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研究生:張家維
研究生(外文):Chia-Wei Chang
論文名稱:台灣中南部山區蝙蝠的分布特性:棲地類型與環境因子的探討
論文名稱(外文):Bat species and fauna in relation to habitat types and environment factors in central-southern Taiwan
指導教授:方引平方引平引用關係鄭錫奇鄭錫奇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yin-Ping FangHsi-Chi Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:生物資源學系研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物科技學類
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:蝙蝠棲地類型環境因子
外文關鍵詞:bathabitat typeenvironment factor
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摘要
  本論文針對台灣中南部山區蝙蝠的組成與環境間的相關性進行探討。論文分為兩個部分,第一章主要探討蝙蝠的分布特性是否受海拔與棲地類型等大尺度因子的影響,而第二章則選定阿里山相近海拔區域,研究蝙蝠組成與棲地的細部環境因子之相關性。

第一章 蝙蝠物種分布於大尺度環境結構下之相關探討
  自2005年1月至2007年12月止,在台灣中南部山區5個縣市共73個樣點,使用網具進行蝙蝠的捕捉調查,並彙整各樣點的所屬海拔與周邊的棲地類型進行分析,以瞭解台灣山區蝙蝠在海拔上的分布特性,及不同棲地類型中蝙蝠的組成與差異。調查結果共捕獲了941隻次的蝙蝠,分屬3科26種。整體而言,物種豐富度隨著海拔梯度變化而呈現雙峰形的分布。分析結果顯示,同海拔帶與類型相近的棲地其蝙蝠組成的相似度也較高。此外,中南部山區的蝙蝠依據海拔分布的特性,大致可分為4類,包含(a)廣泛分布;(b)偏好海拔1,500m以上;(c)侷限於特定或不連續的海拔帶與(d)偏好海拔1,500m以下的物種。然而,仍有部分種類未能以大尺度環境因子釐清其分布特性,後續則藉由測量調查點棲地的細部環境因子,進一步瞭解蝙蝠組成與環境的相關性。

第二章 蝙蝠組成及其分布與小尺度環境因子關係之研究
  蝙蝠的分布除了與海拔因素有關外,亦和棲地的細部環境因子與天候因子相關。因此,本章節針對阿里山相近海拔區域蝙蝠相與微棲地環境因子的相關性進行探討。研究自2008年3月至11月止,選擇阿里山2,000~2,500m海拔範圍之調查樣點,進行春、夏、秋3季的網具捕捉調查,並輔以回聲定位資料進行各樣點細部環境因子的測量,總計共捕獲3科15種229隻次的蝙蝠。結果顯示,各調查樣點其蝙蝠組成的分群特性與細部環境因子具相關性,且各種蝙蝠偏好的環境因子並不相同。此外,蝙蝠種類間的季活動模式與夜活動模式均有明顯差異,夏季(6-8月)以家蝠屬與鼠耳蝠屬蝙蝠較為常見,秋季(9-11月)則較常捕獲管鼻蝠類蝙蝠,且蝙蝠種類在上、下半夜的出現頻度亦不相同。此外,相較於捕捉調查,回聲定位測錄法的資料取得較為便利,但仍有難以測得發出訊號較微弱的物種,以及種類不易辨識等缺失,因此建議在進行蝙蝠相調查時應與網具調查同時並用,才能較完整呈現當地的蝙蝠相。
Abstract
This thesis focused on bat fauna in relation to environment structure at two levels in central-southern Taiwan. The thesis includes two parts. In chapter 1, I investigated bat assemblages at different elevation and habitat types, and try to found the relation between bat fauna and these two large scale factors. In chapter 2, I selected three study sites at the similar elevation in Alishan area to investigate bat assemblages and try to found the relation between the small scale factors of environment structures and bat fauna.

Chapter1
From January 2005 to November 2007, Taiwan Endemic Species Research Institute(TESRI)cooperated with the department of Biological Resources of national Chiayi University to conduct an bat fauna survey project on 73 investigated plots selected in 5 counties of central-southern Taiwan. In each investigated plot, we used mist nets and harp traps to catch flying bats and corrected the data of elevation and habitat for analyzing the relationship of bat fauna and environment. Total 941 individuals belong to 26 species were captured. Using this data, I analysis the relation between bat fauna, elevation and habitat types. The result showed that bat abundant basically exhibited two peaks along with the elevation ranges in Taiwan, and high similarities of bat assemblages in the near elevation zones and similar habitat types. Besides, according to specific relation between bat species and elevation, it seemed could be distinguish into 4 categories: (a) extensively; (b) preferred above 1,500m; (c) preferred specific or non-continuous elevation zones and (d) preferred under 1,500m.



Chapter 2
The distribution of the bat correlates with weather factors and environmental factors. For understanding the correlations of bat fauna and small-scale environmental factors, I selected three study sites at the similar elevation in Alishan area (2,000 ~ 2,500m in Alishan National Scenic Area and Lulin Mountain), to investigate bat assemblages and measure small-scale factors of environment structures. From March to November in 2008, a total of 229 bats belong to 15 bat species were captured. The bat fauna was intensely correlated to several environment factors. Also, different species of bats were preference for distinct environments. In addition, there were different daily and seasonal activity patterns among bat genus. Finally, I summarize these correlations between bat assemblages and the environment in study areas.
目錄
中英文摘要.....................................................................................................................i
第一章 蝙蝠物種分布於大尺度環境結構下之相關探討
1. 前言...........................................................................................................................2
2. 材料與方法...............................................................................................................5
2.1 資料來源與調查方式.........................................................................................5
2.2 資料分析.............................................................................................................6
3. 結果...........................................................................................................................7
3.1 蝙蝠調查概況.....................................................................................................7
3.2 蝙蝠組成與海拔的相關性.................................................................................8
3.3 蝙蝠組成與棲地類型的相關性.........................................................................8
3.4 蝙蝠組成與環境因子的綜合分析.....................................................................9
4. 討論.........................................................................................................................11
4.1 台灣中南部山區的蝙蝠分布現況...................................................................11
4.2 蝙蝠組成與環境結構的相關性探討...............................................................12
4.3 總結...................................................................................................................14
5. 參考文獻.................................................................................................................16
圖..................................................................................................................................20
表..................................................................................................................................30

第二章 蝙蝠組成及其分布與小尺度環境因子關係之研究
1. 前言.........................................................................................................................35
2. 材料與方法.............................................................................................................40
2.1 實驗地描述.......................................................................................................40
2.2 蝙蝠調查方式...................................................................................................43
2.2.1 網具捕捉....................................................................................................43
2.2.2 回聲定位測錄............................................................................................44
2.2.3 蝙蝠捕獲後處理與種類辨識....................................................................45
2.3 環境因子的測量...............................................................................................45
2.4 資料分析...........................................................................................................47
2.4.1 蝙蝠組成....................................................................................................47
2.4.2 回聲定位測錄............................................................................................48
2.4.3 蝙蝠與環境因子的關係............................................................................48
3. 結果.........................................................................................................................50
3.1 蝙蝠組成與捕捉概況.......................................................................................50
3.1.1 各調查樣點的捕捉概況............................................................................51
3.1.2 不同季節間蝙蝠的組成結構....................................................................52
3.1.3 上半夜與下半夜間蝙蝠的出現頻度........................................................53
3.2 回聲定位測錄...................................................................................................54
3.2.1 不同樣區間的比較....................................................................................54
3.2.2 不同季節間的比較....................................................................................55
3.3 蝙蝠與環境因子的關係...................................................................................56
3.3.1 調查樣點間蝙蝠組成的相似性................................................................56
3.3.2 各調查樣點的環境特性............................................................................57
3.3.3 不同種類的蝙蝠與環境因子關聯之差異................................................58
4. 討論.........................................................................................................................60
4.1 蝙蝠組成與環境因子間的相關性...................................................................60
4.2 蝙蝠組成在不同季節與時段上的差異...........................................................63
4.3回聲定位調查與捕捉調查的差異....................................................................66
4.4 總結...................................................................................................................68
5. 參考文獻.................................................................................................................69
圖..................................................................................................................................74
表..................................................................................................................................81
附錄一..........................................................................................................................89
附錄二..........................................................................................................................91
附錄三..........................................................................................................................95
第一章

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柯智仁。2004。觀霧地區森林地景與鳥類群聚的關係。國立臺灣大學生態學與演化生物學研究所碩士論文,66頁。
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鄭錫奇、張簡琳玟、張仕緯。2000。何謂哺乳類動物。南投縣哺乳類。行政院農委會特有生物研究保育中心出版,3-8頁。
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鄭欽龍、陳重銘、陳瑩達。2006。台灣人工林疏伐成本之計量分析。中華林學季刊 39:57-66。
鄭錫奇、張簡琳玟。2008。台灣蝙蝠的多樣性、研究現況與度冬遷移推論。2008蝙蝠研究研討會論文集。台灣蝙蝠學會出版,5-20頁。
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第二章

方引平。2007。台灣地區蝙蝠名錄。夜婆-尋訪婆娑森林的蝠。行政院農業委員會林務局出版,119頁。
方引平。2007。嘉義山區蝙蝠資源調查及生態解說教育手冊製作計畫研究報告。行政院農業委員會林務局嘉義林區管理處,49頁。
沈慧萍。1996。雲林地區渡瀨氏鼠耳蝠(Myotis formosus)育幼群之活動與親子關係。國立台灣大學動物學研究所碩士論文,52頁。
吳建廷。2007。台灣地區家蝠屬蝙蝠的分類學研究。國立嘉義大學生物資源學系碩士論文,59頁。
周政翰、徐昭龍、莊孟獻、李玲玲。2008。台灣管鼻蝠(Murina puta)棲居於香蕉葉之發現紀錄。特有生物研究10:19-24。
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