(52.201.27.211) 您好!臺灣時間:2019/03/23 20:19
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
本論文永久網址: 
line
研究生:許夏瑋
研究生(外文):HSIA_WEI_HSU
論文名稱:內在歸因對工作績效之影響-希望、樂觀之中介效果
論文名稱(外文):The Influence of Internal attribution on Job Performance: Hope and Optimism as Mediators
指導教授:陳儀蓉陳儀蓉引用關係
指導教授(外文):YI_JUNG_CHEN
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄應用科技大學
系所名稱:人力資源發展系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:歸因理論希望樂觀
外文關鍵詞:Attribution TheoryHopeOptimism
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:8
  • 點閱點閱:853
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
本研究主要以Weiner歸因理論來討論內在歸因、希望、樂觀與工作績效之關聯性,並以希望、樂觀為中介變項,探討其中介效果。本研究採用問卷調查法,以服務業員工為研究對象,透過主管與部屬的配對方式取樣,共得完整且有效問卷268套,回收率為77%。問卷調查結果經敘述性統計分析、信度分析、效度分析、皮爾森相關分析、階層迴歸分析,探討內在歸因、希望、樂觀及工作績效之關聯性。
This study is based on Weiner’s Attribution Theory, aimed to discuss the associations among Internal Attribution, Hope, Optimism, and Job Performance. This study took Hope and Optimism as mediating factor to examine the mediating effects. Based on the questionnaires collected from managers and employees, this study obtained 268 validity dyadic samples from service industry, and the response rate is 77%. Several statistic methods were used to analyze the collected data sets, including descriptive analysis, reliability analysis, discriminant validity, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and hierarchical regression analysis.
目 錄
中文封面………………………………………………………………………………I
英文封面………………………………………………………………...……………II
博碩士論文電子檔案上網授權書…………………………………………………..III
審定書………………………………………………………………………………..IV
誌謝…………………………………………………………………………...............V
摘要…………………………………………………………………………………..VI
Abstract………………..………………………………………………………….…VII
目錄………………………………………………………………………………...VIII
表目錄……………………………………………………………………………….IX
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………………..X
第一章 緒論………………………………………………………………………….1
第一節 研究背景與動機……………………………………………………….1
第二節 研究目的……………………………………………………………….6
第二章 文獻探討…………………………………………………………………….7
第一節 歸因理論之概要……………………………………………………….7
第二節 希望之概要……………………………………………………………13
第三節 樂觀之概要…………………………………………………………....25
第四節 希望與樂觀之比較……………………………………………………30
第五節 工作績效之概要………………………………………………………32
第六節 假設推論………………………………………………………………40
第三章 研究方法……………………………………………………………………48
第一節 研究變項與衡量………………………………………………………48
第二節 研究對象與程序………………………………………………………50
第四章 研究結果 …………………………………………………………………..52
第一節 描述性統計分析………………………………………………………52
第二節 信效度分析……………………………………………………………57
第三節 相關分析………………………………………………………………59
第四節 迴歸分析………………………………………………………………61
第五章 結論與建議…………………………………………………………………71
第一節 研究結論………………………………………………………………71
第二節 實務意涵………………………………………………………………74
第三節 研究限制與建議………………………………………………………78
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………..82
一、 中文文獻……………………………………………………………………..82
二、 英文文獻……………………………………………………………………..84
參考文獻
一、中文部份
任俊(2006)。兒童希望的培養-心理學意義上的分析。常州工學院學報,24(5),48-52。

呂理州(1999)。樂觀。台北市:經典傳訊。

余雅屏。(2003)人格特質、自我導向學習以及工作績效之相關性研究。未出版碩士論文,國立中山大學,高雄市。

杜品儀(2007)。樂觀學習課程方案對國小六年級學童樂觀解釋型態及正向情緒之影響。未出版碩士論文,國立臺南大學,臺南。

李新民、陳密桃(2007)。希望信念對復原力與正向組織行為關聯之調節:以幼兒教師為例。(國科學會專題研究計畫成果報告編號:NSC97-2410-H-366-014)。台北:中華民國行政院國家科學委員會。

施建彬、陸洛(譯)(1997)。幸福心理學。台北市:巨流。(Argyle, M., 1987)。

洪莉(譯)(1999)。教孩子學習樂觀。台北:遠流。(Seligman, M. E. P, 1995)

洪蘭(譯)(1997)。學習樂觀,樂觀學習。臺北市:遠流。(Seligman, M. E. P, 1990)。

洪蘭(譯)(2003)。真實的快樂。臺北市:遠流。(Seligman, M. E. P, 2002)。

胡瑋珊(譯)(2007)。打不死的樂觀。台北市:美商麥格羅‧希爾。(Pritchett, Price, 2006)。

張春興(2006)。張氏心理學辭典。臺北市:東華書局。

唐淑華(2004)。希望感的提升--另一個進行情意教育的取向(I)。(國科學會專題研究計畫成果報告編號:NSC92-2413-H259-001) 。台北:中華民國行政院國家科學委員會。

唐淑華(2005)。希望感的提升--另一個進行情意教育的取向(II)。(國科學會專題研究計畫成果報告編號:NSC94-2413-H259-002) 。台北:中華民國行政院國家科學委員會。

梁茂森(1996)。魏納歸因理論之探研。高雄師大學報,7,101-126。

黃芳銘(2005)。結構方程模式理論與應用。台北:五南圖書出版股份有限公司。

黃德祥、謝龍卿、薛秀宜、洪佩圓(2003)。國中、國小與高中學生希望、樂觀與學業成就之相關研究。彰化師大教育學報,5,33-62。

楊中芳、趙志裕(1987)。中國人受測者所面臨的矛盾困境:對過作依賴西方評定量表的反省。中華心理學刊,29,59-78。

行政院主計處(2009)。人力資源調查統計指標。擷取日期:2010年6月18日,網站:http://www.dgbas.gov.tw/np.asp?ctNode=2829。

經濟部(2007)。95年度服務業經營活動報告。經濟部商業司,全國商業總會。
諸承明(2000)。親信關係與員工績效評估之關聯性研究—從差序格局探討主管對部的評估偏差。管理評論,19 (3),125-147。

賴素玲(2002)。同技術水準之男子網球選手比賽成敗歸因及未來成就期望之研究。未出版碩士論文,國立體育學院,臺中。

羅世輝、湯雅云(2003)。內外控人格特質與授權賦能認知對工作滿足之影
響—以金融保險業為例。人力資源管理學報,3(1),1-19。



二、英文部份
Adams, V. H, Snyder, C. R., Rand, K. L., King, E. A., Sigmon, D. R., & Pulvers, K, M.(2002). Hope in the workplace. In R. Giacolone & C. Jurkiewicz (Eds.), Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance: 367-377. New York: Sharpe.

Adkins, C. L., Ravlin, E. C., & Meglino, B. M. (1996). Value of congruence between coworkers and its relationship to work outcomes. Group & Organization Management, 21, 439-460.

Affleck, G., & Tennen, H.(1996). Construing benefits from adversity: Adaptational
significance and dispositional underpinnings. Journal of Personality, 64, 899-922.

Austin, JT, & Villanova, P. (1992).The criterion problem: 1917–1992. Journal of Applied Psychology , 77, 836–874

Argyle, M. (1987). The psychology of happiness. London & New York: Routedge.

Arvey, R. D., & Murphy, K. R. (1998). Performance evaluation in work settings. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 141-168.

Aryee, S., & Chen, Z. X. (2006). Leader-member exchange in a Chinese context: Antecedents, the mediating role of psychological empowerment and outcomes. Journal of Business Research, 59(7), 793-801.

Ashforth, B. E., & Fugate, M. (2000). Attributional style in work settings: Development of a measure. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Meeting, Toronto.

Aspinwall, L. G., & Leaf, S. L. (2002). In search of the unique aspects of hope: Pinning our hopes on positive emotions, future-oriented thinking, hard times, and other people. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 276–288.

Averill, J. R., Catlin, G., & Chon, K. K. (1990). Rules of Hhope. Nnew York: Springer.

Aydin, G. (1988). The remediation of children’s helpless explanatory style and
related unpopularity. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 12(2), 155-165.

Bailey, T. C., Eng, W., Frisch, M. B. & Snyder, C. R. (2007). Hope and optimism as related to life satisfaction. Journal of Positive Psychology, 2(3), 168-175.

Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy: Mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122-147.

Bandura, A. (1986).Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.Y., Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1988). Self-regulation of motivation and action through goal systems. In V. Hamilton, GH Bower.



Barnum, D.D., Snyder, C.R., Rapoff, M.A., Mani, M.M., & Thompson, R. (1998). Hope and social support in the psychological adjustment of children who have survived burns and their matched controls. Children's Health Care, 27, 15-30.

Beck, A.T., Weissman, A., Lester, D., & Trexler, L. (1974). The measurement of pessimism: A hopelessness scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 861-865.

Begley, T. M., Lee, C., & Czajka, J. M. (2000). The relationships of Type A behavior and optimism with job performance and blood pressure. Journal of Business and Psychology, 15, 215-227.

Bell, R. Q. (1979). Parent, child and reciprocal infulences. American Psychologist, 34, 821-826.

Berger, C. J., & Cummings, L. L. (1979). Organizational Structure, Attitudes, and Behaviors. Research in Organizational Behavior, 1, 169-208.

Bettman, J. R., & Weitz, B, A. (1983). Attributions in the board room. Admmi.itrativc Science Quarterly, 28, 165-183.

Blumberg, M., & Pringle, C. D. (1982). The Missing Opportunity in Organizational Research: Some Implications for a Theory of Work Performance. Academy of Management Review, 7, 560-569.

Borman, W. C. (2004). The concept of organizational citizenship. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(6), 238-241.
Borman, W., Buck, D. E., Hanson, N. A., Motowidlo, S. J., Stark, S., & Drasgow, F. (2001). An examination of the comparative reliability, validity, and accuracy of performance ratings made using computerized adaptive rating scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5) 965–973.

Borneman, T., & Ferrell, B. R. (2002). The concept of hope in family caregivers of cancer patients at home. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, 4(1), 21-33.

Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. Schmit N. and Borman W.C.(EDS). Personal Selection in Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 71-98.

Borkowski, J., & Muthukrishna, N. (1992). Moving metacognition into the classroom: Working models” and effective strategy instruction. In M. Pressley, K. Harris, & J. Guthrie(Eds.), Promoting academic competence and literacy in school (p.477-501). New York: Academy Press.

Bougon, M., Weick, K. E., & Binkhorst, D. (1977). Cognition in organizations: An analysis of the Utrecht Jazz Orchestra. Administration Science Quarterly, 22(4), 606-639.

Bradley, M., Jarrell, A. & Kim, E. (1984). On the Existence of an Optimal Capital Structure: Theory and Evidence. Journal of Finance, 39, 857-880.

Brewin, C. R.(1985). Depression and causal attributions: What is their relation? Psychology Bulletin, 98, 297-309.
Brief, A. P., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1986). Pro social organizational behaviors. Academy of Management Review, 11 (4), 710-725.

Brockhaus, R. H. (1980). Psychological and Environmental Factors which Distinguish the Successful from the Unsuccessful Entrepreneur: A Longitudinal Study. Academy of Management Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting, 368-372.

Brown, M., Curry, L. A., Hagstrom, H., & Sandstedt, S. (1999). Female teenage athletes, sport participation, self-esteem, and hope. Paper presented at the Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology, Banff, Alberta, Canada.

Browne, M. W. & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp.136-162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Bruininks, p. & Malle, B. F. (2005). Distinguishing Hope from Optimism and Related Affective States. Motivation and Emotion, 29(4),327-355.

Bryant, F. B., & Cvengros, J. A. (2004). Distinguishing hope and optimism: Two
sides of a coin, or two separate coins? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23, 273–302.

Campbell, J. P., & Pritchard, R. D. (1976). Motivation theory in industrial ana organizational psychology In M. D. Dunnette(Ed), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, Chicago Rand-McNaily, 63-130.
Campbell, J. P. (1990). Modeling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organizational psychology, In M.D. Dunnette & L.M. Hough (Eds.). Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 2, 687-732.

Campbell, J. P., McCloy, R. A., Oppler, S. H., & Sager, C. E. (1993). A theory of performance. In N. Schmitt, W. C. Borman, and associates (Eds.). Personnel selection in organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 35–69.

Chang, E. C. (1998). Hope, problem-solving ability, and coping in a college student population: Some implications for theory and practice. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54, 953–962.

Chang, E. C. (2003). A critical appraisal and extension of hope theory in middle-aged men and women: Is it important to distinguish agency and pathways components. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 22(2), 121-143.

Chang, E.C, & DeSimone, SL (2001). The influence of hope on appraisals, coping, and dysphoria: A test of hope theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 20, 117–129.
Chang, C. E., & Sanna, J. L(2001). Negative attributional style as a moderator of the link between perfectionism and depressive symptoms : Preliminary evidence for an integrative model. Journal of Counseling Psychology,48,490-495.

Chemers, M. M., Watson, C. B., & May, S. T. 2000. Dispositional affect and leadership effectiveness: A comparison of self-esteem, optimism, and efficacy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26: 267-277.

Cheng, H. & Furnham, A. (2003). Attributional style and self-esteem as predictors of psychological well being. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 16(2), 121-130.

Chin, W. W., & Todd, P. A. (1995). On the Use, Usefulness, and Ease of Use of Structural Equation Modeling in MIS Research: A Note of Caution. MIS Quarterly, 19 (2), 237-246.

Clairbourne, C. (2003). Hope in the workplace. Creative Nursing, 1, 4-6.

Corr, P. J., & Gray, J. A. (1996). Attributional style as a personality factor in insurance sales performance in the UK. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 69, 83-87.

Coleman, V. I. & Borman, W. C. (2000). Investigating the underlying structure of the citizenship performance domain. Human Resource Management Review, 10(1), 25-44.

Connolly, S. G. (1980). Changing expectancies: a counseling model based on
locus of control. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 59, 176-180.

Conway, J. M. (1999). Distinguishing contextual performance from task performance for managerial jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(1), 3-13.

Crant, J. M. (2000). Proactive behavior in organizations. Journal of Management, 26, 435–462.

Crittended, K. S., & Wiley, M. G. (1980). Causal attributions and behavioral response to failure. Social Psychology Quarterly, 43, 353-358.
Curry, L. A., Snyder, C. R., Cook, D. L., Ruby, B. C., & Rehm, M. (1997). The role of hope in student-athlete academic and sport achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1257–1267.

Curry, L. A., Maniar, S. D., Sondag, K. A., & Sandstedt, S. (1999). An optimal performance academic course for university students and student-athletes. Unpublished manuscript, University of Montana, Missoula.

Curry, L. A., & Snyder, C. R. (2000). Hope takes the filed: Mind matters in athletic performances. In C. R. Snyder (Ed.), Handbook of hope: Theory, measures, and applications. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 243-260.

Curbow, B., Somerfield, M., Baker, F., Wingard, J., & Legro, M. (1993). Personal changes,dispositional optimism, and psychological adjustment to bone marrow transplantation. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 423-443.

Davis, H., IV, & Zaichkowsky, L. (1998). Explanatory style among elite ice hockey athletes. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 87, 1075–1080.
Davis, S.F., & Palladino, J.J. (2000). Psychology (3rd ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Davis, C., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Larson, J. (1999). Making sense of loss and benefiting from the experience: Two construals of meaning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 561-574.

Dember, W., Martin, S., Hummer, M., Howe, S., & Melton, R. (1989). The measurement of optimism and pessimism. Current psychology: Research & Reviews, 8, 102-119.

Deming, W. E. (1986). Out of the Crisis. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Advanced Engineering Study.

Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542-575.

Dixon, A.L., Schertzer, S.M.B. (2005). Bouncing back: how salesperson optimism and self-efficacy influence attributions and behaviors following failure. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Managemen, 25, 361-369.

Dobbins, G. H., Cardy, R. L., & Carson, K. P. (1991). Examining fundamental assumptions: A contrast of person and system approaches to human resource management. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 3, 1-38.
Dufault, K. & Martocchio, B. C. (1985). Hope: Its spheres and dimensions, Nursing Clinics of North America, 20(2), 379-391.

Dugan, K. W. (1989). Ability and efTort attributions: Do they affect how managers communicate performance feedback information? Academy of Management Journal 32, 87-114.

Elliott, T. R., Witty, T. E., Herrick, S., & Hoffman, J. T. (1991).Negotiating reality after physical loss: Hope, depression, and disability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 608-613.

Ey, S. & Hadley, W.& Allen, D. N.& Palmer, S.&Klosky, J.& Deptula, D.& Thomas, J.& Cohen, R.(2005).A new measure of children's optimism and pessimism: the youth life orientation test. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry,46 (5), 548-558.

Farh, J. L., & Cheng, B. S. (1997). Modesty bias in self-ratings in Taiwan: Impact of item wording, modesty value, and self-esteem. Chinese Journal of Psychological, 39, 103-118.

Fincham, F.D., & Bradbury, T.N. (1993). Marital satisfaction, depression, and attributions: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 442-452.

Fontaine, K., Mastead, A., & Wagner, H. (1993). Optimism, perceived control over stress, and coping. European Journal of Personality, 27, 267-281.

Frese, M., Fay, D., Hilburger, T., Leng, K., & Tag, A. (1997). The concept of personal initiative:Operationalization, reliability and validity in two German samples. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70, 139-162.

Frese, M., & Fay, D. (2001). Personal initiative: An active performance concept for work in the 21st century. In B. M. Staw & R. L. Sutton (Eds.). Research in organizational behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 23, 133–187.

Furnham, A. (1997), The half full or half empty glass: the views of the economic optimist vs. pessimist, Human Relations, 50 (2), pp. 197-209.

Furnham, A., Brewin, C. R., & O’Kelly, H. (1994). Cognitive style and attitudes to work. Human Relations, 47(12), 1509-1521.

Furnham, A., Sadka, V., & Brewin, C. R. (1992). The development of an occupational attributional style questionnaire. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 27-39.

Forsterling, F. (1985). Attribution retraining: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 98(3),495-512.

Folkes, V. S. (1984). Consumer reactions to product failure: an attributional approach. Journal of Consumer Research, 11, 398-409.

Gibson, P.R. (1999). Hope in multiple chemical sensitivity:social support and attitude towards healthcare delivery as predictors of hope. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 8, 275- 283.

Gillham, J. E., Shatté, A. J., Reivich, K. J., & Seligman M. E. P. (2002). Optimism, pessimism, and explanatory style. In E. C. Chang (Ed.), Optimism and pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice. Washington, DC: American Psychology Association, 53-75.

Gist, M. E. & Mitchell, T. R. (1992), "Self-efficacy: a theoretical analysis of its determinants and malleablility", Academy of Management Review, 17(2), 183-211.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam.
Gordon, R. A., & Kane, J. M. (2002). Explanatory style on the soccer field: Optimism and athletic performance. Poster presented at the 3rd annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Savannah, GA.

Gordon, R.A . (2008). Attributional style and athletic performance: Strategic optimism and defensive pessimism. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9, 336- 350

Gottschalk, L. A. (1974). A hope scale applicable to verbal samples. Archives of General Psychiatry, 30, 779-785.

Gonzalez, J. V. and Garazo, T. G. (2006). Structural relationships between organizational service orientation, contact employee job satisfaction and citizenship behavior. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 17(1), 23-50.

Grannis, J. C. (1992). Students Stress, Distress, and Achievement in an Urban Intermediate School, Journal of Early Adolescence, 12(1), 4-27.

Green, S. G., & Mitchell, T. R. (1979). Attributional processes of leaders in leader-member interactions. Orgamzatumal Behavior and Human Performance, 23, 429-458.

Green, K., Medlin, B., and Whitten, D. (2004). Developing optimism to improve performance. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 104(2), 113-132.

Griffin, M. A., Neal, A., & Parker, S. K. (2007). A new model of work role performance: positive behavior in uncertain and interdependent contexts. Academy of Management Journal, 50 (2), 327-347

Hackman, J. R. & Wageman, R. (1995). Total Quality Management: Empirical, Conceptual, and Practical Issues. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 309-342.
Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.v.

Heneman, R. L., Greenberger, D. B., & Anonyuo, C. (!989l). Attributions and exchanges: The effects of interpersonal factors on the diagnosis of employee performance. Academy of Management Journal, 32, 466-476.

Herth, K.(1989). The relationship between level of hope and level of coping response and other variables in patients with cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 16(1), 67-72.

Hesketh, B., & Neal, A. (1999). Technology and performance. In D. R. Ilgen & E. D. Pulakos (Eds.). The changing nature of performance: Implications for staffing, motivation, and development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 21–55.
Hewitt, J. P. (1998). The myth of self-esteem: Finding happiness and solving problems in America. New York: St. Mar-tin’s Press.

Hilsman, R., & Garber, J. (1995). A test of the cognitive diathesis-stress model of depression in children: Academic stressors, attributional style, perceived competence, and control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(2),370-380.

H Ng, T. W., & Feldman, D. C. (2009). How broadly does education contribute to job performance? Personnel Psychology, 62 (1), 89-135.

Hough, L. M. (1991). Validity of personality constructs for predicting job
performance constructs. Paper delivered at the 6th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. St. Louis, MO.

Hunter, J. E. & Hunter, R. F. (1984). Validity and Utility of Alternate Predictors of Job Performance. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 72-98.

Ilgen, D. R., & Knowlton, W. A. (1980). Performance attributional effects on feedback from superiors. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 25, 441-456.

Ilgen, D. R., & Hollenbeck, J. R. (1991). The structure of work: Job design and roles. In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organisational psychology (2nd ed.). Palo Alto,CA: Consulting Psychology Press, 165–207.

Irving, L. M., Snyder, C. R., & Crowson, J. J., Jr., (1998). Hope and the negotiation of cancer facts by college women. Journal of Personality, 66, 195-214.

Jackson, T., Weiss, K. E., Lundquist, J. J., & Hooper, D. (2003). The impact of hope, procrastination, and social activity on academic performance of midwestern college student. Education, 124 (2), 310-320.


Jawahar, I. M., Meurs, J. A., Ferris, G. R., & Hochearter, W. A. (2008). Self –Efficacy and Political Skill as Comparative Predictors of Task and Contextual Performance: A Two-Study Constructive Replication. Human Performance, 21(2), 138.


James, L. R., & Brett, J. M. (1984). Mediators, moderators, and tests for mediation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 307-321

Jex, S. M. (1998). Stress and job performance: Theory, research, and implications for managerial practice. Thousand Oaks, Calif, :Sage Publications.

Johnson, J. W. (2003). Toward a better understanding of the relationship between personality and individual job performance. In M. R. Barrick & A. M. Ryan (Eds.), Personality and Work: 83–120. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Johnson, L. H., Dahlen, R., & Robert, S. L. (1997). Supporting hope in congestive heart failure patients. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing, 16(2): 65-78.

Johnson, G. J., Han, Y. S., Douglas, C. J., Johannet, C. M., & Russell, T. (1998). Attributions for positive life events predict recovery from depression among psychiatric inpatients: An investigation of the Needles and Abramson model of recovery from depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 369-376

Jones, E. E., & Davis, K. E. (1965). From acts to dispositions: The attribution process in person perception. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advance in experimental social psychology,2, 68-82. New York: Academic Press.
Jones, E. E., D. E. Kannouse, H. H. Kelley, R. E. Nisbett, S. Valins, and B. Weiner, Eds. (1972). Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behavior. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The Social Psychology of Organizations. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley.

Kashdan, T. B., Pelham, W. E., Lang, A. R., Hoza, B., Jacob, R. G., Richard, J., & Gnagy , E. M.(2002). Hope and optimism as human strengths of children with externalizing disorders: Stress is the eye of the beholder. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 21(4), 441-468.

Kent, R., & Martinko, M. J. (1995). The development and evaluation of a scale to measure organizational attributional style. In M. J. Martinko (Ed.), Attribution theory: An organizational perspective. Delray Beach, FL: St. Lucie Press, 53-78.

Kelly, H.H. (1967). Attribution theory in social psychology. In D. Levine (Ed.),
Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 15,pp.192-238). Lincolin: University of
Nebraska press.

Knowlton, W. A., & Mitchell, T. R. (1980). The effects of causal attributions on a super-visor's evaluation of subordinate performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65,459 466.

Kulik, J., & Mahler, H. (1987). Health status, perception of risk, and prevention interest for health and nonhealth problem. Health Psychology, 6, 15-27.


Kwon, P. (2000). Hope and dysphoria: The moderating role of defense mechanisms. Journal of Personality, 68, 199–233.

Landau, Ruth (1995).Locus of Control and Socioeconomic Status: Does
Internal Locus of Control Reflect Real Resources and Opportunities or Personal
Coping Abilities?.Social Science and Medicine,41, (11).1499-1505

Langer, E. J. (1978). Rethinking the role of thought on social interaction. In J. H. Harvey, W. J. Icks, & R. F. Kidd (Eds.), New directions in attribution research (Vol.2,pp.35-58). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Larson M, Luthans F. (2006). Potential added value of psychological capital in predicting work attitudes. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 13, 44–61.

Lee, C., Ashford, S. J., & Jamieson, L. F. (1993). The effects of Type A behavior dimensions and optimism on coping strategy, health, and performance, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 143-157.

Lee, T. W., Locke, E. A. & Latham, G. P. (1989). Goal setting theory and job performance. In A. Pervin (Ed.). Goal Concepts in Personality and Social Psychology. Hillsdale, NJ; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 291-326.

Liden, R. C., Stilwell. D., & Ferris, G. R. (1996). The effects of supervisor and
subordinate age on objective performance and subjective performance ratings. Human Relations, 49, 327-347.

Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Lodahl, T. M., & Kejner, M. (1965). The definition of measurement of job involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 49(1), 24-33.

Lord, R. G., & Hanges, P. J. (1987). A control system model of organizational motivation: Theoretical development and applied implications. Behavioral Science, 32, 161–178.

Luthans, F. (2002). Invited essay on the need for and meaning of positive
organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(6) 695–706.

Luthans, F. (2003).Positive organizational behavior: Implications for leadership and HR development and motivation. In R.M. Steers, L.W. Porter, & G.A. Bigley (Eds.), Motivation and leadership at work (pp178–195). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Luthans F, Avolio B, Walumbwa F, Li W. (2005). The psychological capital of Chinese workers: Exploring the relationship with performance. Management and Organization Review, 1, 247–269.

Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. M. (2004). Human, social, and now positive psychological capital management: Investing in people for competitive advantage .Organizational Dynamics, 33, 143–160.

Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2007). Psychological capital: Developing the human competitive edge. Oxford, UK: Oxford University.

Luthans, F., M., Norman, S., J.Avolio, B., & B.Avey, J. (2008). The mediating role of psychological capital in the supportive organizational climate- employee performance relationship. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29: 219-238.

Luthans, F., & Jensen, S. M. (2002). Hope: A new positive strength for human resource development. Human Resource Development Review, 1: 304-322.

Luthans, F., Avolio, B., Avey, J., & Norman, S. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology,60, 541-572.

Magaletta, P. R., & Oliver, J. M. (1999). The hope construct, will and ways: Their
relationship with self-efficacy, optimism, and general well-being. Journal of
Clinical Psychology, 55, 539–551.

Maier, S. F., Peterson, C., & Schwartz, B. (2000). From helplessness to hope: The seminal career of Martin Seligman. In J. E. Gillham (Ed.), The science of optimism and hope: Research essays in honor of Martin E. P. Seligman (pp.11-37). Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press.

Malle, B. F., & Knobe, J. (2001). The distinction between desire and intention: A folk-conceptual analysis. In B. F. Malle, L. J. Moses, & D. A. Baldwin (Eds.), Intentions and intentionality: Foundations of social cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 45–67.

Martin-Krumm, C., Sarrazin, P., Fontayne, P., & Famose, J. P. (2001). Validation of the Sport Explanatory Style Questionnaire. Proceeding of the Ninth International Congress of the French Association of sport and exercise researchers. Valence, France, 1–3 November.

Martinko, M., & Gardner, W. (1982). Learned helplessness: An alternative explanation for performance deficits. Academy of Management Review, 7, 195-204.

Martin-Krumm, C., Sarrazin, P., Peterson, C., & Famose, J. P. (2003). Explanatory style and resilience after sports failure. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(7), 1685–1695.

McClelland, DC (1987), Human Motivation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Maruta,T., Collogan, R., Malinchoc , M ., & Offord, K .(2000). Optimists v s . Pessimists: Survival rate among medical patients over a 30-year period. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 75, 140-143.

Medlin, B., & Kenneth, W. G. J.(2009). Enhancing performance through goal setting, engagement, and optimism. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 109(7),943-956.

Miller, J. F. (1985). Inspiring Hope. American Journal of Nursing, 85, 22-25.

Mitchell, T. R., & Wood, R. E. (1980). Supervisor's responses to subordinate poor performance: A test of an attributions! model. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 25, 123-1138.
Moorman, R. H. & Blakely, G. L. (1993). Individualism-Collectivism as an Individual Difference Predictor of Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Paper Presented at The Annual Meeting of The Academy of Management , Atlanta, CA.

Moore, J, E. (2000).Why is this happening? A causal attribution approach to work exhaustion consequences, Academy of Management Review 25 (2), 335–349

Motowidlo, S. J., &Van Scotter, J. R. (1994). Evidence that task performance should be distinguished from contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(4), 475-480.

Motowidlo, S. J., & Schmit, M. J. (1999). Performance assessment in unique jobs, In D. R. Ilgen and E. D. Pulakos (Eds.), The changing nature of job performance: Implications for staffing, motivation, and development. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 56–86.

Mulkana, S. S., & Hailey, B. J. (2001). The role of optimism in health-enhancing behavior. American Journal of Health Behavior, 25, 388-395.

Munoz-Dunbar, R. (1993). Hope: A cross-cultural assessment of American college students. Unpublished master’s thesis, Department of Psychology, University of Kansas, Lawrence.


Murphy, K. R. (1989). Dimensions of job performance. In R. Dillon, & J. Pellingrino (Eds.). Testing: Applied and theoretical perspectives, 218-247. New York, NY: Praeger

Murphy, P. R., & Jackson, S. E. (1999). Managing work-role performance: Challenges for 21st century organizations and employees. In D. R. Ilgen & E. D. Pulakos(Eds.), The changing nature of work performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 325–365.

Norem, J.K. and Chang, E.C. (2002), The positive psychology of negative thinking, Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58 (9), 993-1001.

Nunnally, J.C. (1978) Psychometric theory (2ed.). New York: McGraw Hill

Norman Vincent Peale (1952). The Power of Positive Thinking, p. 109.

Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome. MA: Lexington.

Orpen, C. (1980). The relationship between expected job performance and causal attributions of past success or failure. Journal of Social Psychology, 112(1), 151-152.
Parker, S. K., Williams, H. M., & Turner, N. (2006). Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 636–652.

Pearce, J. L. & Gregersen, H. B. (1991). Task Interdependence and Extra-role Behavior: A Test of the Mediating Effects of Felt Responsibility. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 838-844.
Peale, N. V. (1952). The Power of Positive Thinking. Prentice-Hall, Englewood cliffs, NJ.
Peterson, C. (1988). Explanatory style as a risk factor for illness. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 12, 117-130.

Peterson, C. (2000).The future of optimism. American Psychologist, 55, 44-55

Peterson,C.(2006). A Primer in Positive Psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1984), Casual explanations as risk factor for depression: Theory and evidence. Psychological Review, 91, 347-374.

Peterson, C., Seligman, M. E. P., & Vaillant, G. E (1988). Pessimistic explanatory
style is a risk factor for physical illness: A thirty-five-year longitudinal study.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(1), 23-27.

Peterson, C., & de Avila, M. E. (1995). Optimistic explanatory style and the perception of health problems. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51(1), 128-132.

Peterson, C., & Barrett, L.C. (1987). Explanatory style and academic performance among university freshmen. Journal of Personality and social psychology, 53(3), 603-607.
Peterson, C., Semmel, A., von Baeyer, C., Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1982). The Attributional Style Questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 287–299.

Peterson, C., & Steen, T. A. (2002). Optimistic explanatory style. In C. R. Snyder, & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology. Oxford University Press, 244–256.

Peterson S, Luthans F. (2003). The positive impact of development of hopeful leaders.
Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 24, 26–31.

Pfeffer, J. (1986). Administrative Succession and Organizational Performance: How Administrator experience mediates the succession effect? Academic Management Journal, 29, 72-83.
Pilling, B. K., Naveen Donthu, & Steve Henson. (1999). “Accounting for the impact of territory characteristics on sales performance: Relative efficiency as a measure of salesperson performance.” The Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 19(2), 35-45

Podsdakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: Critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26(3), 513–563.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research:a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903.

Porac, J. F., Ferris, G., & Fedor, D. (1983). Causal attributions, affect, and expectations for a day's work performance. Academy of Management Journal, 26, 285-296.


Porter, L. W. & Lawler, E. E., III. (1965). Properties of Organization Structure in Relation to Job Attitudes and Job Behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 64, .23-51.

Pulakos, E. D., Arad, S., Donovan, M. A., and Plamondon K. E. (2000), Adaptability
in the workplace: Development of a taxonomy of adaptive performance, Journal of
Applied Psychology, 85(4), 612-624.

Pyszcynski, T. A., & Greenberg, J.(1981).Role of disconfirmed expectancies in the instigation of attributional processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40(1), 31-38.

Rasmussen, H. N. , Scheier, M. F. & Greenhouse .J .B. (2009). Optimism and physical health: A meta-analytic review. The Society of Behavioral Medicine , 37, 239-256.

Rettew, D., & Reivich, K. (1995). Sports and explanatory style. In G. M. Buchanan, & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Explanatory style. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 173–185.

Rich, G.(1999). Salesperson optimism: can sales managers enhance it and so what if they do ?.Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 7 (1), 53-63.

Robbins,S.P.(1996).Organizational Behavior-Concepts, Controversies, and Application,7th ed, Prentice-Hall, International Inc.

Robbins, R. W., Mendelsohn, G. A., Connell, J. B., & Kwan, V. S. Y. (2004). Do people agree about the causes of behavior? A social relations analysis of behavior ratings and causal attributions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 334–344.

Roberts, James A., Richard S. Lapidus, and Lawrence B. Chonko (1997).
Salespeople and Stress: The Moderating Role of Locus of Control on Work
Stressors and Felt Stress. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice,.5,
(3),.93-108

Rosenbaum, R. M. (1972). A dimensional analysis of the perceived causes of success and failure. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control
of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80, 1-28.

Salancik, G. R., & Meindi. J. R. (1984). Corporate attributions as strategic illusions of management control. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 582-600.

Saulinier, K., & Pearlman, D. (1981). The actor-observer bias is alive and well in prison: a sequel to wells. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 7, 559-564.

Satterfield, J. M., Monahan, J., &Seligman, M. E. P. (1997). Law school performance predicted by explanatory style. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 15, 95-105.

Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219–247.


Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A re-evaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063-1078.

Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and psychological well-being. In E. Chang (Ed.), Optimism and pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 189 -216.

Schmitt, N., Gooding, R.Z., Noe, R.A. & Kirsch, M.(1984) Meta-analysis of
Validity Studies Published Between 1964 and 1982 and the Investigation of Study
Characteristics. Personnel Psychology, 37:407-422.

Schulman, P. (1995). Explanatory style and achievement in school and work. In G. M.Buchanan & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Explanatory style. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 159-171.

Schulman, P. (1999). Applying learned optimism to increasing sales productivity and quitting among life insurance sales agents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 832-838.

Schunk, D.H. (1985). Self-efficacy and classroom Learning. Psychology in the Schools, 22, 208-223.

Schwarzer, R. (1994). Optimism, vulnerability, and self-beliefs as health-related cognitions: A systematic overview. Psychology and Health, 9, 161–180.

Segerstrom, S. C. (2001). Optimism and attentional bias for negative and positive stimuli. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1334-1343.

Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5-14.

Seligman, M. E. P., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Thornton, N., & Thornton, K. M. (1990). Explanatory style as a mechanism of disappointing athletic performance. Psychological Science, 1, 143–146.

Seligman, M. E. P., Reivich, K. J., Jaycox, L. H., & Gillham, J. (1995). The optimistic child. New York:Houghton-Mifflin.

Seligman, M. E. P., & Schulman, P. (1986). Explanatory style as a predictor of productivity and quitting among life insurance agents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 832-838.

Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Positive Psychology, Positive Prevention, and Positive Therapy. In C. R. Snyder, & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of Positive Psychology. NY: Oxford, 3-12.
Silvester, J., Patterson, F., & Ferguson, E. (2003). Comparing two attributional models of job performance in retail sales: A field study. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 76(1), 115-133.



Skarlicki, D. P., Folger, R., & Tesluk, P. (1999). Personality as a moderator in the relationship between fairness and retaliation. Academy of Management Journal, 42, 100-108.

Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W., & Near, J. P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 653–663.

Snyder, C.R.(1994).The psychology of hope: You can get here from here. New York: Free Pass.

Snyder, C. R. (2000). Handbook of hope: Theory, measures, & applications. San Diego, Academic press.

Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Journal of Psychological Inquiry, 13, 249-275.

Snyder, C. R., Berg, C., Woodward, J. T., Gum, A., Rand, K. L., Wrobleski, K.
K., et al. (2005). Hope against the cold: Individual differences in trait hope
and acute pain tolerance on the cold press or task. Journal of Personality, 73,
287–312.

Snyder, C. R., Berg, C., & Thompson, L. Y. (2003). Introducing clinicians to hope and positive psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Snyder, C. R., Cheavens, J., & Sympson, S. C. (1997). Hope: An individual motive for social commerce. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1, 107-118.

Snyder, C. R., Cheavens, J., & Michael, S. T. (1999). Hoping. In C. R. Snyder (Ed.), Coping: The psychology of what works. New York: Oxford University Press, 205–231.

Snyder, C. R., Feldman, D. B., Taylor, J. D., Schroeder, L. L., & Adams V. H., III. (2000). The roles of hopeful thinking in preventing problems and enhancing strengths. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 9(4), 249-270.

Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C. and Harney, P., (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Sociality Psychology, 60(4), 570-585.

Snyder, C. R., Higgins, R. L., & Stucky, R. (1983). Excuses: Masquerades in search of grace. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
Snyder, C. R., Lapointe, A. B., Crowson, J. J., Jr.,&Early, S. (1998). Preferences of high- and low-hope people for self-referential input. Cognition & Emotion, 12, 807–823.

Snyder, C. R., Lopez, S., Shorey, H., Rand, K., & Feldman, D. (2003). Hope Theory, Measurements, and Application to School Psychlolgy. School Psychology Quartetly, 18(2),122-139

Snyder, C. R., Rand, K., King, E., Feldman, D., & Taylor, J. (2002). “False” hope. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 1003–1022.

Snyder, C. R., Rand, K. L., & Sigmon, D. R. (2002). Hope theory: A member of the positive psychology family. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.). Handbook of positive psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 257-276.

Snyder, C. R., Shorey, H. S., Cheavens, J., Pulvers, K. M., Adams V. H., III ., & Wiklund, C. (2002). Hope and academic success in college. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(4), 820-826.

Snyder, C. R., Sympson, S. C., Ybasco, F. C., & Borders, T. F., Babyak, M. A., & Higgins, R. L. (1996). Development and validation of the State Hope Scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 321–335.

Snyder, C. R., Sympson, S. C., Michael, S. T., & Cheavens, J. (2000). The optimism and hope constructs: Variants on a positive expectancy theme. In E. C. Chang (Ed.), Optimism and pessimism. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 103–124.

Snyder, C. R., Wiklund, C., & Cheavens, J. ( 1999). Hope and success in college. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association, Boston.

Snyder, C. R., Lehman, K. A., Kluck, B., & Monsson, Y. (2006). Hope for rehabilitation and vice versa. Rehabilitation Psychology, 51(2), 89-112.

Solberg Nes, L., & Segerstrom, S.C. (2006). Dispositional optimism and coping: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 235–251.

Spector, P. E. (1982). Behavior in organizations as a function of employees' locus of control, Psychological Bulletin, 91, 482-497.

Staats, S. (1989). Hope:A comparsion of two self-report measures for adult. Journal of Personality Assessment, 53, 366-375.

Staw, B. M., McKechnie, P. L., & Puffer, S. M. (1983). The justification of organizational performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 582-600.
Sternberg, R.J., ed. (1994). Encyclopedia of Human Intelligence (2 vols.). New York: Macmillan.

Strutton, D. & Lumpkin, J. (1993). The relationship between optimism and coping styles of salespeople, Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 13(2), 71-82.

Sujan, H. (1999a).Commentary: extending the learned helplessness paradigm: a critique of Schuman’s ‘learned optimism’. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 19(1), 39-42.

Sujan, H. (1999b). Optimism and street smarts: identifying and improving salesperson intelligence”, Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management,19 (3), 17-33.
Suprenant, C. F. and Solomon, M. R. (1987). Predictability and personalization in the service encounter. Journal of Marketing, 51(2), 86-96.

Taylor, S. (1989). Positive illusions. New York: Basic Books.

Taylor, S., & Armor, D. (1996). Positive illusions and coping with adversity. Journal of Personality, 64, 873-898.
Tiger, L. (1979). Optimism: The biology of hope. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Turner, N., Barling, J., & Zacharatos, A. (2005). Positive psychology at work. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds), Handbook of positive psychology(pp 715-730). New York: Oxford University Press.

Trevor, C., Gerhart, B., & Boudreau, J. (1997). Voluntary turnover and job performance: Curvilinearity and the moderating influences of salary growth and promotions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(1), 44-61.

Valencha, G. K. (1972). Construct validation of internal-external locus of control of
reinforcement related to work-related variables. Proceedings of 80th Annual
convention of the American Psychological Association. 7, 455-456.

Van Dyne, L., Graham, J. W., & Dienesch, R. M. (1994). Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 37(4), 765-802.

Waldman, D. A., (1994). The Contributions of Total Quality Management to a Theory of Work Performance. Academy of Management Review, 19, 510-538.

Wallace, J. C., Edwards, B. D., Shull, A., & Finch, D. M. (2009). Examining the Consequences in the Tendency to Suppress and Reappraise Emotions on Task-Related Job Performance. Human Performance, 22(1), 23-43.
Wang, H., Law, K. S., & Chen, Z. X. (2008). Leader-member exchange, employee performance, and work outcomes: an empirical study in the Chinese context. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19 (10), 1809-1824.

Weiner, B.(1972). Theories of motivation: From mechanism to cognition. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Weiner, B. (1974). Achievement motivation and attribution theory. Morristown, N.J.: General Learning Press.
Weiner. B. (1979). A theory of motivation for some classroom experiences. Journal of Educational Psychology. 71, 3-25.

Weiner, B. (1980). A cognitive (attribution )-emotion-action model of motivated behavior: An analysis of judgments of help-giving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 186-200.

Weiner, B. (1982). The emotional consequences of causal ascriptions. In M.S. Clark & S. T. Fiske (Eds.), Affect and cognition: The 17th Annual Carnegie Symposium
on Cognition (pp. 185-200). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Weiner, B. (1985). An Attributional Theory of Achievement Motivation and Emotion. Psychological Review, 92, 548-573.

Weiner, B.(1986). An attributional theory of motivation and emotion. N.Y.:
Springer-Verlag

Weiner, B.(2000) Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Theories of Motivation from an Attributional Perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 12,(1),1-14.


Weiner, B. & Graham, S. (1984) An attributional approach to emotional development. In C. Izard, J. Kagan. & R. Zajonc (Ed.), Emotion, cognition and behavior (pp.167-191). Cambridge, M. A.: Cambirdge University Press.

Weinlick, A. (1992). Understanding the psychological impact of displacement: A study of stress, hope, and coping. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton.

Weiss, H. M. & Adler, S. (1984). Personality and Organizational Behavior. Research in Organizational Behavior, 6, 1-50.

Weiss, H. & J. Sherman. (1973). Internal-External Control as a Predictor of Task Effect and Satisfaction Subsequent to Failure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57(2)132-136.

Weinstein, N. (1980). Unrealistic optimism about future life events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 806-820.

Welbourne, T. M., Johnson, D. E., & Erez, A. (1998). The role-based performance scale: Validity analysis of a theory-based measure. Academy of Management Journal, 41(5), 540–555. 表內

Wolk, S. & D. Bloom. (1978) The Interactive Effects of Locus of Control and Situational Stress upon Performance Accuracy and Time, Journal of Personality, 46,. 279-298.
Wunderley, L. J., Reddy, W. P., & Dember, W. N.(1998). Optimism and pessimism in business leaders. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(9) 751-760.

Xenikou, A., A. Furnham and M. McCarrey(1997).Attributional style and negative events, British Journal of Psychology 88, 53-69
Yates, S. M., Yates, G. C. R., & Lippett, R. M. (1995). Explanatory style, ego-orientation and primary school mathematics. Educational Psychology, 15, 28-34.

Yeo, G. B., & Neal, A. (2006). An Examination of the Dynamic Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Performance Across Levels of Analysis and Levels of Specificity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 9(5), 1088-1101.

Zapata-Phelan, C. P., Colquitt, J. A., Scott, B. A., & Livingston, B. (2009). Procedural justice, interactional justice, and task performance: The mediating role of intrinsic motivation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108(1), 93-105
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔