., & Kunter, M. H.,(1985). Applied linear statistical model: Regression,analysis of variance, and experimental design.2nd ed. Richard D.Irwin Inc, Homewood, IL.
Newman, K.S. (1988). Falling from grace. New York: Free Press.
Nicholls, J. G. (1984) Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91(3), pp.328-346.
Noar, S. M. (2003), The Role of Structural Equation Modeling in Scale Development, Structural Equation Modeling, 10, pp.622-647.
Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric Theory (3d ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
O’Brien, G. E. (1986). Psychology of work and unemployment. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Palmer, D. K., Campion, M. A., & Green, P. C. (1999). Interviewing training for both applicant and interviewer., The employment interview handbook,pp. 337–351.
Patchen, M.(1970), Participation, Achievement and Involvement on the Job, Prentice-Hall Inc.
Paullay, I. M. (1992). Clarification of the job involvement and work centralityconstucts and their relationship to job burnout. (Doctoral dissertation, StateUniversity of New York at Albany,1991) Dissertation Abstracts International,52(10),5565B.
Pervin, L. A. (Ed.). (1989). Goal concepts in personality and social psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Podsakoff, P.M., & Organ, D.W., 1986. Self-Reports inOrganizational Research: Problems and Prospects,Journal of Management, 12 (4), pp.531-544.
Rabinowitz, S.S.& Hall,D.T.(1977),Organization Research on Job Involvement. Psychological Bulletin,84(2), pp.265-288.
Reitz, H. Joseph.(1979), Sex, Locus of Control, and Job Involvement:A Sex-Country Investigation , Academy of Management Journal, 22(1), pp.72.
Richard M. Steers(1975), Effects of need for achievement on the job performance-ob attitude relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol 60(6),pp.678-682
Robbins, S.P.(1992), Organizational behavior, 6th Edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall International.
Robbins,S.P.(2001),Organizational Behavior(9th ed),Upper saddle River,N.j. Prentice-Hall。
Rosen, E.I. (1987). Job displacement among men and women: The crisis of underemployment. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 7,pp.31-42
Robert R.(2002) Achievement orientation and psychological involvement in job tasks: The interactive effects of work alienation and intrinsic job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. Vol 32(8), Aug 2002, pp.1663-1681
Rotter, J.B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80 (Whole No. 609).
Rousseau, D.M. (1990). New hire perceptions of their own and their employer's obligations: A study of psychological contracts. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11: 389400.
Saks, A. M., & Ashforth, B. E. (1997). A longitudinal analysis of the relationships between job informationsources, applicant perceptions of fit, and work outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 50, pp.395–426.
Saleh, S. D., & Hosek, J. (1976). Job imvolvement: Concepts and measurements. Academy of Management Journal, 2(6), pp.213-224.
Schultz, Theodore W,( 1980), Nobel Lecture: The Economics of Being Poor, Journal of Political Economy, 88(4), pp.639-51.
Shih, N. J, (1991). The antecedents and consequences job involvement: a case ofthe Taipei municipal covernment. Doctoral dissertation, The Universityof Pittsburgh, 1990. Dissertation Abstracts International,52(5),pp.1817A.
Solmon, L. C., Kent, L., Ochsner, N. L., & Hurwicz, M. (1981). Underemployed Ph.D.’s. D.C. Heath and Company: Lexington, MA.Structural Equation Modeling, 10, pp.622-647.
Sullivan, T.A. & Hauser, P.M. (1979). The labor utilization framework: Assumptions, data, andpolicy implications. National Commission on Employment and Unemployment Statistics, pp.246-270
Tan, G.Y., Leana, C.R. & Feldman, D.C. (1994). A longitudinal study of predictors of job loss coping strategies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Management, pp.68-72.
Tipps, H.C. & Gordon, H.A. (1985). Inequality at work: Race, sex, and underemployment. Social Indicators Research, 16, pp.35-49.
Vroom,V.H.(1964). Work and Motivation, John Wiley & Sons,Inc, New York, NY.
Webber, R. A. (1975). Management: Basic elements of managing organization. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.
Weiner, B. (1972a). Theories of motivation: From mechanism to cognition. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Weiner, B. (1972b). A conceptual analysis of locus of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21, pp. 239-248.
Weiner, B. (1985). An attribution theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92(4), pp.548-573.
Zvonkovic, A.M. (1988). Underemployment: Individual and marital adjustment to income loss. Lifestyles: Family and Economic Issues, 9, pp.161-178.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔