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研究生:葉晉嘉
研究生(外文):Chin-Chia Yeh
論文名稱:台灣城鄉價值變遷及其對都市治理之意涵
論文名稱(外文):The Meaning of Urban Governance by Value Change between Urban and Rural in Taiwan
指導教授:吳濟華吳濟華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jih-hwa Wu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:公共事務管理研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:公共行政學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:212
中文關鍵詞:多因子變異數分析城鄉屬性後物質主義價值觀轉型都市治理
外文關鍵詞:post-materialismurban attributeurban governancevalues changemulti-factorial ANOVA
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  • 被引用被引用:8
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價值觀的重要性在於它潛在的影響行為與決策,更決定了資源分配的方式。二次世界大戰以後,西方工業國家歷經長期的經濟穩定成長,逐漸出現後物質價值觀的轉型。民眾逐漸由過去注重「經濟成長」、「工作穩定」、「權威」、「秩序」、「理性」等價值思維,轉而以「言論自由」、「環境保護」、「多元價值」、「休閒生活」、「藝術美學」、「自我實現」等價值為主流。這些特徵使得地方政府所面對的治理問題,日益的多元與複雜,而當前的都市治理亟需有所因應。
本研究以台灣社會變遷基本調查資料庫進行統計分析。探討台灣價值觀的時空轉變。透過量表的轉換,計算各年度的後物質價值分數,除了檢驗整體趨勢變化之外,並以不同的社會經濟變項進行單因子、二因子與三因子的變異數分析。最後輔以質性資料之討論。
依據本研究結果顯示,(1) 台灣價值觀隨著時間增加逐漸發生轉型,價值觀的轉型中的期間效應、年齡效應與代際效應都呈現統計的顯著性。(2) 年齡、所得、教育程度、職業類型、婚姻狀況、城鄉屬性對價值觀具有影響的研究假設都獲得驗證。且所得與城鄉屬性存在二因子的交互作用;而所得、城鄉屬性、婚姻狀況呈現三因子的交互作用。(3) 性別對於價值觀差異的假設未獲證實,但女性逐漸朝向後物質價值的趨勢轉變。(4) 所得對於價值觀產生的影響在中高所得會產生遞減,年齡則在40-59歲之間較無差異。(5) 職業類型早期是二級產業與三級產業無顯著差異,近期以一級產業與二級產業無顯著差異。(6) 所得越高;教育程度越高;未婚者具有較高的後物質價值觀。(7) 城鄉屬性的差異顯示,早期都市較早往後物質價值發展,因此呈現都市與城鎮及鄉村兩組具有顯著性,而城鎮與鄉村彼此間沒有顯著差異,但後期變為都市與城鎮沒有顯著差異,表示隨著價值觀的轉變,在空間上有逐漸由都市擴散到城鎮的現象。(8) 在二因子交互作用中,都市內各所得的價值觀差異最大,城鎮內的差異略小,鄉村的差異最小。在三因子交互作用中,城鄉屬性的價值觀差異,在低所得與未婚者容易產生顯著性。(9) 具有後物質價值特徵的地區應該將資源分配在後物質治理的目標上,在本研究中都市具有較多的後物質價值特徵,而鄉村具有較多的物質價值特徵。(10) 從總體經濟指標、個人支出、議會質詢、選舉公報、決算分析等資料探討中發現,價值觀轉型時也使得都市治理發生轉變的現象。(11) 2000年以後,台灣面臨經濟衰退,失業率攀升的困境,導致價值觀朝向物質價值變動。也使地方治理對於環境保護、社區發展的支出減少。 (12) 善治是都市治理的目標,而後物質價值的轉變促使治理的環境符合善治的基礎,都市治理也因應價值觀的差異而有所轉變。
The importance of value lies in its potential influence of people’s behavior and decision. It also determines how people distribute their available resources. After the World War II, in the western developed countries people’s value has changed to post-materialism due to the stable growth of economy in these countries. People transferred their value priority from economy growth, stable job, authority, order, and rationality, to freedom of speech, environmental protection, multi-value, leisure time, art, and self- expression. These changes have caused governments to react these issues think about how to govern the diversity and complicity of changing value.
This research focuses on value of time and space transformation by analysing data from Taiwan Social Change Survey (TSCS). Through re-construction scale and calculate score of post-material value, the paper examines trend of value changes from 1985 to 2005 by adopting one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA and three-way ANOVA approaches to analyse the differences of value among socio-economic variables.
From the findings this research reveals that: (1) In Taiwan, value including period effect, age effect and cohort effect has significant changes along with time passing by; (2) Variables influencing value changes include age, income, education, job, marriage, and urban attributes. Income interacts with urban attribute, and moreover, income, urban attribute, and marriage interact with one another; (3) The effect of gender has not been proven for influencing value change; however, value of female gradually changes toward post-material value; (4) The influence of income value decreases when income decrease; however, this influence does not have significant change between people of age 40 to 59; (5) Job does not have significant influence on secondary industry and tertiary industry in early stages, and it also does not have significant influence on primary industry and secondary industry in lately stages; (6) People with high income, high education, or in unmarried status have high post-material value; (7) The difference of urban attribute shows that there is significant difference between urban, town, and rural, due to urban value changes toward post-material in early stage; however in lately stage there is no significant difference between urban and town. From the finding above it indicates that value changes from urban to town in space respect; (8) Between urban and income interaction of value change, people in urban area show significant difference of income value, then comes to people in town, finally people in rural area. As to the interaction among urban, income and marriage, it shows that single people with low income show significant difference in urban attribute; (9) Governments of urban area with post-material features should distribute resource in post-material governance. This research finds that there are significant post-material features in urban area, and significant material features in rural area; (10) Form indictor of macroeconomics, personal expenditure, interpellation of city council, election bulletin, final accounting of expenditure, this research shows that urban governance also shifts as researched value changes; (11) Since 2000, Taiwan has faced economic recession and raising unemployment problems which cause value changes toward material value. This change leads local governments to decrease expenditure on both environmental protection and community development during 2000 to 2007; (12) Urban government should focus on good governance, and value changing toward post-material contributes to foundation of good governance. Governments should improve the way of governance based on these value changes.
1. 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 5
1.3 研究問題與重要性 6
1.4 研究流程與步驟 7
1.4.1 研究步驟 7
1.4.2 研究流程 8
2. 價值觀與都市治理文獻回顧 11
2.1 物質價值與後物質價值 11
2.1.1 物質價值 11
2.1.2 後物質價值觀興起與發展 12
2.1.3 物質價值觀與後物質價值觀的特徵 13
2.2 價值觀轉變的相關研究 16
2.2.1 國外價值觀轉變的實證研究 16
2.2.2 價值觀的世界性調查 20
2.2.3 國內有關價值觀的研究 21
2.2.4 影響價值觀轉變的因素 23
2.2.5 都市價值觀的轉型 25
2.3 都市治理與價值觀探討 27
2.3.1 治理與都市治理 27
2.3.2 都市治理興起的原因 29
2.3.3 都市治理面臨的挑戰 31
2.3.4 國外都市治理的經驗 32
2.3.5 良好的都市治理的條件 36
3. 研究方法與分析步驟 40
3.1 研究變項的界定 40
3.1.1 後物質價值傾向 40
3.1.2 城鄉屬性 41
3.1.3 年齡 43
3.1.4 社會經濟變項 43
3.1.5 時間 43
3.2 資料來源 45
3.2.1 量化資料 45
3.2.2 質性資料 46
3.3 研究假設 47
3.4 研究設計 49
3.4.1 整體趨勢 49
3.4.2 變項間關係與作用 49
3.5 變異數分析 50
3.5.1 變異數分析的概念 50
3.5.2 單因子與多因子變異數分析步驟 50
3.5.3 單因子與多因子變異數分析的設計 51
4. 實證分析 52
4.1 數據分析的前置工作 52
4.1.1 量表的重新建構 52
4.1.2 問卷的設計 53
4.1.3 施測步驟及抽樣方式 55
4.1.4 施測樣本結構說明 55
4.1.5 信度與效度的檢視 56
4.2 原始資料的處理 59
4.2.1 欲分析欄位篩選 59
4.2.2 新變項的產生 59
4.2.3 無效樣本的剔除 60
4.3 價值觀變遷的總體趨勢 61
4.3.1 整體價值觀的期間效應 61
4.3.2 價值觀人數比例的轉變 64
4.3.3 價值觀的代際效應 65
4.4 價值觀單因子變異數分析 70
4.4.1 年齡 70
4.4.2 性別 81
4.4.3 教育程度 85
4.4.4 所得 91
4.4.5 職業類型 103
4.4.6 婚姻狀況 110
4.4.7 城鄉屬性 114
4.5 二因子變異數分析 121
4.5.1 城鄉屬性與所得交互作用考驗 122
4.5.2 城鄉屬性與所得單純主要效果考驗 125
4.5.3 小結 131
4.6三因子變異數分析 132
4.6.1 三因子交互作用考驗 135
4.6.2 單純交互作用效果考驗 136
4.6.3 三因子單純主要效果考驗 141
4.6.4 小結 147
5. 價值觀轉型與都市治理的討論 148
5.1 總體指標的變化 148
5.1.1 每人平均國民所得 148
5.1.2 歷年經濟成長率 150
5.1.3 歷年失業率與物價指數 151
5.2 歷年個人支出改變 153
5.3 歷年地方政府決算 154
5.4 歷年選舉主張 157
5.5 歷年報紙標題 158
5.6 北高歷年議會質詢 160
5.7 小結 165
6. 研究討論與結論 166
6.1 假設驗證 166
6.1.1 符合假設的研究結果 166
6.1.2 未支持假設的研究結果 167
6.2 變項間的交互作用 168
6.2.1 城鄉屬性與所得 168
6.2.2 城鄉屬性、所得與婚姻狀況 169
6.3 台灣朝向後物質價值轉型的證據 170
6.3.1 期間效應的討論 170
6.3.2 年齡效應的討論 171
6.3.3 代際效應的討論 171
6.4 研究討論與回應 172
6.4.1 價值觀降低的現象 172
6.4.2 性別未符合預期假設的討論 172
6.4.3 價值觀轉型與都市治理的關係 173
6.5 研究結論 174
6.5.1 研究總結 174
6.5.2 貢獻與限制 175
6.5.3 後續研究建議 175

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