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研究生:蔡宗穎
研究生(外文):Tsung-ying Tsai
論文名稱:都市擁擠收費最適範圍與定價之研究
論文名稱(外文):Optimal Area and Toll for Congestion Pricing
指導教授:張學孔張學孔引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shyue-Koong Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:土木工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:擁擠收費靜態分析模型收費範圍收費定價
外文關鍵詞:Congestion pricingStatic analytic modelCharging areaCharging toll
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都市擁擠收費為一透過合理收費以改善都市交通擁擠並促使運輸系統更具效率的運輸需求管理方法,在實務上已經為新加坡、倫敦、斯德哥爾摩與奧斯陸等都市所接受並成功推動。擁擠收費於學理上之已有深入而廣泛之探討,然過往之相關研究著重於在固定收費地點下最適費率之求算,對於收費範圍之擇定著墨甚少,惟近年已有證實研究顯示收費地點與範圍之設計會顯著的影響系統之成效。本研究即透過建立一靜態數學分析模型對於擁擠收費之範圍大小與系統績效之關係進行探討,研究中係以「社會福利最大」與「使用者成本最小」兩目標,分別對於「收費價格」與「收費範圍」進行分析。本研究並以台北都會區為例進行數值應用分析,研究結果顯示,最適擁擠費價格會隨收費範圍擴大而遞減且呈邊際遞減趨勢,而社會福利亦同樣呈現隨範圍擴大而遞減之情形;而在合理的收費價格範圍內,最適收費範圍將隨擁擠費價格訂定之提高而增加。本研究結果亦發現,使用者成本最小化之收費範圍並非必然存在,唯有擁擠費價格高過一定之門檻值,使用者成本乃呈現凸函數之型態,則該值存在。就由營運者方面而言,擁擠收費之系統營運成本實屬相對較大的成本項目,當收費範圍過大或過小時,系統營運皆有虧損之虞;而營運成本亦相當程度影響了擁擠收費執行之社會福利效果,惟將此成本視為政府投入交通改善相關預算之挹注時,則擁擠收費之實施對於運輸系統使用效率之提昇仍具其成效。本研究之理論模式與應用分析成果,可作為規劃設計擁擠收費相關措施之參考。
Congestion pricing is a transportation demand management approach to alleviate congestion problem and have overall transportation system more efficient. Singapore, London, Stockholm, and Oslo have already executed for many years while theoretical analyses of Congestion pricing has been more than few decades. Most prior studies focus on optimal charging fare at fixed charging location. Recently, some studies have demonstrated that the performance of charging scheme critically depends on charging location and area. This study develops static mathematical analysis model to analyze the relationship between charging area and system performance. Objectives of maximum social welfare and minimum user cost are used to solve the optimal toll and optimal charging area respectively. The mathematical models developed are applied to Taipei Metropolis as a numerical example. It is found that the optimal toll and social welfare are disproportional to the charging area. It is also shown that the optimal charging area should be wider when reducing toll among a reasonable range. In addition, user cost function will be the convex function only if the charging toll exceeds a threshold value that minimum user cost charging area will exist. On the other hand, operating cost of implementing congestion pricing system has significant influence on system performance as well as social welfare. Therefore, operator may have deficit when charging area is too wide or too narrow. If we consider operating cost as a government resource for improving traffic congestion, the result indicates that congestion pricing is useful to improve the efficiency of transportation system. The models developed and results of numerical analyses obtained in this study can be used for planning and design of congestion pricing alternatives.
摘要…………..………………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………...Ⅱ
目錄…………………………………………………………………………………..Ⅲ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………………..Ⅴ
表目錄……………………………………………………………………………… .Ⅶ
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………………1
1.1 研究動機……………………………………………………………………...1
1.2 研究目的……………………………………………………………………...2
1.3 研究方法與內容……………………………………………………………...3
1.4 研究範圍……………………………………………………………………...3
1.5 研究流程……………………………………………………………………...3
第二章 文獻回顧與評析……………………………………………………………5
2.1 擁擠收費概述………………………………………………………………...5
2.1.1 擁擠收費原理……………………………………………………………5
2.1.2 最佳定價收費……………………………………………………………6
2.1.3 次佳定價收費……………………………………………………………7
2.2 國外道路擁擠收費案例…………………………………………………….10
2.3 擁擠收費與空間之關係…………………………………………………….15
2.3.1 擁擠收費對於都市經濟之影響………………………………………..15
2.3.2 擁擠收費疆界設計對於績效之影響…………………………………..17
2.3.2.1 判斷法……………………………………………………………...17
2.3.2.2 理論法……………………………………………………………...21
2.3.2.3 收費範圍大小與績效….…………………………………………..31
2.4文獻評析………………………………………………………………………35
第三章 模式構建與求解…………………………………………………………..37
3.1 主要符號定義……………………………………………………………….37
3.2 模式假設…………………………………………………………………….39
3.3 模式構建…………………………………………………………………….41
3.4 模式求解…………………………………………………………………….49
第四章 數值分析與敏感度分析…………………………………………………..57
4.1 參數設定…………………………………………………………………….57
4.2 數值分析結果……………………………………………………………….59
4.2.1 固定收費範圍下求社會福利最大之擁擠費價格……………………..59
4.2.2 固定擁擠費價格下求使用者成本最小之收費區半徑………………..64
4.2.3 社會福利最大化擁擠費價格下使用者成本最小化收費範圍半徑…..67

4.3 敏感度分析………………………………………………………………….68
4.3.1 彈性係數e…..………………………………………………………….68
4.3.2 旅次移轉大眾運輸比率α..…………………………………………….72
4.3.3 單位外部成本E………………………………………………………...78
4.4 情境分析…………………………………………………………………….81
4.4.1 都市集中性……………………………………………………………..81
4.4.2 旅次時間價值…………………………………………………………..85
4.5 小結………………………………………………………………………….88
第五章 結論與建議………………………………………………………………..91
5.1 結論………………………………………………………………………….91
5.2 建議………………………………………………………………………….94
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