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研究生:李汶洙
研究生(外文):Wen-chu Li
論文名稱:生命價值與年齡關係之實證分析─以台灣為例
論文名稱(外文):The Empirical Relationship between The value of a Statistical Life and Age-the Case of Taiwan
指導教授:劉錦龍劉錦龍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jin-long Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:產業經濟研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:特徵工資模型生命價值
外文關鍵詞:the value of a Statistical Lifehedonic wage model
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:17
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  • 下載下載:182
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因生命價值之衡量可作為評估政策效益或分配資源時的一個指標,故生命價值之估計在成本效益分析中是相當重要。因此,本研究主要探討生命價值,利用民國91年至95年人力運用調查,以及勞保局之各行業的勞工職業災害死亡統計資料做實證研究。
本研究採用特徵工資模型為主要架構,並且以最小平方法進行迴歸分析,透過「工資─工作風險」間的抵換關係,估算民國91年至95年各年度的生命價值,以及各年齡層勞動者的生命價值,並探討生命價值與年齡間之關係。其中,本研究分別利用行業別死亡率,以及不同年齡層於各行業的死亡率資料衡量工作風險。
由本研究實證結果可得知,各年度的生命價值在以行業別死亡率為工作風險變數,所推估的生命價值皆高於以不同年齡層對應的工作風險之估計結果,表示風險變數衡量方式的不同會影響生命價值之估算。另外,風險變數衡量之差異亦會影響生命價值與年齡間的關係,而再考量年齡和地區等外在條件因素對工資補償的影響後,亦使兩者間的關係改變。故以台灣為例,本研究分析生命價值和年齡間在實證上的關係可能呈遞增、倒U型、U型或為更複雜之關係曲線,此結果與Shepard and Zeckhauser (1984)和Johansson (2002)的研究指出,兩者為模糊不清之關係相一致。
Because the measurement of the value of a statistical life serves as an indicator of the estimation of the benefits of the policy and the allocation of resources, it is very important to estimate the value of a statistical life in cost-benefit analysis. Therefore, this paper explores the value of a statistical life, and uses the Taiwan Labor Force Survey data from 2002 to 2006, and uses work-related fatality statistics data at the industry-level from the Taiwan Labor Insurance Agency for the corresponding years.
This paper applies the hedonic wage model, and OLS method is used to estimate the hedonic wage regression, based on wage-job mortality risk tradeoffs in the labor market to estimate the value of a statistical life from 2002 to 2006, and calculates age group-specific VSLs, and explores the relationship between the value of a statistical life and age. The study uses measures of fatality risk by industry and by both age and industry.
From this paper’s empirical results indicates that the annual value of life estimates by industry are greater than those generated by fatality risks by both age and industry, and shows the difference of the measures of risk variable significantly influences the estimated of value of a statistical life. In addition, the choice of the measures of risk also influences the relationship between the value of a statistical life and age. When considering the influence from external circumstances such as age and region factors on wage compensation, also make changes the relationship between the value of a statistical life and age. Taking the case of Taiwan, this paper infers that the empirical relationship between the value of a statistical life and age may be presented on the increase, inverted U-shape, U shape or more complicated curve. This result which the relationship between VSL and age is ambiguity is consistent with Shepard and Zeckhauser (1984) and Johansson (2002).
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機 2
1.3 研究目的 4
1.4 研究流程 5
第二章 文獻回顧 7
2.1 生命價值定義 7
2.2 生命價值估計方法之演變 8
2.3 以特徵工資模型估計生命價值之相關文獻回顧 9
2.4 生命價值與年齡關係之相關研究 17
第三章 理論架構與實證模型 23
3.1 生命價值理論架構 23
3.1.1 願付價值法理論基礎 23
3.1.2 特徵工資法理論基礎 24
3.1.3 生命價值和年齡間之關係於勞動市場理論基礎 27
3.2 實證模型 30
3.2.1 特徵工資實證模型 30
3.2.2 生命價值之估算 32
第四章 實證資料與變數說明 33
4.1 資料來源 33
4.2 變數定義與說明 35
4.3 樣本統計分析 39
第五章 實證結果與分析 46
5.1 各年度的生命價值估算 46
5.1.1 特徵工資函數實證結果 46
5.1.2 生命價值估算 51
5.2 各年齡層勞動者的生命價值估算 52
5.2.1 特徵工資函數實證結果 53
5.2.2 生命價值估算 59
第六章 結論與建議 63
6.1 研究結論 63
6.2 研究限制與建議 64
參考文獻 66
英文部分 66
中文部分 68
英文部分
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21.V. Kerry Smith, Mary F. Evans, Hyun Kim, and Donald H. Taylor. 2004. “Do the Near-Elderly Value Mortality Risks Differently?” Review of Economics and Statistics, 86(1): 423-429.
22.Viscusi, W. K. 2004. “The Value of Life: Estimates with Risks by Occupation and Industry.” Economic Inquiry, 42(1): 29-48.
23.Viscusi, W. Kip, and Joseph E. Aldy. 2007. “Labor Market Estimates of the Senior Discount for the Value of Statistical Life.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 53: 377-392.
24.Viscusi, W. Kip. 2009. “The Devaluation of Life.” Regulation & Governance, 3:103-127.
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27.Xiangdong Wei. 2007. “Wage Compensation for Job-Related Illness: Evidence from a Matched Employer and Employee Survey in the UK.” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 34: 85-98.

中文部分
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2.薛立敏和王素彎,「台灣地區就業人口生命價值之評估—工資-風險貼水法之理論與實證」,中華經濟研究院經濟專論,1987。
3.郭昱瑩,「決策幫手:成本效益分析之概念與實務」,T&D飛訊第三十期,1-18頁,2005。
4.張四明,「成本效益分析在政府決策上的應用與限制」,行政暨政策學報第三期,45-80頁,2001。
5.黃肇鑣,「生命何價?」,遠見雜誌第206期,2003。
6.鄭筱凡,「醫療保健支出與生命價值」,國立中央大學產業經濟研究所,碩士論文,2009。
7.詹方冠,「台灣地區勞動者職業風險與生命價值之研究」,國立政治大學經濟研究所,碩士論文,1989。
8.王葳,「生命價值之推估」,逢甲大學經濟研究所,碩士論文,1987。
9.劉錦添和許績天,「主觀工作風險知覺與工資補償─台灣石化工人的研究」,中央研究院經濟研究所經濟論文,26:1,51-69頁,1998。
10.蔡彣涓,「應用個體計量的三篇研究:教育政策、跨代教育效果與統計生命價值的評估」,國立台灣大學經濟研究所,博士論文,2006。
11.蕭代基、李隆安、潘文涵和賴靜瑤,「氣候變遷與空氣品質對死亡率之影響」,區域科學學會87年度年會及論文研討會,1998。
12.傅祖壇和葉寶文,「應用CVM在健康效益的評估─高血壓疾病預防之願付價格」,中央研究院經濟研究所經濟論文,33:1,1-32頁,2005。
13.陳明鶴,「腸病毒71型疫苗願付價格─假設性市場評估法」,國立中央大學產業經濟研究所,碩士論文,2009。
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