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研究生:梁杰民
研究生(外文):Chieh-Min Liang
論文名稱:夫妻社經地位差異對心理健康影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Association Between Social Economic Status Inconsistency of Spouses and Mental Health
指導教授:李玉春李玉春引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yue-Chune Lee
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:衛生福利研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:夫妻社經地位差異心理健康憂鬱
外文關鍵詞:social economic status inconsistencymental healthdepression
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研究背景及目的
社經地位差異會造成個人對自我及他人角色期待的衝突,造成個人心理壓力。我國女性接受高等教育的比例逐年上升,加上產業結構轉變,就業機會增加,「妻高夫低」的婚配模式逐漸增加。在傳統性別角色期待下是否會產生心理壓力,進而影響心理健康情形,值得探討。
本研究目的如下:(一)探討夫妻社經地位差異對心理健康之影響。(二)探討夫妻社經地位差異對心理健康影響是否因性別及社經地位而異。

研究方法
本研究採橫斷式研究設計。使用中央研究院「台灣社會變遷基本調查」2002年及2007年階層組問卷,將兩次調查資料合併,進行次級資料分析。研究對象為台灣地區年滿18歲以上,已婚並與配偶同住之中華民國國民,兩年度樣本共計2538人。自變項為夫妻社經地位差異,分為「夫高妻低」、「夫妻相等」及「妻高夫低」,依變項為心理健康,分為有憂鬱傾向及無憂鬱傾向。資料分析使用SPSS 17.0版進行整理及分析,以次數分配、百分比、平均值及標準差描述變項基本特性及分佈情形,以卡方檢定檢測雙變項之關係,並以邏輯式迴歸(logistic regression)分析夫妻社經地位差異對心理健康影響的風險性,並分別以性別、教育、職業、收入及社經地位進行分層分析。

研究結果
本研究發現,夫妻社經地位差異對心理健康有顯著影響,「妻高夫低」者,心理健康顯著較「夫高妻低」者為佳,與本研究假說不一致。而夫妻社經地位差異對心理健康之影響顯著因性別及職業而異,但不會因教育程度及收入而異。但因本研究為橫斷性研究,本結果應待日後以追蹤性研究才能證實。

研究建議
針對社會整體而言,應以兩性平權的角度,肯定女性的教育成就及勞動參與;針對「夫高妻低」婚配情形,若在低所得的家庭,值得社工及心理衛生單位關注,必要時提供協助,避免心理問題的發生,甚至造成問題家庭的形成。
最後,建議未來研究可進行長期追蹤調查,可更清楚獲知夫妻社經地位差異與心理健康之關係。
Background
The social economic status (SES) inconsistency will lead to the conflict of self and other’s role expectation, and thus result in psychological stress. With the women’s getting higher degree and employment rate, families with wife’s status higher than husband’s is getting more and more common and may have higher stress and even have negative impact on mental health. This issue worth further discussed.
Objective
The aims of this study are as following:
1. To explore the impact of spouses’ SES inconsistency on mental health.
2. To explore whether the impact of spouses’ SES inconsistency on mental health differed among men and women; and among people with different social economic status.
Method
This is a cross-sectional study which applied secondary data analysis, based on the Social Stratification Module of “Taiwan Social Change Survey” which had been conducted in2002 and 2007 by the Academia Sinica. The study populations were married citizens who lived with spouses and were over 18 years old in Taiwan. Total number of samples was 2538 persons.
The independent variables were SES inconsistency of spouses (husbands’ status is higher, equal to or lower than wives’ status). The dependent variables were mental health (likelihood fo depression). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the impact of spouses’ SES inconsistency on mental health.
Result
1. Spouses’ SES inconsistency had significantly effect on mental health. A person of family with wife having higher SES than husband, had better mental health than the opposite.
2. The impact of spouses’ SES inconsistency on mental health significantly differed among gender and occupation level.
3. The impact of spouses’ SES inconsistency on mental health was not significantly different among people with different education and income levels.
4. The above results are limited by the cross-setonal nature of this study.
Implication
Based on gender equality, we suggest that the society should appreciate the women with higher educational achievement and labor force participation.
For low-income family with husbands’ status higher than wife’s status”, social worker and mental health authority should pay more attention and provide needed assistance at the right moment.
Finally, we suggest further research may explore the relationship between spouses’ SES inconsistency and mental based on longitudinal study design.
誌 謝 i
中文摘要 iii
Abstract v
目 錄 vii
圖、表目錄 ix

第一章 研究緣起 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第三節 研究問題 3
第四節 研究重要性 4
第五節 重要名詞定義 5
第二章 文獻探討 6
第一節 社經地位差異 7
第二節 夫妻社經地位差異與健康之相關研究 11
第三節 心理健康 12
第四節 心理健康的影響因素 15
第五節 文獻小結 19
第三章 研究方法 20
第一節 研究設計 20
第二節 研究架構 21
第三節 研究假說 22
第四節 研究對象 22
第五節 資料來源 23
第六節 研究樣本 25
第七節 變項及測量 26
第八節 統計分析 31
第四章 研究結果 32
第一節 研究對象特質描述性分析 33
第二節 雙變項分析 37
第三節 邏輯斯迴歸分析 39
第四節 分層分析 42
第五章 討論 74
第一節 研究方法之討論 74
第二節 描述性研究結果之討論 76
第三節 分析性結果之討論 77
第四節 研究限制 82
第六章 結論與建議 83
第一節 結論 83
第二節 建議 84
參考文獻 86
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