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研究生:李建磊
研究生(外文):LI, CHIEN LEI
論文名稱:極權轉型下的中共與法輪功
論文名稱(外文):The Conflict Between The Falun Gong and The CCP Regime During The Transformation of The Totalitarian System
指導教授:郭文般郭文般引用關係
指導教授(外文):KUO, WEN-BAN
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北大學
系所名稱:社會學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:社會學類
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:極權體系政教關係法輪功
外文關鍵詞:totalitarianismregime-religion relationsFalun Gong
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論文提要內容:


本研究的主旨在於分析法輪功與中共政權之間的衝突,並試圖對於政教衝突提出一個更適切的分析架構。對於政權型態的掌握以及法輪功本身發展的考察構成了本次分析的主軸。我們首先指出在經濟上的改革開放對於中共的政治體系所帶來的影響造成了政權轉型,同時釐清這個轉變是如何表現在其統治形式上,特別是對於國家與社會之間關係所造成的影響。另一方面,改革開放也使得中介領域有更多元與更自主性的發展,而孕育了法輪功的氣功熱潮是如何在這些變革之下形成,法輪功又是如何在轉型政權的統治下發展。

接著本研究詳細地分析了法輪功與中共政權之間關係的變化與互動過程,中共當局在此過程中不斷地加強對於氣功運動的控制;另一方面,法輪功在發展過程中歷經了「宗教化」的重要轉折,法輪功在宗教化之後逐漸脫離了當局在改革開放時期所建立的統合主義體制,雙方之間的緊張關係於焉產生。回應政府日益侵略性的管制,法輪功的抗爭行動不斷升高,因而與中共當局之間爆發了更直接的衝突。

研究結果顯示,改革開放使得民間社會開始有一些新生的力量出現,而中共政權也由極權體系轉變為後極權的威權體系,對於法輪功的鎮壓則是這個威權政權對於民間的社會不斷進行再控制的結果。法輪功本身的發展對於這個衝突的關鍵性影響在於,離開制度與組織的去形式化使得法輪功逐漸擺脫了政府的監控,因此引起了公安部門的疑慮並且採取了日益侵略性的行動;而其抗爭行動在某種程度上則加深了公安部門的疑慮,致使當局決定全面鎮壓。與威權時期台灣的政教衝突相比較,這個結果也反映出中共政權的政治體系變遷對於其統治形式以及國家與社會之間關係的影響。






關鍵字:極權體系、政教關係、法輪功
Abstract

The purpose of this research is to analyze the conflict between the Falun Gong and the CCP regime. The transforming regime and the development of the Falun Gong are the central axes of this analysis. The Reform and the Open Policy stated in the late 1970s brought some limited but significant change on the political system of the CCP regime. On the other hand, a more plural and somewhat autonomous intermediary sphere emerged in this process. The regime transformed from a totalitarian system in Linz’s sense toward a type of Corporatist Authoritarianism. The state-society relationship became more and more unstable and volatile in the process of regime’s transformation. The “qiqong boom” which bred the Falun Gong movement came into being in this context, and the Falun Gong emerged under this “new” state-society relationship.

The CCP regime tightened the control of qigong practices in general and Falun Gong in particular in the mid-1990s. On the other hand, the Falun Gong had a “religious turn” as its swiftly spreading in mainland China, and it became more religion-like and no longer a “secular qiqong” as the motif that the CCP regime set for the qigong movement. This religious turn leaded the Falun Gong intend to disengage itself from the corporatist system established by the authority during the Reform era. Against the more and more aggressive critics, the Falun Gong finally decided to protest. These factors jointly contributed to the growing tension between the two parties. The ensuing intensified interactions of the two incurred the regime’s crackdown in this tension.

The result of this research shows that the regime transited itself from a totalitarian system to a post-totalitarian authoritarian system during the Reform period. The regime’s crackdown of the Falun Gong is an outcome of the regime’s striving to “re-take” the whole society. And the religious turn of the Falun Gong, its escape from the surveillance of government, and its de-institutionalization evoked the misgivings of the Public Security department for its elusiveness, the protests also accelerate the regime finally taking the Falun Gong as a real threat. Compare to the KMT regime in Taiwan during the authoritarian period, this result reveal that the transformation of the CCP regime affected the way it dominate the society.


Keywords: totalitarianism, regime-religion relations, Falun Gong
目錄



第一章 導論
第一節 研究意識與研究問題……………………………………………………..1
第二節 文獻探討…………………………………………………………………..2
第三節 研究方法…………………………………………………………………15
第二章 極權轉型下的社會變遷與氣功運動的發展
第一節 極權時期中國大陸的國家—社會關係…………………………………20
第二節 改革開放之後中國大陸中介領域的發展………………………………25
第三節 氣功熱的出現與中共當局的氣功管理…………………………………35
第四節 世俗的法輪功……………………………………………………………41
第三章 法輪功與中共之間衝突的過程
第一節 緊張關係的產生及其原因………………………………………………43
第二節 法輪功在緊張關係之下的行動與發展…………………………………67
第三節 緊張關係的升高…………………………………………………………74
第四節 法輪功與中共之間衝突的爆發…………………………………………79
第四章 法輪功的行動及其背後的動力
第一節 法輪功的氣功內涵為期信仰所提供的基礎…………………………..100
第二節 李洪志的先知角色與法輪功倫理的發展……………………………..104
第三節 法輪功的行動在中共鎮壓下的發展…………………………………..110
第五章 結論與討論
第一節 後極權式的威權政權對於社會的再控制……………………………..121
第二節 法輪功的發展對於衝突的影響………………………………………..129
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