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研究生:李冠霆
研究生(外文):Kuan-Ting Li
論文名稱:捷運系統社會與環境永續策略之研究
論文名稱(外文):Strategy of Social and Environmental Sustainability for Mass Rapid Transit System
指導教授:張學孔張學孔引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:土木工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:219
中文關鍵詞:軌道捷運系統社會公平永續發展旅次總成本大眾運輸
外文關鍵詞:Mass Rapid TransitSocial SustainabilityEnvironment Sustainabilityfull trip costPublic Transportation Policy
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都市大眾運輸系統建置具有多種選擇,包括重運量軌道捷運系統(Rail Rapid Transit)、輕軌捷運系統(Light Rail Rapid Transit)、公車捷運系統(Bus Rapid Transit)、以及傳統公共汽車等形式。然而,各開發中國家都市大眾運輸的發展偏向基礎設施經費龐大的軌道捷運系統,如此需要較長建設時程以及龐大興建與維護成本,一方面無法因應急速城市化與機動化所需之大眾運輸服務,另一方面則帶來社會公平與經濟財務永續性之疑慮。軌道捷運系統的發展希望帶來的是可以滿足各階層民眾在基本行的需求,在捷運票價因財務因素使得調整幅度上受限,對於一般民眾實為一沈重的負擔,而合理降低捷運票價可視為降低民眾負擔能力及提高社會永續提高的一個重要政策之一;然而,如何能兼顧社會永續之公平性與財務永續,實為重要課題。本研究針對以軌道捷運為主之大眾運輸政策,探討整體社會永續與環境永續的意涵。研究中利用經濟學中社會福利與旅次總成本理論,分別分析效率與公平課題,並探討大眾運輸政策所引發社會整體效率與公平間的權衡關係,期能避免追求社會永續及公平的同時而忽略了社會整體效率。此外,本研究在社會永續的前提下分析二氧化碳排放與能源消耗相關課題。實證分析中,本研究分析台北捷運系統調低票價的額度對各所得階層民眾負擔能力的變化,進而討論社會福利與旅次總成本的變化,瞭解捷運系統票價降低的額度在各年期所顯現的公平與效率的意涵;同時,對於私人機動運具實施課稅以及應用BRT提供大眾運輸服務所產生之影響,亦進行實證分析。基於實證分析成果,本研究建議政策上應配合此降低票價政策,針對對汽、機車課稅,一方面可達到大眾運輸政策中「推」與「拉」之效果,一方面亦確保軌道捷運發展之財務永續性。本研究亦建議公車捷運系統在建置成本低與時程快的優勢下,在公平與效率的績效可較軌道捷運系統提早達到相同之效果。
The mass rapid transit is considered a well method to release the urban traffic congestion. There are many transit modes can be chosen for urban development like rail system, bus rapid transit or bus system. But many developing countries chose the rail system with a enormous infrastructure cost. Passengers do not afford the infrastructure cost of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit), because the infrastructure cost of expanding route should be self-contained and stride forward to economic sustainable objective. In order to keep the basic right of transport for all classes of citizens, we should pay more attention on that the fare of transportation will become heavy burden for those low income people who are low affordability.
This research analyzed that the relationship between reducing the MRT fare and changing of affordability of low-income people. It used the social welfare and full trip cost to judge the fairness and efficiency. The concept in this research of social welfare means the efficiency of various trips in the urban and full trip cost is one of the measures for the quantitative analysis. This research is based on these two measures to trade off the efficiency and fairness in result of public transportation policies. In recent years, the publics pay more and more attention to the global warming and climate change issues. The public transportation system is considered an effective method to release the pollution and make the environment sustainable. Relative research appeared that public transportation policy could reduce the carbon dioxide and fuel consumption to keep the environment sustainable. Although social welfare would increase if policy maker only decreased the MRT fare, but the mode split didn’t transfer to public transportation obviously. It should continue carry out another policy to compensate the finance gap of MRT from levying the tax from the users of automobile and motorcycle. In this double efficient policy, social welfare full trip costs will both decreased, but in 2031 the completed route of MRT will bring the increment of social welfare. Because the BRT system has the advantage about lower infrastructure cost and shorter construction period, it will make the performance of social welfare and full trip cost much better.
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 1
1.3 研究內容與流程 2
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 永續發展之意涵 5
2.1.1 永續運輸與社會公平性 11
2.1.2 永續運輸與外部性分析 14
2.1.3 永續性的衡量方法 19
2.2 環境、社會永續議題分析 34
2.2.1 二氧化碳排放與氣候變遷 34
2.2.2 國內二氧化碳排放 40
2.2.3 空氣污染物 48
2.2.4 亞洲地區空氣污染情況 52
2.3 運輸政策理論分析 75
2.3.1 投資政策 75
2.3.2 定價政策 80
2.3.3 管制政策 82
2.3.4 補貼政策 90
2.3.5 成本政策 92
2.3.6 稅費政策 96
2.4 軌道運輸政策 98
2.5 社會總成本 100
2.6 文獻評析 104


第三章 問題分析與模式建構 106
3.1 捷運系統社會與環境永續分析 106
3.1.1 運輸的外部性 106
3.1.2 捷運系統社會永續分析 107
3.1.3 捷運系統環境永續分析 124
3.2 模式建構 128
3.2.1 旅次總成本模式 128
3.2.2 社會福利模式 134
3.2.3 模式構建原則 137
第四章 捷運社會永續模式 148
4.1 基本模式 148
4.1.1 台北都會區軌道系統與重大政策分析 148
4.1.2 分析工具與基礎資料 152
4.2 台北都會區社會福利與旅次總成本 153
4.2.1 社會福利分析 153
4.2.2 旅次總成本分析 157
4.3 捷運系統社會永續政策 160
4.3.1 社會福利之分析 161
4.3.2 旅次總成本之分析 164
4.3.3 綜合分析 165
第五章 政策分析與探討 171
5.1捷運票價調降與對私人運具課稅 171
5.1.1 社會福利與旅次總成本 172
5.1.2 捷運票價調降與對私人運具課稅社會公平分析 182
5.1.3 捷運票價調降與對私人運具課稅環境永續分析 183
5.2 小汽車使用者課徵不同比例之外部成本稅 186
5.2.1 社會福利與旅次總成本 188
5.2.2 汽車課外部成本稅社會公平分析 194
5.2.3 汽車課外部成本稅環境永續分析 196
5.3 公車捷運系統策略分析 199
5.3.1 社會福利與旅次總成本 201
5.3.2 公車捷運系統社會永續分析 203
5.3.3 公車捷運系統環境永續分析 205
第六章 結論與建議 209
6.1 結論 209
6.2 建議 211
參考文獻 213
附錄A 221
附錄B 227
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