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研究生:陳思穎
研究生(外文):Sih-ying Chen
論文名稱:在行動化合作學習環境中利用流程引導控制降低團體迷思現象
論文名稱(外文):Reducing groupthink problem using activity control in mobile collaborative learning environments
指導教授:陳年興陳年興引用關係
指導教授(外文):Nian-Shing Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:資訊管理學系研究所
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:107
中文關鍵詞:行動學習團體迷思流程引導
外文關鍵詞:Learning Process ControlMobile LearningGroupthink
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以學習者為中心的教育理念已經成為重要的趨勢,而合作學習正是以學習者為中心的教學法,過去研究證實合作學習優於傳統競爭式和個別式的教學法,可以達成更好的學習成效。然而合作學習在實務面仍然存在許多問題,團體迷思現象則為一個實際運作合作學習時的重要問題,目前雖然已有研究者發展出多種機制來解決合作學習實務面的問題,但這些機制依然無法有效消弭團體迷思現象。團體迷思現象讓小組成員容易過早形成一致性的結論,而阻礙知識分享與建構,故將嚴重阻礙合作學習之核心理論社會建構論的精神,使合作學習無法發揮應有的學習優勢。流程引導機制為一種降低團體迷思現象的有效方法,然而這種機制經常因為教學者無法充分引導或者小組中的領導風格差異過大,使得引導流程機制無法正確運作。有鑑於此,本研究將流程引導機制建構在行動裝置中,藉由行動裝置來引導合作學習活動的流程,以確保在每個合作學習小組上都能確實執行正確的流程引導機制。研究結果顯示將流程引導機制運作在行動裝置上的小組比將流程引導機制運作在傳統學習單上的小組,其團體迷思徵兆中的自我審查徵兆可達到顯著降低。且利用行動裝置的小組,在小組進行有流程引導活動時的四個團體迷思徵兆程度比進行無流程引導活動時的四個團體迷思徵兆程度更低,並帶來更好的學習態度與互動程度,故本研究證實將流程引導機制運作在行動裝置上確實可降低合作學習中的團體迷思現象。最後依據研究結果,本研究提出一些對未來研究方向的建議。
The learner-centered concept has become an important trend in educational field; collaborative learning is exactly the realization of such a concept. Many studies have pointed out that collaborative learning is better than traditional competitive and personal learning. However, there still exist some practical issues while applying collaborative learning, groupthink is one of them. Although researchers have developed many mechanisms for solving the practical issues of collaborative learning, groupthink can not be eliminated effectively. Because of groupthink, learning groups may jump to coherent conclusions quickly before a fully knowledge sharing and constructing process is being executed. This is against the spirit of Social Constructionism which is the essential theory of collaborative learning and reduces the benefits of collaborative leaning. Learning process control is an effective mechanism for reducing the groupthink effect. However, learning process control mechanism usually cannot work as expected because of the inappropriate guide of instructors or different leading styles of group leaders. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a system with the support of learning process control mechanism using mobile devices is developed to ensure the mechanism will be properly executed. The results show that self-censorship, which is one of the symptoms of groupthink, can be reduced significantly if learning process control mechanism is executed on mobile devices compared to the execution on traditional worksheets. Moreover, the groups using mobile devices support for executing the learning process control, the four symptoms of groupthink can be greatly reduced compared to the groups without any learning process control and learners could have better learning attitude and interactive level. Therefore, this study proved that groupthink can be reduced by having learning process control mechanism executed on mobile devices. Finally, some future research topics are proposed based on the research results.
論文提要 I
致謝 II
摘要 IV
ABSTRACT V
目錄 VI
圖目錄 IX
第1章、緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究問題 3
1.3 研究目的 4
第2章、文獻探討 5
2.1 合作學習 5
2.1.1 何謂合作學習 5
2.1.2 合作學習教學策略 7
2.1.3 合作技巧 8
2.1.4 行動裝置輔助合作學習 9
2.2 團體迷思 11
2.2.1 何謂團體迷思 11
2.2.2 群體決策中團體迷思解決機制 14
2.3 合作學習與團體迷思 18
2.3.1 合作學習中的團體迷思 18
2.3.2 合作學習中團體迷思解決機制 20
2.3.3 合作學習中解決團體迷思機制的挑戰 21
2.3.4 利用行動裝置解決合作學習中團體迷思機制的挑戰 22
第3章、研究方法 25
3.1 研究架構與假說 25
3.2 研究變項操作型定義及衡量 30
3.2.1 團體迷思流程引導機制 30
3.2.2 「對異議者施加壓力」、「自我審查」、「全體一致的錯覺」及「心靈守衛」 30
3.2.3 學習態度與互動程度 31
3.3 研究對象 32
3.4 研究工具 32
3.4.1 問卷量表 33
3.4.2 教學教材 37
3.5 實驗設計 38
3.6 資料分析方法 40
3.6.1 四個徵兆變數值分析 40
3.6.2 學習態度分析及互動程度分析 41
第4章、系統建置 44
4.1 開發平台和環境 44
4.2 流程引導設計 47
4.3 系統設計 49
4.4 實驗程序 54
4.4.1 無流程引導討論活動(A) 54
4.4.2 傳統流程引導討論活動(B) 55
4.4.3 行動裝置流程引導系統討論活動(C) 56
4.4.4 問卷填寫 57
第5章、研究資料分析與結果 58
5.1 資料收集情形 58
5.2 問卷信效度檢測 58
5.3 流程引導與團體迷思徵兆分析 59
5.3.1 無流程引導與有流程引導 59
5.3.2 傳統學習單流程引導與行動裝置流程引導 61
5.4 團體迷思徵兆與學習態度及互動程度分析 63
5.4.1 團體迷思徵兆與學習態度 63
5.4.2 團體迷思徵兆與互動程度 64
5.5 流程引導與學習態度及互動程度分析 64
5.5.1 無流程引導與有流程引導 65
5.5.2 傳統學習單流程引導與行動裝置流程引導 66
5.6綜合討論 68
第6章、結論 75
6.1 研究結果 75
6.2 研究貢獻 76
6.3 研究限制 77
6.4 未來研究 77
參考文獻 78
附錄一、無流程引導學習單 83
附錄二、流程引導學習單 86
附錄三、流程引導問題卷 88
附錄四、流程引導答題卷 90
附錄五、無流程引導及流程引導活動之團體迷思問卷 93
附錄六、行動裝置流程引導系統討論活動之團體迷思問卷 94
附錄七、學習態度及互動程度問卷 95
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