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研究生:吳曉雯
研究生(外文):Hsiao-WenWu
論文名稱:臺灣區域性對流層延遲模式之發展
論文名稱(外文):The Development of a Regional Tropospheric Correction Model over Taiwan
指導教授:楊名楊名引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:測量及空間資訊學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:測量工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:全球衛星定位系統精密單點定位地面氣象觀測空間推估絕對天頂對流層延遲
外文關鍵詞:GPSsurface meteorological measurementspatial interpolationabsolute zenith tropospheric delayregional tropospheric delay model
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當GPS衛星訊號穿越大氣層時,因對流層的存在使訊號產生延遲。在天頂方向上對流層總延遲(zenith total delay, ZTD)可分成由乾空氣引起的乾延遲(zenith hydrostatic delay, ZHD)以及由濕空氣引起的濕延遲(zenith wet delay, ZWD)。目前利用全球經驗模式以及精確的地面氣象量測值,可以準確地獲得公厘精度等級之天頂對流層乾延遲估值;濕延遲主要受到對流層中水汽含量的影響,且水汽含量會在短時間內快速變化,故難以準確地估計。本研究採用精密單點定位技術(precise point positioning, PPP)估計2009年臺灣e-GPS觀測網之絕對天頂對流層延遲,並利用空間推估方法處理中央氣象局之地面氣象觀測網數據,得到各e-GPS站之天頂對流層乾、濕延遲量時變估值,且發展出一個臺灣區域性對流層延遲模式。相較於使用標準大氣參數之全球經驗模式,本文所發展出的區域性模式更能表現出臺灣地區的季節變化趨勢,可真實反映對流層延遲之變化情形。利用14個均勻分布的獨立檢核點作為精度分析之依據,區域性模式與PPP技術估計之ZTD日平均兩者相比較,其精度可達到± 4.77公分。此外,分別位在高山(玉山北峰)以及平地(成功大學)之兩個測站上進行導航單點定位測試,測試成果顯示使用區域性對流層延遲模式確實能夠有效協助提升高程方向之導航定位精度。
The Global Positioning System (GPS) signals are delayed by the troposphere when passing through the atmosphere. Zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) is the delay in the zenith direction and is composed of zenith hydrostatic delay (ZHD) and zenith wet delay (ZWD). ZHD can be calculated rather accurately by using global empirical models along with surface meteorological measurements. On the other hand, it is difficult to predict the ZWD as it is mainly affected by the fast changing water vapor content in the atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to develop a regional tropospheric delay model over Taiwan. Firstly, continuous surface meteorological measurements recorded at 179 weather stations operated by the Central Weather Bureau were used to obtain the temporal-spatial characteristics for the ZHD. Secondly, GPS observations collected at Taiwan’s continuous tracking network were processed by the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique to obtain the corresponding characteristics for the ZTD. After combining the above two results, we have successfully created a high-accuracy regional tropospheric delay model for the area of Taiwan. The overall accuracy of the model is ±4.77 cm, as is evaluated at 14 evenly distributed check points. We also applied the model to standard point positioning (SPP) at two test stations of greatly different elevations. Test results show that the use of the regional model can effectively improve the positioning accuracy in the vertical direction.
摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
第一章 緒論 1
§1-1 前言 1
§1-2 文獻回顧 2
§1-3 研究動機與目的 6
§1-4 研究方法 7
§1-5 論文架構 9
第二章 GPS、精密單點定位原理與對流層延遲 10
§2-1 GPS觀測量 10
§2-2 精密單點定位 12
§2-3 精密單點定位之誤差來源 17
§2-4 對流層性質 21
§2-5 對流層延遲原理 22
§2-6 對流層延遲誤差修正模型與映射函數 27
§2-6-1 Hopfield模式 27
§2-6-2 Modified Hopfield模式 29
§2-6-3 Saastamoinen模式 31
§2-6-4 映射函數 34
第三章 氣象資料、e-GPS站資料及乾溼延遲量之空間推估 37
§3-1 去群聚時空趨勢迴歸法 37
§3-2 地理統計方法與克利金空間推估 41
§3-3 氣象資料處理與推估e-GPS站絕對對流層乾延遲 54
§3-3-1 氣象資料預處理、高度修正及高度補償 56
§3-3-2 大地水準面上氣象量之時空模式 59
§3-3-3 空間結構分析、空間推估 61
§3-4 推估e-GPS站絕對對流層濕延遲 65
§3-4-1 e-GPS站濕延遲量與水汽分壓 65
§3-4-2 大地水準面上水汽分壓之時空模式 67
§3-4-3 水汽分壓空間結構分析、空間推估 69
§3-5 建立臺灣區域性對流層延遲修正模式 70
第四章 成果與精度分析 74
§4-1 e-GPS站與WVR天頂對流層濕延遲量比較 75
§4-2 乾延遲相關氣象資料說明 79
§4-3 以氣象資料推估e-GPS站天頂對流層乾延遲量之精度比較 80
§4-4 e-GPS站天頂對流層總延遲量推估之精度比較 82
§4-5 臺灣區域性對流層延遲修正模式與全球模式比較 84
§4-6 利用臺灣區域性對流層延遲修正模式與全球模式之單點定位精度比較 89
第五章 結論與建議 91
參考文獻 93

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