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研究生:張雯馨
研究生(外文):Wen-Hsin Chang
論文名稱:以試題反應理論分析專業英文字彙之困難度
論文名稱(外文):An IRT-based Model of Word Difficulty among ESP College Students
指導教授:曹秀蓉曹秀蓉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Syou-Rung Tsau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大葉大學
系所名稱:應用外語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:英文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:試題反應理論字彙困難度專業英文
外文關鍵詞:Item Response TheoryWord DifficultyEnglish for Specific Purposes
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本研究旨在探討專業英文字彙的困難度,同時確認試題反應理論模式在字彙研究上的適用性,以及導致單字習得困難的可能因素。本研究之研究對象為二百三十八名台灣地區的大學學生。依據試題反應理論模式所提供的能力指數將其分為高能力組、中能力組、以及低能力組。所有受試者皆須完成四份英翻中字彙測驗。
研究結果顯示,試題反應理論模式能有效評估單字困難度。另外也發現,字彙的困難度可由該單字的字長,語音干擾程度,以及字義可意象性預測得知。此外,字彙困難度和學習者本身的英語文能力對於其單字測驗的表現有相當大的影響。
本研究根據結論提出幾點建議,以供實際教學及相關研究參考之用:一、採用切合學生英文程度的教材。二、培養相關字彙學習策略與技巧。三、考量其他可能影響字彙困難度的因素。
Academic vocabulary difficulty encountered among adult foreign language learners was investigated using Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis. A total of 238 Chinese-speaking ESP (English for Specific Purposes) college students were examined on a series of four vocabulary translation tests. It is found that the dichotomous one-parameter Rasch model is reasonably effective in assessing word difficulty. The findings show that word characteristics such as word length, phonetic distractability and imageability are underlying predictors of word difficulty among adult learners. It is evident that both learner proficiency and word difficulty in English affect learners’ translation performance. Further research is necessary to discriminate between the effects of word features and human factors. Pedagogical implications are discussed for the importance of teaching material selection and vocabulary learning strategy use in English vocabulary instrument.
COVER PAGE i
SIGNATURE ii
AUTHORIZATION iii
ABSTRACT (Chinese) iv
ABSTRACT (English) v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF FIGURES xi
LIST OF TABLES xii

Chapter I. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background and Motivation of the Study 1
1.2 Purposes of the Study 3
1.3 Research Questions 5
1.4 Significance of the Study 5
1.5 Limitations of the Study 6
1.6 Organization of the Study 7
1.7 Definitions of Terms 8

Chapter II. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Knowledge of Vocabulary 11
2.1.1 Definition of Vocabulary Knowledge 11
2.1.2 Taxonomies of Vocabulary Knowledge 12
2.2 Word Difficulty 18
2.2.1 Word Form 18
2.2.2 Word Meaning 19
2.2.3 Word Position 20
2.3 Academic Words and the Academic Word List 21
2.3.1 Academic Words 21
2.3.2 The Academic Word List 24
2.4 Item Response Theory 28
2.4.1 Basic Ideas and Assumptions of Item Response Theory 28
2.4.2 Models of Item Response Theory 30
2.4.3 Applications of Item Response Theory Models 34
2.5 Summary 35

Chapter III. METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 36
3.2 Participants 37
3.3 Research Assistants 38
3.4 Materials and Instruments 39
3.4.1 Vocabulary Translation Tests 39
3.4.2 Grading Rubrics 41
3.5 Procedure and Data Collection 41
3.6 Data Analysis 42
3.7 Summary 45

Chapter IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Inter-rater Reliability 46
4.2 Descriptive Statistics for Original Raw Translation Scores 47
4.3 IRT Word Difficulty Indices 49
4.4 Agreement between Word Difficulty Measures 50
4.5 Learner Proficiency and Vocabulary Translation 52
4.6 Learner Proficiency and Word Difficulty 56
4.7 ANOVA Analysis on Word Characteristics 58
4.7.1 Word Length 59
4.7.2 Phonetic Distractability 60
4.7.3 Frequency 62
4.7.4 Imageability 64
4.7.5 Meaning Multiplicity 65
4.8 Regression Analysis on Word Characteristics 66
4.9 Summary 67

Chapter V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
5.1 Summary of the Main Findings 69
5.2 Conclusions 72
5.3 Pedagogical Implications 72
5.4 Suggestions for Further Research 74

CHINESE REFERENCES 76
ENGLISH REFERENCES 77

APPENDICES
Appendix A Vocabulary Translation Tests 90
Appendix B Grading Rubrics 94
Appendix C Raw Score Average Modeling Results 95
Appendix D IRT Difficulty Index Modeling Results 98
Appendix E IRT Ability Indices 100
Appendix F Imageability Rating Results 103

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 ICCs of One-Parameter Logistic Model 31
Figure 2.2 ICCs of Two-Parameter Logistic Model 32
Figure 2.3 ICCs of Three-Parameter Logistic Model 33
Figure 3.1 Word Selection in Test Development 40
Figure 3.2 Testing Procedure 42
Figure 3.3 Steps of Data Analysis 43
Figure 4.1 Mean Scores and Correctness Response of Participants 53
Figure 4.2 Correct Responses for Easy, Moderate, and Hard Words 54

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Text Coverage of Vocabulary in English 22
Table 2.2 Subject Parts in Faculty Areas of Coxhead’s Academic
Corpus 26
Table 2.3 Sublists of the Academic Word List 27
Table 3.1 Distribution of Participants 38
Table 4.1 Correlation between Scores of Raters 46
Table 4.2 Mean Translation Score Average for Word Groups 47
Table 4.3 Differences in Means among Word Groups (Raw Score
Average) 47
Table 4.4 The Easiest and Hardest Words (Raw Score Average) 48
Table 4.5 Mean Difficulty Indices for Word Groups 49
Table 4.6 Differences in Means among Word Groups (IRT
Difficulty Indices) 49
Table 4.7 The Easiest and Hardest Words (IRT Difficulty
Indices) 50
Table 4.8 Correlation between Raw Score Averages and IRT
Difficulty Indices 51
Table 4.9 Correlations of Easy, Moderate, and Hard Words 51
Table 4.10 Correlations of Easiest and Hardest Words 52
Table 4.11 Mean Ability indices for Learner Groups 53
Table 4.12 Differences in Proficiency among Learner Groups 54
Table 4.13 Means Converted Translation Scores 57
Table 4.14 Effects of Learner Proficiency and Word Difficulty 57
Table 4.15 Scheffe Test Results of Learner Proficiency and Word
Difficulty 58
Table 4.16 Mean Difficulty of Word Length Groups 59
Table 4.17 ANOVA on Word Length 59
Table 4.18 Mean Difficulty of Phonetic Distractability Groups 62
Table 4.19 ANOVA on Phonetic Distractability 62
Table 4.20 Mean Difficulty of Frequency Groups 63
Table 4.21 ANOVA on Frequency 63
Table 4.22 Mean Difficulty of Imageability Groups 64
Table 4.23 ANOVA on Imageability 65
Table 4.24 Mean Difficulty of Meaning Multiplicity Groups 65
Table 4.25 ANOVA on Meaning Multiplicity 66
Table 4.26 Regression of Difficulty on Word Characteristics 67
Chinese References

Joe, S. G.(周碩貴) (2003)。科技大學學生英文字彙量與閱讀補救教學研究。行政院國家科學委會專題研究成果報告 (報告編號: NSC91-2411-H-224-008),未出版。
Yu, M. N. (余民寧) (1991)。試題反應理論的介紹 (一):測驗理論的發展驅勢。研習資訊,8(6),13-17。
Yu, M. N. (余民寧) (1992)。試題反應理論的介紹 (三):試題反應模式及其特性。 研習資訊,9(2),6-10。


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